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Basque etymology :

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\data\sinocauc\basqet
Proto-Basque: *hel-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to come 2 to arrive
Bizkaian: el-du 2
Gipuzkoan: (Andoain) el-du 2
High Navarrese: (Ondarrabia) el-du 1
Low Navarrese: hel-du 1, 2
Lapurdian: hel-du 1
Zuberoan: hél-tü 1, 2
Proto-Basque: *[h]el- / *-hali / *aɫha
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to bite 2 to be sore, inflamed 3 meal(time) 4 grazing, pasture
Bizkaian: el-du 2, -ari 3
Gipuzkoan: el-du 1, ala 4, -ari 3
High Navarrese: -ari 3, (Oyarzun) ala 4
Low Navarrese: -(h)ari 3, alha 4
Salazarese: -ari 3
Lapurdian: -(h)ari 3, alha 4
Zuberoan: -(h)ari 3, álha 4
Roncalese: -ari 3, ala 4
Comments: Bsq *[h]el- / *-hali / *aɫha seem to be permutations of the same original root (cf. PEC *=iʡwVl 'to feed on, eat, bite'). Bsq *-hali 'meal(time)' occurs only in compounds: (B-arc) gosaari ‘breakfast’ (< *gośa-hali: see *gośe ‘hunger, hungry’); (Z-arc) barazkari ‘midday meal, lunch’, (c) bazkari id. (cf. *barace ‘garden’); (BN) auhari ‘dinner (supper)’, (Z) aihá(r)i, (R) aigári, (B, G, BN, L) afari, (L) aphari, (B, G) apari, (Sal) abari, etc. (cf. *gau ‘night’?), etc.
Proto-Basque: *hera-ki
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to boil (trans.)
Bizkaian: irakin
Gipuzkoan: irakin
High Navarrese: irakin
Low Navarrese: herakin, erakin, irakitu, (Amikuse) erakitu
Salazarese: iraki
Lapurdian: irakin
Zuberoan: heráki, iraki
Roncalese: eraki, erakitu
Proto-Basque: *herći
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 tight, narrow, cramped 2 worried, exhausted 3 nasal congestion, catarrh 4 to close 5 to squeeze, press
Araban: itsi 4
Bizkaian: es-tu 1, 2, 3, (arc) itsi 4
Gipuzkoan: es-tu 1, 2, 3, itxi 4
High Navarrese: es-tu 1, 2, itxi 4, (Elkano) ertxi 4
Low Navarrese: hertsi, hetsi 1, 4, hers-tu 5
Lapurdian: hertsi, hetsi, hers-tu 1, 4
Baztanese: ertsi 4
Zuberoan: hertsi, hérsi 1, 4
Roncalese: ersi 1, ers-tu 5
Comments: For internal -r- cf. Proto-Lezghian: *ʡirč̣Vn- ( ~ ħ-) > Rutul =ir(i)č̣a- 'to press, squeeze'.
Proto-Basque: *her̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: people, population, nation, country
Bizkaian: erri
Gipuzkoan: erri
High Navarrese: erri
Low Navarrese: herri
Lapurdian: herri
Zuberoan: hérri
Roncalese: erri
Comments: From the probable PSC original meaning Bsq *her̄i has become broader (‘people, nation’ + the land they occupy), while PNC *ʡwǝ̆hri is more restricted (‘part of the people who fight in war’).
Proto-Basque: *her̄o
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 root (tree, plant, tooth) 2 nipple (of udder) 3 udder
Bizkaian: erro 1, 2, erra-pe 3
Gipuzkoan: erro 1, 2
High Navarrese: erro 1, 2
Low Navarrese: erro 1, erra-pe 3
Lapurdian: erro 1, 2, erra-pe 3
Baztanese: erra-pe 3
Zuberoan: herro 1, herrá-pe 3
Roncalese: erro 1, ra-pé 3
Comments: Initial *h preserved only in ZBR. Loss of /h/ in LAB, BNV probably due to inter-dialectal borrowing.
