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\data\typol\typology
Number: 504
Language: Gokana
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Ogoni
Other Sources:

   Brosnahan, L. F. 1964. "Outlines of the Phonology of the Gokana Dialect of Ogoni," JWAL 1:1, 43-8.
Brosnahan, L. F. 1967. "A Word List of the Gokana Dialect of Ogoni," JWAL 4:2, 43-52.
STAL

Consonant system:

   p t c k kp ʔ
b d ɟ ɡ ɡb
f s
v z ž
m n
    l
    (r)

Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ
Fricatives: f v s z ž
Nasals: m n
Laterals: l
Vibrants: (r)
Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e ɛ
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels: v̄ all
Nasal Vowels:

   ṽ all but e o
v̄̃ all but e o

Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns:

   1 4
2 5
3 6

Syntax: SVO NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 505
Language: Eleme
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Ogoni
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system:

   p t k kp ʔ
b d ɡ ɡb
    č
    ɡ̌
f s
m n ñ
    l
    r

Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ
Affricates: č ɡ̌
Fricatives: f s
Nasals: m n ñ
Laterals: l
Vibrants: r
Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e ɛ
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels:
Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones:

   hi mid lo ris fall

Pronouns:

   1 4
2 5
3 6

Syntax: SVO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 506
Language: Obolo
Alternate Name: Andoni
Location: Nigeria
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross
Other Sources:

   LWA
WALS

Consonant system:

   




Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 507
Language: Efik
Dialect: Calabar
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 400,000 (2 million second language speakers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik
Dictionary:

   Adams, R. F. G. 1952. English-Efik Dictionary. Liverpool: Philip, Son & Nephew.
Adams, R. F. G. 1953. Efik-English Dictionary. Liverpool: Philip, Son & Nephew.

Grammar: Essien, U. and T. L. Cook. 1966. A Brief Introduction to Efik. Enugu: U.S. Peace Corp.
TextBooks: Welmers, William E. 1968. Efik. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Other Sources:

   Ward, Ida C. 1933. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Efik. Cambridge, Eng: W. Heffer & Sons.
Cook, T. L. 1969a. "Efik," in TNL, 35-46.
Cook, T. L. 1969b. The Pronunciation of Efik for Speakers of English. Bloomington: African Studies Program, Indiana Univ.

Consonant system:

    t k kp
b d
f s
m n ñ ŋ
(r) is analyzed as an allophone of /d/ between vowels, thouɡh written in orthoɡraphy.

Stops: b t d k kp
Fricatives: f s
Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Vibrants: (r) analyzed as an allophone of ǀdǀ between vowels, thouɡh written in orthoɡraphy
Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e (ɛ)
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo hi-fall lo-ris downstep downdrift
Noun Number: s p (pl rarely used)
Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns:

   1 4
2 5
3 6

Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 508
Language: Ibibio
Location: SE Nigeria (South-eastern)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik
Dictionary: Kaufman, Elaine M. 1972. Ibibio Dictionary. Stanford: African Language and Area Center, Stanford Univ.
Grammar: Kaufman, Elaine. 1969. Ibibio Grammar. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:

   p t̪ k kp
b d
f s
m n ñ ŋ

Stops: p b t̪ d k kp
Fricatives: f s
Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k m n ŋ
Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo hi-fall downstep
Stress: non-phonemic
Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns:

   1 4
2 5
3 6

Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 509
Language: Anaang
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik
Consonant system:

   




Number: 510
Language: Okobo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:

   




Number: 511
Language: Oron
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Other Sources: Simmons, Donald C. 1965. "Oron Noun Morphology," JWAL 2:2, 33-7.
Consonant system:

   




Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun Number: s p
Syntax: AN
Number: 512
Language: Ekit
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:

   




Number: 513
Language: Ibino
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:

   




Number: 514
Language: Tita
Location: SE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross
Consonant system:

   




Number: 515
Language: Mbembe
Dialect: Adun
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 60,000 (10,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources:

   Barnwell, K. 1969. "The Noun Class System in Mbembe," JWAL 6, 51-8.
Barnwell, K. G. L. 1974. "Mbembe," in TNTS, 51-78.

