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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *agasti
Meaning : pea-tree
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akatti, accam, acci
Tamil meaning : West Indian pea-tree, Sesbania grandiflora
Malayalam : akatti
Malayalam meaning : Sesbania grandiflora
Kannada : akace, agace, agase, agise
Kannada meaning : tree with large scarlet flowers, Sesbania (or Aeschynomene) grandiflora Poir.
Tulu : agase-mara
Tulu meaning : Agati grandiflora
Notes : Only an old inlaut cluster can account for the correspondences between Tamil and Kannada; the cluster is clearly seen in the Old Indian borrowing agasti-. Some of the Kannada forms (or even all of them) may actually be borrowed from Telugu, which would still leave us with the same correspondence, but between Tamil and Telugu.
Number in DED : 0005
Proto-South Dravidian : *agaẓ-
Meaning : to dig
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akaẓ (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to excavate, dig out, pluck out (as eye), uproot; n. moat, tank, reservoir
Tamil derivates : akaẓi moat; akaẓān_, akaẓ eli field rat; āẓ (-v-, -nt-) to dig; āẓi (-pp-, -tt-) to dig deep
Malayalam : akaẓuka, akiẓuka
Malayalam meaning : to dig out, excavate
Malayalam derivates : akiẓ, akaẓi moat, ditch, trench; akiḷ, akil moat, earth wall
Kannada : agaẓ (agaẓd-), aguẓ (aguẓd-)
Kannada meaning : to dig
Kannada derivates : agaẓ what has been dug; agaẓte digging, pit, ditch; agaẓata, agaẓate digging, ditch, moat; agalte ditch, moat; agi, age to dig, burrow, make a hole in the ground
Tulu : agarụ, agaḷụ
Tulu meaning : ditch, trench, moat
Tulu derivates : (B-K.) agate overturning the soil by spade
Proto-Nilgiri : *ag[ǝ]ṛ-
Number in DED : 0011
Proto-South Dravidian : *agi-
Meaning : to tremble, fear
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : agi
Kannada meaning : to tremble, fear
Kannada derivates : agurvu, agurbu amazement, terror; a terrible form; agurvisu to be terrifying or formidable; terrify
Tulu : aguruni
Tulu meaning : to totter, stagger
Number in DED : 0012
Proto-South Dravidian : *agil
Meaning : eagle-wood
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akil (in cpds. akir_-)
Tamil meaning : eagle-wood, Aquilaria agallocha; the drug agar obtained from the tree
Tamil derivates : akku eagle-wood
Malayalam : akil
Malayalam meaning : aloe wood, Aquilaria agallocha
Kannada : agil
Kannada meaning : the balsam tree which yields bdellium, Amyris agallocha; the dark species of Agallochum; fragrance
Tulu : agilụ
Tulu meaning : a kind of tree
Tulu derivates : kari agilụ Agallochum
Notes : Tamil akku may point to a more archaic monosyllabic form, but could be a later back formation as well.
Number in DED : 0013
Proto-South Dravidian : *ai-
Meaning : five
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aintu, añcu
Tamil meaning : five
Tamil derivates : ai adj. in some cpds.; aim-patu, am-patu fifty; aiñ-ñūr_u, ain-nūr_u 500; aivar five persons, the five Pāṇḍavas; aiy-aintu, aiv-aintu by fives; five fives
Malayalam : añcu
Malayalam meaning : five
Malayalam derivates : am-patu fifty; añ-ñūr_u 500; ai adj. in some cpds.; aiy-āyiram 5000; aiy-āṇṭu five years; aivar five persons; aiy-añcu by fives
Kannada : ay(i)du
Kannada meaning : five
Kannada derivates : ay adj. in some cpds.; ay-vattu fifty; ay-nūr_u 500; ayvar, aybaru five persons
Kodagu : añji
Kodagu meaning : five
Kodagu derivates : añjane fifth; aym-badɨ fifty; añ-ñūrɨ 500; ayy āṇḍɨ five years; ayy-añji by fives; ayvë five persons (in songs); ayyak ëttɨ five pairs of bullocks
Tulu : ainụ
Tulu meaning : five (things)
Tulu derivates : ainane fifth; ai adj. in some cpds.; ai-nūdu 500; aiva fifty; aiverụ, aiyerụ five persons; aikoḷu, aivoḷu five times
Proto-Nilgiri : *ai
Number in DED : 2826
Proto-South Dravidian : *aja-
Meaning : water; pool
Tamil : ayam
Tamil meaning : water, spring, tank, pond
Malayalam : ayam
Malayalam meaning : pool, tank
Notes : A Tamil-Malaylam isogloss. Connection with *ā̆m- 'water' is hardly likely (unless Tam. ām is a contraction from ayam, which is hardly a common development).