Proto-Basque: *Herug(ʷ)i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 salamander 2 scorpion
Bizkaian: (Zornoza) eruge 1, (Lekeitio, Markina) erube 1
Gipuzkoan: arrubi 1, 2, (Andoain) arrobi 2
High Navarrese: (Oyarzun) arrobi 2, (Irun, Ondarrabia) arrobio 1
Low Navarrese: harrobi 2
Lapurdian: harrubi 1, 2, (Ainhoa) harrobi 2
Zuberoan: arrogi 2
Comments: Cf. Bsq *erɫuɫi 'salamander, scorpion', which seems to be partially blended with this word. Some forms appear to have been influenced by *har̄i 'stone': cf. LAB harrobi 'cavern, quarry' < *har̄i + *hobi.
Proto-Basque: *hese
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 fresh, wet, moist, green (plant) 2 lascivious, sensual
Bizkaian: eze 1, 2, ezo 1, ezko 1
Gipuzkoan: eze, ezko 1
High Navarrese: eze 1, 2
Low Navarrese: heze 1, ezti 1
Lapurdian: heze 1, 2
Zuberoan: heze 1, ezti 1
Roncalese: eze 1
Comments: Also with /ś/: BNV, LAB hese 'fresh, moist, green', BZK ese id.
Proto-Basque: *hestu-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 link (of a chain) 2 (finger-)ring 3 mesh (of a net) 4 strand (of yarn) 5 ring (general)
Bizkaian: el-aztun 2, 5, er-aztun, err-aztun 2, 5, er-eztun 2, 5, (Arratia, Otxandiano) el-eztun 2, 5
Gipuzkoan: el-aztun 2, 5, er-aztun 2, 5
High Navarrese: er-aztun 2, 5
Low Navarrese: erh-aztun 2, 5
Salazarese: eztun 4, extun 1
Lapurdian: er-aztun, (Ainhoa) err-aztun 5
Baztanese: er-aztun 2, 5
Zuberoan: üztün 1, 3, 5, erh-áztün 2, 5
Roncalese: er-eztun 2, 5
Comments: Most of the words are compounds with Bsq *elhi 'finger' (q.v.). The change to trilled /r̄/ (err-) is unusual and secondary. One of the words in which Bsq *-st- corresponds to a tense NC sibilant/affricate (here *-c̣_-).
Proto-Basque: *heuga[l]i / *heu[l]agi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 abundant 2 to increase, multiply
Bizkaian: ugari 1, ugal-du 2
Gipuzkoan: ugari 1, ugal-du 2
High Navarrese: ugari 1
Lapurdian: heuragi 1 (Leizarraga)
Zuberoan: heuregi 1 (Oihenart)
Comments: Note the metathesized variants in PNC *HāχuɫV / *HālχV as well as in Bsq.
Proto-Basque: *hi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thou (familiar)
Araban: i
Bizkaian: i
Gipuzkoan: i
High Navarrese: i
Low Navarrese: hi
Salazarese: i
Lapurdian: hi
Baztanese: i
Aezkoan: i
Zuberoan: hi
Roncalese: i, (Vidángoz) yi
Comments: The root also exists as the verbal affix (initial) *h-, (medial) *-ga-, (final) *-k (second person singular familiar). The medial and final affixes are specifically masculine, opposed to feminine *-na-, *-n. This is the only instance of grammatical sex marking in Bsq.
Proto-Basque: *higuni
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hatred, loathing 2 to hate, loathe 3 hateful, loathsome 4 (man) to put away one's wife 5 (bird) to abandon one's eggs 6 to wean (a child) 7 hated 8 become hated
Bizkaian: iguin 1, iguin-du 2, (arc) {ygui, yguy} 1, 7
Gipuzkoan: igui-tu 2
High Navarrese: iguin 1, 2
Low Navarrese: higuin 1, 2, 4, 5
Salazarese: iguin 1
Lapurdian: higuin 1, 3, 4, 5, higuin-du 6
Zuberoan: higüin 4, 5, (Barkoxe) hügü̃́ 7, hügü̃́n-tü 8
Roncalese: ugun 1
Comments: Chamali jiχan- 'to hate' is especially close to the Bsq words.