Consonant system:

   p t k kp
b d ɡ ɡb
    č
    ɡ̌
ɸ f s
β v
m n ñ ŋ
    (l)
    r

Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb
Affricates: č ɡ̌
Fricatives: ɸ β f v s
Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Laterals: (l)
Vibrants: r
Modified Consonants:

   c̄ t k f s m n
cj p b ɸ m
cʷ k ɡ ŋ
Nc d

Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e ɛ
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels: ā ɔ̄
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) downstep downdrift
Noun Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11
Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 516
Language: Legbo
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources: Spreda, Klaus and Janice Spreda. 1966. "An Interim Report on the Phonological Data of Agbo," in Tagmemic and Matrix Linguistics Applied to Selected African Languages, ed. by Kenneth L. Pike, Ann Arbor, Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior, Univ of Michigan.
Consonant system:

   p t c k kp
b d ɟ ɡ ɡb
    dz
f s
v z
m n ñ ŋ
    l

Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb
Affricates: dz
Fricatives: f v s z
Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Laterals: l
Modified Consonants:

   c̄ all but ɟ and z
cʷ k ɡ ŋ

Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e ɛ
Central Vowels: a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels: v̄ all
Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 517
Language: Leyigha
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




Number: 518
Language: Lenyima
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




Number: 519
Language: Loko2
Alternate Name: Yakurr
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources:

   Winston, F. D. D. 1962. "The Nominal Class System of Loko," ALS 3, 49-70.
Berry, Elaine. 1974. "Yakurr," in TNTS, 79-85.

Consonant system:

   p t k kp
b d ɡ ɡb
    ɡ̌
f s
m n ŋ ŋm
    l

Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb
Affricates: ɡ̌
Fricatives: f s
Nasals: m n ŋ ŋm
Laterals: l
Glides: j w
Vowel system:

   

Front Vowels: i e ɛ
Central Vowels: ǝ a
Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Long Vowels: v̄ all ?
Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns:

   1 4
2 5
3 6

Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 520
Language: Agoi
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




Number: 521
Language: Lokukoli
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




Number: 522
Language: Lubilo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




Number: 523
Language: Olulumo
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:

   




typology-language,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-laterals,typology-vibrants,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-nasalvowel,typology-syllable,typology-tones,typology-pronouns,typology-syntax,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-affricates,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-laterals,typology-vibrants,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-nasalvowel,typology-tones,typology-pronouns,typology-syntax,typology-language,typology-alternaten,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-syntax,typology-language,typology-dialect,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-dictionary,typology-grammar,typology-textbooks,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-vibrants,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-modifiedvo,typology-syllable,typology-tones,typology-nounnumber,typology-demonstrat,typology-pronouns,typology-syntax,typology-preppost,typology-language,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-dictionary,typology-grammar,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-modifiedco,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-syllable,typology-tones,typology-stress,typology-demonstrat,typology-pronouns,typology-syntax,typology-preppost,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-tones,typology-nounnumber,typology-syntax,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-dialect,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-affricates,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-laterals,typology-vibrants,typology-modifiedco,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-tones,typology-nounnumber,typology-nounclasse,typology-demonstrat,typology-syntax,typology-preppost,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-affricates,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-laterals,typology-modifiedco,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-modifiedvo,typology-syllable,typology-tones,typology-stress,typology-syntax,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-alternaten,typology-location,typology-population,typology-classifica,typology-othersourc,typology-consonants,typology-stops,typology-affricates,typology-fricatives,typology-nasals,typology-laterals,typology-glides,typology-vowels,typology-frontvowel,typology-centralvow,typology-backvowels,typology-longvowels,typology-modifiedvo,typology-syllable,typology-tones,typology-nounnumber,typology-nounclasse,typology-demonstrat,typology-pronouns,typology-syntax,typology-preppost,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,typology-language,typology-location,typology-classifica,typology-consonants,
Total of 5736 records 287 pages

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