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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *mā-; *māmā
Meaning: mother
Old Indian: mā f. `mother' (L.); māma- m. `dear friend, uncle'
Armenian: mam `Grossmutter'
Old Greek: voc. mā̂ gā̂ `o Mutter Erde!', mâi̯a `Mutter'; (att.) `Amme, Hebamme', (dor.) `Grossmutter'; mámmǟ f. `Mutter, Mutterbrust, Grossmutter'
Slavic: *mā́mā
Baltic: *mā̂m-ā̂ (1)
Germanic: *mō-jō f.
Latin: Maia f. `grosse Göttin = Erde, Kultgenossin des Vulkan und Mutter des Merkur', Maius, -ī m. `der Monat Mai' || mamma f. `Mama, Mutter; Amme'
Celtic: *mammiā > OIr muimme `Pflegemutter'; *mammā > Ir mam `Mutter', Cymr mam `Mutter', Corn mam `Mutter', Bret mam `Mutter'
Albanian: mεmε, geg. mamε Mutter
Russ. meaning: мать
References: WP II 221 f
Comments: The same root as in *mā-t-er- (729).
Proto-IE: *māt-
Meaning: wood
Armenian: mair `pinus, abies, cedrus; pineus, abiegnus, cedrinus'; mairi `Bauholz, Holz überhaupt, Gehölz'
Old Greek: mǟ́trā (~ -ḗ-) f. `Kernholz, Mark'
Slavic: *mātīcā, *mātъkā, *mātorъ(jь), *māterъ(jь), *mātorētī/*māterētī
Latin: māteriā f., māteriēs f. `Stamm und Schösslinge von Fruchtbäumen und Weinreben; Bauholz, Nutzholz; Stoff, Materie'
Russ. meaning: древесина
References: WP II 229 f
Proto-IE: *mā-t-er-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: mother
Tokharian: A mācar, B mācer (PT *mācer) 'mother' (Adams 447)
Old Indian: mātár- f. `mother'; mātr̥ka- `maternal', m. `maternal uncle', mātr̥kā f. `mother, grandmother'
Avestan: mātar- 'Mutter'
Armenian: mair, gen. maur `Mutter'; mauru, gen. maurui `Schwiegermutter'
Old Greek: mǟ́tēr, gen. mǟtrós, acc. mǟtéra f. `Mutter', a-mǟ́tōr `mutterlos; mǟ́trā f. `Gebärmutter, Mutterleib'; mǟ́trōs m. `männlicher Verwandter der Mutter, Oheim, Grossvater', mǟtrüi̯ǟ́ f. Stiefmutter, Schwiegermutter
Slavic: *mā́tī, gen. *mā́tere; *mā́tīcā, *mā́tъkā
Baltic: *mā̂tē̃ (-er-es) (1), *pā=matr-iā̃ f., *mā̂t-jā̂ f. (1)
Germanic: *mōdḗr; *mṓɵr-i- c.; *mōɵr-ik-ō f.
Latin: māter, gen. -tris f. `Mutter; Amme'; mātrīx `Gebährmutter; Muttertier, Zuchttier; Stammutter'; mātrōna f. `ehrbare, verheiratete Frau'
Other Italic: Osk maatreís `mātrīs'; Umbr matrer `mātrīs'
Celtic: *māter- > OIr māthir `Mutter'; *mātrkʷā > Gaul Ματρεβο `Matribus'; OCymr pl. modrep-ed `Mattersschwester' NCymr modryb `Muttersschwester', OBret motrep, NB moedreb `Muttersschwester'
Albanian: motrε Schwester
Russ. meaning: мать
References: WP II 229 f
Comments: See the "short" form in 720 mā-, *māmā.
Proto-IE: *m[e]-
Meaning: pron. interr.
Hittite: mahhan 'wie', man 'wie, als' (Friedrich 132, 135)
Tokharian: mäkte 'how', mäksu 'which, who' (Adams 451)
Russ. meaning: вопрос. мест.
Proto-IE: *me-
Meaning: pron. pers. 1 pl.
Armenian: mekh
Slavic: *mɨ̄
Baltic: *me-s
Russ. meaning: 1 мн.
References: Fraenkel 441
Comments: ? = (e)me- sg.
Proto-IE: *mebh-
Meaning: to shame, to scold
Old Greek: mémphomai̯, mémpsasthai̯, p. memphtē̂nai̯ `tadeln, vorwerfen, unzufrieden sein, sich beklagen', mémpsi-s f. `Tadel, Vorwurf, Beschwerde', momphǟ́ `id.'
Germanic: *mamp-ia- vb.; *mump=
Celtic: *mebl- > OIr mebul `Schande'; mēlacht `Schimpf, Schande', Ir meabhal `Verrat'; Cymr mefl `Schimpf, Schande', Corn meul `Schimpf, Schande'
Russ. meaning: стыдить, ругать
References: WP II 261 f
Proto-IE: *med-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to think about, to reason, to decide
Tokharian: A mem, B maim (PT *mei-m) 'thought, thinking' (Adams 471)
Armenian: mit, gen. mti `Gedanke, Sinn'
Old Greek: médomai̯ `für etw. sorgen, an etw. denken, auf etw. bedacht sein'
Germanic: *mit-a- vb., *mit-ō- vb.