Proto-Basque: *hil
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to die; dead 2 to kill 3 to put out, extinguish (lights)
Bizkaian: il 1
Gipuzkoan: il 1, 2
High Navarrese: il 1
Low Navarrese: hil 1, 3
Salazarese: il 1, 2, 3
Lapurdian: hil 1, 2, 3
Baztanese: il 1, 2
Zuberoan: hil 1, 3
Roncalese: il 1, 2, 3
Proto-Basque: *hil-, *hiɫa-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 moon, 2 month, 3 moon in 4th qtr. ('high moon')
Araban: irargi 1
Bizkaian: iretargi, ilargi, illargi, irargi 1, illa-bete 2, il-gora 3, (Goñi, Olza) illergi 1
Gipuzkoan: ilargi, illargi 1, illa-bete 2, il-gora 3
High Navarrese: ilargi, illargi 1, illa-bete 2, il-gora 3
Low Navarrese: ilhargi 1, hila-bete, ila-bethe 2, (Otxagabia, Salazar) ilaski 1
Salazarese: ilaski 1
Lapurdian: ilhargi 1, hila-bete 2
Baztanese: illargi 1
Zuberoan: hila-bethe 2
Proto-Basque: *hir̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 laugh, laughter 2 mockery 3 smile 4 to smile 5 hurly-burly, hubbub
Bizkaian: irri 2, irri-barre 3
High Navarrese: irri-abar 3
Low Navarrese: irri 1, 2, hirrun-harrun 5, (Hazparren) hirri-skina-tu 4
Lapurdian: hirri 1, 2, hirrun-harrun 5
Zuberoan: hirrun-harrun 5
Proto-Basque: *hiro
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 pus 2 rottenness, decay 3 tinder (from the interior of a tree)
Bizkaian: iro 3
Gipuzkoan: iro 3
Lapurdian: hiro 1
Zuberoan: híro 2, 2
Comments: Cf. PEC *x[ē]rxV 'slime; spittle, snot', which seems to be a reduplicated form in comparison with Bsq *hiro, consistent with PSC *x[ē]ŕV́.
Proto-Basque: *hobe
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 better 2 more
Bizkaian: oba 1
Gipuzkoan: obe 1
High Navarrese: obe 1
Low Navarrese: hobe, hobe-ki 1
Salazarese: abo-ro 2
Lapurdian: hobe, hobe-ki 1
Zuberoan: hóbe, hobé-ki 1, habó-ro 2
Roncalese: obe 1, ob-ro 2
Comments: Cf. especially Archi hiba-t:ut- 'good' (comp. by Bouda, 1948). Bsq *hobe is used as a comparative of *hon 'good' (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *hobi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grave, tomb
Bizkaian: obi
Gipuzkoan: obi
High Navarrese: obi
Low Navarrese: hobi
Lapurdian: hobi
Zuberoan: hobi
Roncalese: obi
Comments: This word is a homonym of Bsq *ho[gu]i 'gum, tissue around teeth' (q.v.) in some dialects, but is of distinct origin. Cf. PNC *fiwɨ 'grave'.
Proto-Basque: *hoc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cold (n., adj.)
Bizkaian: otz
Gipuzkoan: otz
High Navarrese: otz
Low Navarrese: hotz
Salazarese: otz
Lapurdian: hotz
Baztanese: otz
Aezkoan: otz
Zuberoan: hotz
Roncalese: otz
Comments: As a verb: *hos-tu > hoztu, oztu.
Proto-Basque: *hoć
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 noise, sound 2 fame, reputation 3 passion, longing, mania, strong inclination 4 search(ing)
Bizkaian: ots 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: ots 1, 2
High Navarrese: ots 1, 2
Low Navarrese: hots 1, 2
Lapurdian: hots 1, 2, 3
Baztanese: ots 4
Zuberoan: hots 1, 2
Roncalese: ots 1, 2, 4
Comments: Bsq-NC phonetic similarity is apparent, but semantic correlations are more difficult. S.A. Starostin reconstructed PSC *kwɨ̄́jcV̆ ‘spirit, appearance, demon’. Note especially the semantic similarity of Bsq (L) hots ‘strong inclination’ and Archi kus ‘habit’.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,
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