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Basque etymology :

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Meaning: "one" | Query method: Match substring
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\data\sinocauc\basqet
Proto-Basque: *ɦesu-ṙ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Bizkaian: azur
Gipuzkoan: ezur
High Navarrese: ezur
Low Navarrese: hezur
Salazarese: ezur
Lapurdian: hezur
Baztanese: ezur
Aezkoan: ezur
Zuberoan: ézür
Roncalese: ẽzur
Comments: Evidence for nasal only in RNC. Michelena (1961) reconstructs *enazur; but nasality in RNC may sometimes have other explanations. Cf. PEC *HɨśɨwV(-ɫī) 'side' ('rib' in Tsezian).
Proto-Basque: *ei=har̄ / *lei=hor̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 dry 2 withered, stiff 3 dry (land) 4 dry (animate beings , plants) 5 dry (animals, bones)
Bizkaian: igar 5, legor 3
Gipuzkoan: igar 5, legor 3
High Navarrese: igar, ear 1
Low Navarrese: eihar 1, 2, leihor 1, 3
Salazarese: ear 1
Lapurdian: eihar, ihar 1, 2, leihor 1, 3
Zuberoan: éihar 2, 4
Roncalese: éxar 4
Comments: See note to *a=gor̄. The original distinction seems to have been *ei=har̄ [animate] / *lei=hor̄ 'imanimate'.
Proto-Basque: *si(n)ho
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 fat, grease, tallow 2 cover oneself with grease, (oil) to coagulate
Low Navarrese: ziho 1
Baztanese: zigo 1
Zuberoan: zího 1
Roncalese: zĩa-tu 2
Proto-Basque: *bat
Meaning: one
Bizkaian: bat
Gipuzkoan: bat
High Navarrese: bat
Low Navarrese: bat
Salazarese: bat
Lapurdian: bat
Baztanese: bat
Aezkoan: bat
Zuberoan: bat
Roncalese: bat
Comments: Any relation with PNC is dubious: PNC *cHǝ̆ (PWC *za) 'one' is phonetically incompatible with Bsq *bat. Possibly from a word meaning 'part': cf. Dargi Chiragh b=it’a-l ‘part’; Avar but’á ‘part’ (< b=ut’á, < [PNC class prefix] *w/b- + PEC *=ĭṭV ‘to cut, divide’.
Proto-Basque: *e=ar̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to sit (down), place oneself 2 to set, put, place 3 to become, arrive, reach 4 to accomodate, adapt
Bizkaian: jarri 1
Gipuzkoan: jarri 1, 2
High Navarrese: jarri 1
Low Navarrese: (Baigorri) 4
Lapurdian: jarri 2, 3, (Ainhoa) 4
Aezkoan: xarri 1
Zuberoan: jarri 1
Comments: The Bzk forms jasarri / jesarri appear to be a blend of jarri and a separate root, *e=śeri (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *har̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone
Bizkaian: arri
Gipuzkoan: arri
High Navarrese: arri
Low Navarrese: harri
Salazarese: arri
Lapurdian: harri
Baztanese: arri
Aezkoan: arri
Zuberoan: harri
Roncalese: arri
Proto-Basque: *ɦaic
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 rock 2 stone
Bizkaian: atx 1
Gipuzkoan: aitz 1
High Navarrese: aitz 1
Low Navarrese: (Baigorri) haitz 1, (Aldude) 2
Lapurdian: aitz 1
Zuberoan: atx 1
Roncalese: atx 1
Comments: Trask (1995) refers to Michelena's reconstruction *anitz / *anetz, though we find no evidence for a nasal in Bsq.
Proto-Basque: *e=sari
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to set, put 2 to sit, seat oneself 3 to give way, sag, be prostrate
Bizkaian: ezarri 2, 3
Low Navarrese: ezari 1
Salazarese: izarri 1
Lapurdian: ezari 1
Zuberoan: ezari 1
Roncalese: isari 1, (Vidángoz) izari 1
Comments: See also *e=ar̄i and *e=śeri. These three verbs have contaminated each other and are hard to separate at the synchronic level.
