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Basque etymology :

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\data\sinocauc\basqet
Proto-Basque: *bil(ibil)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: round
Bizkaian: biribil
Gipuzkoan: biribil
High Navarrese: biribil, (Lezaka) borobil
Low Navarrese: borobil
Lapurdian: biribil
Zuberoan: biribil
Roncalese: biribil
Comments: *bil ‘round thing’ in many compounds: *g(ʷ)ur-t-bil ‘wheel’, *bar̄a-bil ‘testicle’, *lu(r̄)-pil ‘heap of earth’, *ogi-t-pil ‘bread roll’, *śudu(r̄)-pil ‘nostril’, etc. Cf. *e=biɫi ‘to walk’ < *’to go round’.
Proto-Basque: *bil-oć
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: lamb (that has begun to feed itself)
Bizkaian: bildots
Gipuzkoan: bildots
High Navarrese: bildots
Low Navarrese: bildots
Lapurdian: bildots
Zuberoan: bildots
Roncalese: bildots
Comments: BNV bilos-tegi ‘sheep-fold’ and BZK billos-narru ‘lamb’s hide’ indicate earlier *biloć, which could have been altered to *bildoć after *ordoć ‘boar’ (q.v.), or the like. Analysis is then *bil-oć (cf. Bur. *bél-is ‘ewe’), with *-l- (stem-final reflex) rather than the usual intervocalic reflex *-rd-.
Proto-Basque: *bi=der̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: chin
Low Navarrese: (Amikuse) bidar
Zuberoan: bíder
Comments: Some have thought this northeastern word to be a phonetic variant of *bisar̄ ‘beard’ (q.v.), but this is impossible phonetically: ZBR has bízar ‘beard’ opposed to bíder ‘chin’. *bi=rder̄ dissimilated > *bi=der̄; cf. *a=rdar̄ > *a=dar̄ ‘horn’ (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *bi=hoc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: heart; pith (of plants)
Bizkaian: biotz
Gipuzkoan: biotz
High Navarrese: biotz
Low Navarrese: bihotz
Lapurdian: bihotz
Baztanese: bigotz
Zuberoan: bihotz
Roncalese: biotz, (Uztarroz) bigotz
Comments: Phonetically possible (Bsq *h = PSC *k) if we posit a deglottalized initial such as PSC *kwĭc̣Ĕ, with secondary glottalization in PNC. Michelena (1961) identifies this word with Aquitanian Bihoxus (a name).
Proto-Basque: *bi=ldur̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fear, fright
Bizkaian: bildur
Gipuzkoan: bildur, beldur
High Navarrese: beldur
Low Navarrese: beldur
Lapurdian: beldur
Zuberoan: béldür
Roncalese: (Uztárroz) beldur
Comments: Probably *bi=rdur̄ > *bildur̄, by dissimilation. Cf. PNC *=V̄rƛ̣_V(r) 'to be scared, afraid'.
Proto-Basque: *bi=si
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: life; alive, lively
Bizkaian: bizi
Gipuzkoan: bizi
High Navarrese: bizi
Low Navarrese: bizi
Lapurdian: bizi
Zuberoan: bizi
Roncalese: bizi
Comments: With the frequent fossilized class prefix *bi=/*be=. Cf. PNC *s_ĭHwV 'breath, breathe'.
Proto-Basque: *bi=ska-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 back (of body) 2 crest, high plain
Araban: 1, 2
Bizkaian: bizkar 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: bizkar 1, 2
High Navarrese: bizkar 1, 2
Low Navarrese: bizkar 1, 2
Lapurdian: bizkar 1, 2
Zuberoan: bizkar 1, 2
Roncalese: bizkar 1, 2
Comments: This word, both anatomical and geographic, is “commonly thought to be the source of the province name Bizkaia" (Trask: EDB 146).