Latin: meditārī `nach etwas denken, nachsinnen; vorbereiten sich auf etwas, einüben'
Other Italic: Umbr meřs, mers `jus', mersto `justum, legitimum', Osk meddíss, meddis `iūdex', meddikkiaí `in iūdiciō', medicatinom `iūdicātiōnem', medicim `iūdicium', medikid, meddixud, metsed `iūdiciō', Paelign, Volsk m ddix, Mars medis `iūdex'
Celtic: *mid-, *mīd- > OIr midiur, pf. ro-mīdar `cogito, judico'; mess `judicium'; Cymr meddwl `animus, mens, cogitatio', medd `inquit'
Russ. meaning: обдумывать, рассуждать, решать
References: WP II 259 f
Proto-IE: *med-
Meaning: to measure
Tokharian: B mante 'upwards' (Adams 440)
Old Greek: medímno-s, médimno-s m. Getreidemass, "Scheffel"
Germanic: *mit-a- vb., *mit-ō- vb.; *mit-a- n., *mēt-a- n., *mēt-i- c., *mēt-ia- adj., etc.
Latin: modus, -ī m. `Mass, Takt; Grenze, Mass und Ziel; Regel, Bestimmung, Art und Weise', modestus, -a `massvoll, bescheiden, sittsam', moderāre/-ārī `mässigen, lenken, einrichten', modius, -ī m. `Scheffel'
Celtic: *medā etc. > OIr dorumadir `fuerat emensus', airmed `Mass'; med `Wage'
Russ. meaning: мерить
References: WP II 259 f, Buck 24.
Proto-IE: *med-
Meaning: to acquire, to possess, to be in command
Old Greek: médō `herrschen, walten'; médōn, -ontos m. `Herrscher'
Germanic: *mōt-a- vb., *mōt-ōn- f.
Celtic: *med- > Cymr meddu `to possess, to be able'
Russ. meaning: приобретать, владеть, распоряжаться
References: WP II 259 f
Proto-IE: *med-
Meaning: doctor
Avestan: vī-mad- `Heilkundiger, Arzt', vī-māδayanta- `sie sollen die Heilkunde ausüben'
Latin: medeor, -ērī `heilen', medicus, -ī m. `Arzt'
Russ. meaning: доктор
References: WP II 259 f
Proto-IE: *medg-
Meaning: a k. of waterfowl (pochard)
Old Indian: madgú- m. `a diver-bird'
Other Iranian: NPers māɣ `ein Wasservogel'
Latin: mergus, gen. -ī m. `der Taucher (Wasservogel); Rebsenker'
Russ. meaning: птица (нырок)
References: WP 300 f (different in Pok.)
Proto-IE: *medhu-
Meaning: honey; mead
Tokharian: B mīt 'honey' (Adams 461)
Old Indian: mádhu n. `honey, mead'; mádhu- `sweet'; madh(u)v-ád- `eating sweetness'
Avestan: madu- 'Beerenwein'
Old Greek: méthü, -üos n. `Rauschtrank, Wein'
Slavic: *medъ
Baltic: *med-u n.
Germanic: *mid-u- n., m.
Latin: medus, -ūs m. `Honigwein, Met' (< Germ ?)
Celtic: OIr mid, gen. medo `Met'; Cymr medd `Met', OCorn pl.? medu `Met', Bret mez `Met'
Russ. meaning: мед (вещество и напиток)
References: WP II 261
Proto-IE: *medhy-
Meaning: between, in the middle, middle
Old Indian: mádhya- `middle'; madhyama- id.
Avestan: maiδya- 'mittlerer'; madhǝma- 'ds.'
Armenian: mēǰ `Mitte'
Old Greek: att. méso-, ep., lyr., aeol. mésso-, kret., böot. métto- `in der Mitte befindlich, mittlere (von Raum, Zeit, Grösse usw.)
Slavic: *medjū; *medjā
Baltic: *med-ia- c., *med-ja- m., *med-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *mid-ja- adj.; *mid-jōn-, -ja- n.; *mid-j-il-a- adj., *mid-j-il-a- n.
Latin: medius, -a `der mittlere'
Other Italic: Osk mefiaí `in media', mefi<ú> `media', messimass `medioximās'
Celtic: Gaul Medio-lānum, -matrici; OIr mid- in Zs. `medius', immedōn `in medio', MIr mide `Mitte, Mite', eig."mittelre Provinz"; Cymr mewnin (< *medugno-)
Russ. meaning: между, посередине, середина
References: WP II 261
Proto-IE: *meg'a- (IndoIr *-g'h-, Anat -kk- < -*kx-?)