Proto-Basque: *e=cuɫi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 turn over, upset 2 turn around, return 3 turn one's head 4 turn sour (milk) 5 convert (religion) 6 return, repay 7 back side, reverse
Bizkaian: itzuli 1, 2, 7
Gipuzkoan: itzuli 1
High Navarrese: itzuli 1, 2, 3, 4, 6
Low Navarrese: itzuli 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Salazarese: itzuli 1, 2, 5
Lapurdian: itzuli 1, 2, 5, 6
Baztanese: itzuli 6, 7
Aezkoan: itzuli 2
Zuberoan: ützüli 2, 5, 6
Roncalese: utzuli 2, 4, 6
Comments: Cf. PNC*=īrcVl 'to twirl, turn' (1780). For semantics, cf. *bihur̄-.
Proto-Basque: *čank-
Meaning: 1 lame 2 on one foot 3 crutch
Bizkaian: txango 1, txangirrinka, txankurrika 2
Gipuzkoan: txanket 1
High Navarrese: txangi 1, (Elkano) txainkuru 1
Low Navarrese: xanku 1, txangarka 2, txanka 3, (Amikuse) txainkü 1
Lapurdian: xanku 1, (Ainhoa) txanka 3
Baztanese: txangilka 2
Zuberoan: txáinkü 1, txainküka 2, txanka 3
Roncalese: txankarka 2, (Uztárroz) txanka 3
Comments: Cf. PNC *č̣ä̆nḳV 'trap, obstacle'. Any association with *mainku 'crippled' (< Lat. mancu-; cf. Michelena 1961: 188) is secondary.
Proto-Basque: *lega-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 small stone, pebble, gravel 2 gravelly land
Bizkaian: legar 1
Gipuzkoan: legar 1
High Navarrese: legatx 2
Low Navarrese: legar 1, legartsu 2
Lapurdian: legar 1, legarri 1, legatx, legartsu 2
Comments: PSC *ƛ̣ắnχwV: PSC *ƛ̣̊- > Bsq *l- and PSC *-nχ- > Bsq *-g- [ɣ] are regular changes. Bsq *lega-r̄ 'ulcer, rennet' (q.v.) is a homonym of distinct origin.
Proto-Basque: *kako
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hook 2 two-pronged hoe 3 clothes rack 4 point (of antler) 5 key 6 keystone 7 pole
Bizkaian: kako 1, 2, 3, 7
Gipuzkoan: kako 1
Low Navarrese: gakho 5
Lapurdian: gako, gakho 5, 6
Baztanese: kako 1
Zuberoan: kháko 1, gakho 5
Roncalese: kako 1, 4
Comments: Some forms with kr- are probably expressive: BNV, LAB krako 'hook', etc.
Proto-Basque: *kankano
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 large fruit-stone, large kernel 2 large awkward man
Bizkaian: (Oñate) kankano 1, 2
Salazarese: kankano 2
Baztanese: kankano 2
Comments: Meaning 2 is probably secondary to 1 (cf. Abkhaz: a-ḳaḳán 'nut', etc.).
Proto-Basque: *e=ken-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 take away, remove 2 remove oneself, leave 3 require, charge (a price)
Bizkaian: ken-du 1, 2, 3
Gipuzkoan: ken-du 1, 2, 3
High Navarrese: ken-du, (Ulzama) eken-du 1, 2, (Berrueta) gen-du 1, 2
Low Navarrese: khen-du 1, 2
Salazarese: gen-du 1, 2
Lapurdian: ken-du 1, 2
Baztanese: eken-du 1, 2
Aezkoan: eken-du 1, 2
Zuberoan: khén-tü 1, 2
Roncalese: gén-tu 1, 2
Comments: Cf. PNC *HVq_Vn- 'to take, snatch'.
Proto-Basque: *gilc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 key (of a lock) 2 keystone (of an arch)
Bizkaian: giltz 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: giltza 2
High Navarrese: giltza 1, 2
Low Navarrese: giltz, gilz 1
Lapurdian: giltz 2
Baztanese: gilz 1
Zuberoan: giltz 1
Roncalese: giltz 1
Comments: Bsq (c) giltz 'joint, node (of bones, plants)' is probably an anatomical extension of this word..