Proto-Basque: *bisa-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: beard
Bizkaian: bizar
Gipuzkoan: bizar
High Navarrese: bizar
Low Navarrese: bizar
Salazarese: bizar
Lapurdian: bizar
Baztanese: bizar
Aezkoan: bizar
Zuberoan: bízar
Roncalese: bizar
Comments: With expressive/diminutive palatal ZBR bíxar /bíšar/ 'goatee'.
Proto-Basque: *biśa-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 a kind of small wild cat 2 marmot
Bizkaian: mixar, mixu, musar 2
Gipuzkoan: musar 2
High Navarrese: (Lezaka) musar 2
Low Navarrese: (Aldude) bisar 1
Salazarese: muxar 1
Lapurdian: musar 2
Baztanese: bisar 1
Comments: Forms with m-, mu- and -x- /š/ have been altered by expressive changes. Forms like PVSV 'cat' are widespread in the world, but in this case they could reflect an archaic SC word for 'wild cat' or 'marmot'. Note that they are found in the remote Pyrenean dialects (SAL, BZT).
Proto-Basque: *boc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 happiness, joy 2 satisfied, happy
Bizkaian: poz 1, pozik 2
Gipuzkoan: poz 1, pozik 2
High Navarrese: pozik 2, (Lezaka) poz 1
Low Navarrese: bozkario 1
Salazarese: botz 1, boztario 1
Lapurdian: boz 1, bozkario 1
Baztanese: boz, poz 1, bozkario 1
Zuberoan: botz 1, boztario 1
Roncalese: botz 1, (Uztárroz) bozkari 2, (Vidángoz) boztari 2, boztario 1
Comments: Forms with poz- are probably due to expressive devoicing (cf. pitxi < *biči 'jewel', q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *borc / *bośt
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: five
Bizkaian: bost
Gipuzkoan: bost
High Navarrese: (South) bortz, (North) bost, (Lezaka) borz
Low Navarrese: bost, (Garazi) bortz
Salazarese: bortz
Lapurdian: bortz
Baztanese: borz
Aezkoan: bortz
Zuberoan: bost
Roncalese: bost, bortz, (Ustárroz) borz
Comments: *borc and *bośt seem to reflect original allomorphs: *borc in final position and *bośt before an affix? Cf. the variation of -rc- vs. -śt- in *ɦerce ~ *ɦeśte 'intestine', and a few other cases.
Proto-Basque: *b=ardi-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 same, equal 2 even, smooth, flat
Bizkaian: bardin 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: berdin 1, 2
High Navarrese: berdin 1, 2
Low Navarrese: bardin, berdin 1, 2
Lapurdian: bardin, berdin 1, 2
Zuberoan: bardin 1, 2
Roncalese: bardin, berdin 1, 2
Comments: Bsq *=ardi-n, corresponding to PEC *=ăƛ_wVn 'to resemble, similar' (with changing class prefixes). Bsq has generalized the prefix b=.
Proto-Basque: *b=elc
Meaning: 1 black 2 sad
Bizkaian: baltz 1
Gipuzkoan: beltz, belz 1
High Navarrese: beltz 1
Low Navarrese: belz 1, 2
Salazarese: beltx 1, 2
Lapurdian: beltz, belz 1, 2
Baztanese: belz 1
Zuberoan: beltx, beltz 1, 2
Roncalese: beltx 1, (Uztárroz) belz 1
Comments: In BNV, ZBR, RNC beltz was originally the unmarked form, beltx the diminutive. According to Larrasquet (1939) beltx is now the usual form and beltz has an augmentative nuance. Cf. Bsq *i=cal 'shadow' and PSC *Hč̣ōlV̄ 'black', if *belc < *b=elc.
Proto-Basque: *b=iɫhur̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 a binding or knot, made with branches or twigs 2 twist(ing), strap, binding 3 tangle of cords
Bizkaian: (Arratia, Orozko) bidur 2
High Navarrese: bidur 3
Low Navarrese: bilhur, billur 1
Lapurdian: billur 1
Baztanese: billur 1
Zuberoan: bǘllhür 1
Roncalese: bulur 1
Comments: Matches well with PNC *=VʎwE-, with a fossilized class prefix *b= and fossilized plural suffix *-r̄.