Meaning: big, great
Hittite: makkes- (mekkis-) (I) 'viel werden', maknu- (I) 'vermehren', mekki- 'viel' (Friedrich 139)
Tokharian: A māk, B mākā (PT *mākā) 'many, much' (Adams 446)
Old Indian: máh-, f. mahī́, mahā́nt-, f. mahatī́ `great, large'; máhas- n. `greatness, might'
Avestan: maz-, mazant- 'gross'; mazah- n. 'Grösse'; maš (*meg'hs), aš (*m̥g'hs) 'sehr'
Armenian: mec `gross'
Old Greek: mégas, n. méga, f. megálǟ `gross'; aga- verstärkendes Präfix, vorwiegend in älterer Sprache
Germanic: *mik-il-, *mik-ō adv.
Latin: magnus, -a `gross; lang, alt; laut, vornehm', magis `eher, vielmehr', magister, -trī m. `Vorsteher, Leiter'
Celtic: Gaul Magio-rīx, Are-magios, etc., dat. sg. Magalu (Göttername), Magalus PN, dat. sg. Maglo (Götter- und Personnenname); OIr sup. maissiu `maximus'; MIr maignech `gross' (?); maige `gross' (?), Poimp Maige `Pompeius Magnus'; mag-lord `Keule' < *mago-lorgā `grosser Knüttel', māl `Edler, Vornehmer, Fürst, König', mass `stattlich' (< *maksos); Cymr Macl-gwn, OBret Maglo-cune, Cono-maglus
Albanian: maɵ gross
Russ. meaning: большой
References: WP II 238
Proto-IE: *meg'hr-
Meaning: prep./adv.: near
Armenian: merʒ `nahe, bei'
Old Greek: adv., praep. mékhri, mékhris `bis'
Russ. meaning: около, близко
Proto-IE: *meid- (~ -ī-)
Meaning: fly, gnat
Old Greek: mídas 'a destructive insect in beans' Thphr. (if = Mídas the king, then -ās and i~ī)
Germanic: *mīt-ō f.
Russ. meaning: насекомое (личинка мухи)
References: WP II 222 f
Proto-IE: *meik'-, -g'-
Meaning: to mix, to knead
Tokharian: B maiki 'broth' (Adams 471)
Old Indian: mimikṣati, caus. mekṣáyati `to mix, mingle with'; mekṣaṇa- n. `wooden stick or spoon for stirring', miśrá- `mixed, mingled'
Avestan: misvan- `die gemischten enthaltend'
Old Greek: mígnǖmi/méi̯gnǖmi, -ǘō, mísgō, aor. mêi̯ksai̯, míkto, p. emígēn, pf. m. mémigmai̯/ mémigmai̯ `mischen, unter-, durcheinander bringen, verbinden', med. `sich mischen, verkehren, im Kampfe zusammentreffen'; adv. ana-, epi-míks `durcheinander'; adv. míga, migádǟn, -di s, mígda, -dǟn `gemischt'; mêi̯ksi-s f. `Vermischung etc.', mêi̯gma, mígma, mêikhm[a] (Alk.) n. `Mischung'
Slavic: *mēsītī, *mēsjātī; *mēsь
Baltic: *meĩč- vb. tr., *maĩč-ī̂- vb., *maĩč-t-a- c., *mič-ē̂- vb., *mič- vb. intr.
Germanic: ? *misk-ia- vb.
Latin: misceō, -ēre, -uī, mixtum `mischen, vermischen'
Celtic: *misk- > OIr commescatar `miscentur', inf. mescad; Cymr mysgu `mischen'
Russ. meaning: мешать, месить
References: WP II 244 f
Proto-IE: *meik-, -g-
Meaning: to blink
Tokharian: B mik- 'close the eyes' (Adams 460)
Slavic: *mīkātī (HSorb mikać `blinzeln, blinken', mik m. `Augenwink', LSorb mirknuś `schimmern'); *mьgnǭtī, *mьžātī, *mīgātī/*mīʒātī, *mīgъ, *mēžītī, etc.
Baltic: *meig- vb. intr., *mig- vb. intr., *meig-ā̂- vb., *meĩg-a- c., *maig-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *mik-ja- vb.
Latin: micō, -āre, -uī `sich zuckend oder zitternd hin und her bewegen; schnellen; funkeln, blinken, blitzen'; ? nictō, nictāre 'zwinkern, blinzeln, mit den Augen winken'
Russ. meaning: смежать очи
References: WP II 246 f
Proto-IE: *mein-
Meaning: to think
Slavic: *mēnī́tī
Germanic: *main-ia- vb., *main-ō f.
Celtic: *mein-, *mēin- > OIr mian `Wunsch, Gelüste', MIr mēin `mind', Ir mian `Absicht'; Cymr mwyn `Genuss', er ... mwyn `um ... willen'
Russ. meaning: думать
References: WP II 302 f
Proto-IE: *meis-
Meaning: to grow turbid, indiscernible
Old Indian: miṣáti `to open the eyes, wink, blink', ni-míṣ f., ni-miṣa- m. `winking or twinkling of the eye'; miṣa- n. `false appearance, fraud, deceit', mīḍam adv. `in a low tone, softly'; mīlati `to close the eyes'
Slavic: *mьšelъ, *mьšelь
Germanic: *mī́s=; *mis-t-a- m., *mis-tr-a- n.
Russ. meaning: становиться/делать мутным, плохо видным
References: WP II 248 f
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