Number in DED : 0188
Proto-South Dravidian : *ajil- (< *ar_ir-?)
Meaning : javelin
Tamil : ayil
Tamil meaning : javelin, lance, surgical knife, lancet
Malayalam : ayil
Malayalam meaning : javelin, lance
Malayalam derivates : ayiri surgical knife, lancet
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss; quite possibly the exact same stem as *ar_ir- 'iron' (= 'iron blade').
Number in DED : 0193
Proto-South Dravidian : *ajja-
Meaning : father; father's brother
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ayyan_, aiyan_
Tamil meaning : father, sage, priest, teacher, brahman, superior person, master, king
Tamil derivates : ayyā father, respectable man; aiyar men worthy of respect, sages, brahmans, title of smārta brahmans, etc.; tam-aiyan_ elder brother or parallel male cousin; numaiyan_ your elder brother; ai lord, master, husband, king, guru, priest, teacher, father
Malayalam : ayyan
Malayalam meaning : father, lord
Malayalam derivates : tamayan elder brother
Kannada : ayya, aya
Kannada meaning : father, grandfather, master, lord, teacher
Kodagu : ayyë
Kodagu meaning : father's brother or parallel male cousin, mother's sister's husband
Kodagu derivates : tammayyāN younger brtoher (voc.)
Tulu : ayye
Tulu meaning : priest, minister, teacher, master
Tulu derivates : tammaiya an affectionate form of addressing a younger brother
Proto-Nilgiri : *aj-
Notes : Just like *t-and-, this root commonly refers to 'father' as an honourable mention. The original meaning differentiation may have been preserved in Kodagu, where appë = 'father', while ayyë = 'father's brother, male cousin'; none of the other languages present an equally clear picture. The only common PSDR stem is the one in *-n (*ajja-n, pl. *ajja-r).
Number in DED : 0196
Proto-South Dravidian : *ajja- ~ *ajir-
Meaning : to doubt, suspect
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ayir (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to suspect; n. doubt, suspicion
Tamil derivates : ayirppu doubt, suspicion; aiyam doubt, uncertainty, scepticism
Malayalam : ayyam
Malayalam meaning : doubt
Kannada : ǝyb
Kannada meaning : (Gul.) doubt, suspicion
Kannada derivates : naccu, nasa doubt (Kitt.) (?)
Notes : Kittel's forms with initial n- do not fit into the picture at all from a strictly phonetic point of view (the fact that *ń- is regularly eliminated in some positions in some Dravidian languages does not mean that we can easily correlate any two Kannaḍa dialectal variants with and without the initial nasal). They are rather to be compared with similar Tamil roots like naccu 'tease, vex, trouble'.
Number in DED : 0190
Proto-South Dravidian : *ajjā
Meaning : exclamation
Tamil : aiya
Tamil meaning : excl. of wonder; excl. of pity, concern
Tamil derivates : aiyakō excl. of pity, sorrow; ai wonder, astonishment; aiy-en_al uttering ai expressive of wonder, of distress or mental suffering, of assent; aiyaiyō excl. of pity or grief; aiyō excl. of wonder; excl. of pity, concern; excl. of poignant grief
Malayalam : ayyā
Malayalam meaning : interj. of derision
Malayalam derivates : ayyō, ayyayyō interj. of pain, grief
Kannada : ayyō, ayyayyō, ayyayyē
Kannada meaning : interj. expr. grief; interj. expr. astonishment; interj. expr. compassion
Tulu : ayyō, ayyayyō
Tulu meaning : interj. of grief, annoyance, pain
Proto-Nilgiri : *ajā
Notes : Expressive interjection, for some reason grouped together with *ajja- 'father' in DEDR.
Number in DED : 0196
Proto-South Dravidian : *ajkaḷai
Meaning : cockroach
Kannada : akkaḷe
Kannada meaning : cockroach
Tulu : ekkale, ekkalu
Tulu meaning : cockroach
Miscellaneous : Also KOR hakkaḷa id.
Notes : Inlaut *-jk- is provisionally reconstructed on the basis of initial e- in Tulu, unexplainable otherwise.