Proto-Basque: *b=uśte-l
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: rotten
Bizkaian: ustel
Gipuzkoan: ustel
High Navarrese: ustel
Low Navarrese: ustel
Salazarese: ustel
Lapurdian: bustel, (arc) phustel
Baztanese: ustel
Aezkoan: ustel
Zuberoan: üstel
Roncalese: ustel
Comments: Cf. PNC *=VršĒ 'to rot, ferment'. Bsq has a fossilized class prefix *b=, with the /b/ lost in most dialects by the common change of /bu/ > /u/. Suffix *-l, as in Bsq *mardu-l 'robust' ~ Kryz miɣi-l 'male', etc.
Proto-Basque: *bur(a)ho
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: curse, blasphemy
Bizkaian: birao, birago
Gipuzkoan: birao, (Andoain) birago, (Gabiria, Itziar) irao
High Navarrese: buro, burro
Low Navarrese: (Aldude) burho
Lapurdian: burho, buro
Zuberoan: burhau
Comments: Cf. the similar phonetic development of *buɫhar̄ 'breast, chest' < *burha-r̄ < *Gwălɦē. Cf. also ZBR bürhói 'brusque, rude'; ? (with -l- preserved) (ZBR-arc) bilha-ka ‘fight, struggle’, bilha-kaide ‘fight, discord’; ‘hatred, enmity, quarrel, argument’. The relationship of RNC irago, idago 'cry, clamor' and GIP irao is unclear - a different etymon contaminated with *bur(a)ho?
Proto-Basque: *burki
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: birch tree
Bizkaian: urki, (Zigoitia) turki
Gipuzkoan: urki, (arc) epurki
High Navarrese: urki
Low Navarrese: burkhi
Zuberoan: bǘrkhi
Comments: This word resembles Indo-European words for 'birch', but cannot be derived phonetically from any of them. Cf. Lezgi werχ < *wē[r]qwV, and another similar root, PEC *mħĕrqwĕ 'birch, wood, timber'. The usual change of *bu > /u/ was only partially carried through, mainly in the west. The t- in Zigoitia is very odd: Michelena suggested a series of assimilations such as turki < *kurki < *gurki < *burki. GIP epurki seems to have a fossilized prefix.
Proto-Basque: *buru
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 head 2 eyebrow
Bizkaian: buru 1
Gipuzkoan: buru 1
High Navarrese: buru 1
Low Navarrese: buru 1, be-phuru 2
Salazarese: buru 1
Lapurdian: buru 1
Baztanese: buru 1, be-puru 2
Aezkoan: buru 1
Zuberoan: bǘrü 1, be-phürü, ber-phürü 2
Roncalese: buru 1
Proto-Basque: *busta-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 tail (of livestock) 2 tail (of birds, garments) 3 penis
Araban: {vuztayña, buçtaña} 1
Bizkaian: buztan 1, 3
Gipuzkoan: buztan 2, 3
High Navarrese: buztan 2
Low Navarrese: buztan 2
Lapurdian: buztan 2
Baztanese: puztan 1
Zuberoan: bǘztan 2
Roncalese: buztan 2
Proto-Basque: *buɫha-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: breast (chest)
Bizkaian: bular
Gipuzkoan: bular
High Navarrese: bular
Low Navarrese: bulhar
Salazarese: bular
Lapurdian: bulhar
Baztanese: bular
Aezkoan: bular
Zuberoan: búlhar
Roncalese: búrar, búdar
Comments: Trask (1995, 1997) discusses whether *burar or *bular is original, noting Michelena (1961) suggested *burar. 'chest' appears to be the original meaning ... also used for 'female breast' ... specialized in this sense in Gipuzkoan" (Trask 1997). A development of *burha-r̄ > *buɫha-r̄ is also possible in this model.
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