Proto-Basque: *esti
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 honey 2 sweet 3 soft, meek 4 wet, damp
Bizkaian: ezti 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: ezti 1
High Navarrese: ezti 1, 3
Low Navarrese: ezti 1, 3, 4
Lapurdian: ezti 1, 3
Baztanese: ezti 1, 2
Zuberoan: ézti 1, 3, 4
Roncalese: ezti 1, 2
Comments: For phonology cf. Tab. ic:i, Agul it:e-f 'sweet', etc. The Bsq development was possibly *emsti > *ẽsti > *esti. One of the cases of Bsq *-st- ~ PNC tense sibilants: cf. Bsq *baste-r̄ 'corner, edge' (q.v.) ~ PNC *whǝ̆rʒ_ĭ 'edge, tip'. Bouda (1948) compared Bsq ezti + Avar hoc̣:ó, etc.
Proto-Basque: *san-ko
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 leg 2 calf (of leg) 3 foot 4 paw 5 tibia 6 heel-bone 7 stalk, stem
Bizkaian: zanko 2, 7
Gipuzkoan: zanko, zango 2, 4, 7, zankar, zangar 5, 6
High Navarrese: zango 1, zangar 5
Low Navarrese: zango 1
Salazarese: zango 1
Lapurdian: zango 1, 3, zangar 4, 5
Baztanese: zango 3, zangar 5
Zuberoan: zankho 1, 2, 7
Roncalese: zanko 2, zankar 1
Comments: Apparently < PSC *sɨ̄́nŏ + (diminutive) *-ḳV. Bouda (1948) compared Bsq zanko, zango + Lak s:an 'foreleg'. The commonly supposed derivation from Old Persian zanga ‘leg’ (REW, etc.) is historically and geographically fanciful. As can be seen, this word is deeply embedded in Bsq and apparently has a long history in the language. Vasconic > Spanish > Italian is much more plausible.
Proto-Basque: *si[l]i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 peg, wedge, pin (wooden) 2 stake, post, picket (used in making the stack of wood for charcoal) 3 thin pole planted in the ground as an axis for a pile of wheat 4 thin pole in the ground as a marker 5 large pole for moving the stone in a limekiln
Bizkaian: ziri 1, zill-aga 2
Gipuzkoan: ziri 1, (Andoain) ziri 4
High Navarrese: ziri 1
Low Navarrese: ziri 1
Lapurdian: ziri 1, (Ainhoa) zirikaga 5
Baztanese: ziri 3
Zuberoan: ziri 1
Roncalese: ziri 1
Comments: The second segment of BZK zillaga and LAB zirikaga seems to be *haga 'pole, rod' (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *saki
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 tibia, shin-bone 2 nape 3 ham 4 lean part of bacon
Bizkaian: bernazaki, bernatzaki 1, urdantzaki 3, 4
Gipuzkoan: lepatzaki 2, urdantzaki 4
High Navarrese: lepazaki, lepatzaki 2
Low Navarrese: lepazaki 2
Lapurdian: bernazaki 1, lepazaki 2, (Ainhoa) bermatzaki 1
Baztanese: bernazaki 1, lepazaki 2
Zuberoan: lepazaki 2
Roncalese: lepazaki 2
Comments: Azkue interpreted *zaki (our *saki) as 'bone', appearing only in compounds, here with *lepo 'neck', *urde 'pig', and berna 'calf (of leg)' (< Lat. perna).
Proto-Basque: *konko-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hump, knob 2 joint (of bones) 3 hunchbacked
Bizkaian: konkor 3
Gipuzkoan: konkor 3
High Navarrese: konkor, kunkur 1
Low Navarrese: konkor, kunkur 1
Lapurdian: konkor 1
Baztanese: kunkur 1
Zuberoan: konkor, kunkur 1
Roncalese: kunkur 1, 2
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