Number in DED : 0022
Proto-South Dravidian : *akakāj
Meaning : asunder
Tamil : akkakkāy
Tamil meaning : asunder
Tulu : akkakka, akkoḷu
Tulu meaning : n. part; adv. asunder
Notes : Onomatopoeic.
Number in DED : 0019
Proto-South Dravidian : *akar_ai (?)
Meaning : necessity
Tamil : akkar_ai, akkarai
Tamil meaning : concern, interest, need, necessity
Kannada : akkar_e
Kannada meaning : want, necessity, need
Notes : Burrow & Emeneau give this root a separate entry in DEDR but it is almost certainly the same as Kan. aẓkar_, akkar_e, akkar_a "love, affection" (DEDR 281). The Tamil form is then Kannaḍa in origin.
Number in DED : 0021
Proto-South Dravidian : *akaǯa
Meaning : wonder
Kannada : akkaja, aẓkaja
Kannada meaning : wonder, surprise; a wonderful thing
Notes : An expressive root, also found in Telugu and Kui but certainly not reliable.
Number in DED : 0020
Proto-South Dravidian : *akā, *akai
Meaning : elder sister
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akkā, akkai, akkan_, akkāttai, akkāḷ, akkacci, akkaicci
Tamil meaning : elder sister
Malayalam : akka
Malayalam meaning : elder sister, wife of an elder brother, elderly maternal or paternal cousin, a term of endearment denoting an elderly woman
Kannada : akka (nom. sg. akkaṃ, i. e. akkan, nom. pl. akkaŋgaḷ/akkandir)
Kannada meaning : elder sister; a woman older than oneself is usually termed akka, endearingly girls are also so called by their elders
Kodagu : akkë
Kodagu meaning : elder sister or female parallel cousin
Tulu : akka, akkè
Tulu meaning : elder sister
Proto-Nilgiri : *ak-
Number in DED : 0023
Proto-South Dravidian : *aki
Meaning : herpes
Tamil : akki
Tamil meaning : herpes
Malayalam : akki
Malayalam meaning : inflamed pimples
Notes : Burrow & Emeneau suggest borrowing from Skt. agni-.
Number in DED : 0026
Proto-South Dravidian : *akil-
Meaning : confusion, fear
Tamil : akkili-pikkili
Tamil meaning : confusion, confusion of mind (loc.)
Kannada : akkuḷisu
Kannada meaning : to fear, flinch, withdraw
Notes : An expressive root.
Number in DED : 0025
Proto-South Dravidian : *akir_-
Meaning : dandruff
Tamil : acar_u
Tamil meaning : dandruff, scurf; scab in sheep and goats
Tamil derivates : ayar_u excrescence resulting from a sore; akir a kind of scurf
Kannada : agaru, hagaru, adaru, aduru
Kannada meaning : dandruff
Notes : An interesting case of inlaut palatalisation in Tamil (the original variant is still seen in the dial. form akir). The original vowel in the 2nd syllable is obviously *-i-, otherwise there would be no reason for palatalisation in Tamil; variants with -a- are secondary by assimilation with the anlaut a-.
Number in DED : 0042
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : to ask about health
Tamil : aḷavu (aḷavi-)
Tamil meaning : to inquire after one's health
Number in DED : 0081
Proto-South Dravidian : *al-
Meaning : not
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : al-
Tamil meaning : (1 sg. allē̆ṇ, 1 pl. allēm, 2 sg. allai, 2 pl. allir, 3 sg. m. allan_, 3 pl. m. allar, 3 sg. f. allaḷ, 3 sg. neut. an_r_u, 3 pl. neut. alla; alla is used in mod. Tamil for all persons and numbers) to be not so-and-so
Tamil derivates : allatu evil, sin; or, if not, or else; allavai sin, evil, uselessness; allāta which is not, different from; allāmal, allāl, an_r_i, an_r_iyil except, besides; an_mai negation of identity, reciprocal negation; evil
Malayalam : alla
Malayalam meaning : is not that, not thus
Malayalam derivates : allātē else, otherwise, except; allāykil if not
Kannada : alla
Kannada meaning : (for all persons and numbers; also 3 sg. neut. alladu, altu) to be not so-and-so, be not fit or proper
Kannada derivates : allada being not so or that, being not proper
Kodagu : alla
Kodagu meaning : (for all persons and numbers) to be not so-and-so
Kodagu derivates : allate not only but also
Proto-Nilgiri : *al-
Number in DED : 0234
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