Tamil meaning :West Indian pea-tree, Sesbania grandiflora
Malayalam meaning :Sesbania grandiflora
Kannada :akace, agace, agase, agise
Kannada meaning :tree with large scarlet flowers, Sesbania (or Aeschynomene) grandiflora Poir.
Tulu meaning :Agati grandiflora
Notes :Only an old inlaut cluster can account for the correspondences between Tamil and Kannada; the cluster is clearly seen in the Old Indian borrowing agasti-. Some of the Kannada forms (or even all of them) may actually be borrowed from Telugu, which would still leave us with the same correspondence, but between Tamil and Telugu.
Tamil meaning :father, sage, priest, teacher, brahman, superior person, master, king
Tamil derivates :ayyā father, respectable man; aiyar men worthy of respect, sages, brahmans, title of smārta brahmans, etc.; tam-aiyan_ elder brother or parallel male cousin; numaiyan_ your elder brother; ai lord, master, husband, king, guru, priest, teacher, father
Malayalam meaning :father, lord
Malayalam derivates :tamayan elder brother
Kannada :ayya, aya
Kannada meaning :father, grandfather, master, lord, teacher
Kodagu meaning :father's brother or parallel male cousin, mother's sister's husband
Notes :Just like *t-and-, this root commonly refers to 'father' as an honourable mention. The original meaning differentiation may have been preserved in Kodagu, where appë = 'father', while ayyë = 'father's brother, male cousin'; none of the other languages present an equally clear picture. The only common PSDR stem is the one in *-n (*ajja-n, pl. *ajja-r).
Tamil derivates :ayirppu doubt, suspicion; aiyam doubt, uncertainty, scepticism
Malayalam meaning :doubt
Kannada meaning :(Gul.) doubt, suspicion
Kannada derivates :naccu, nasa doubt (Kitt.) (?)
Notes :Kittel's forms with initial n- do not fit into the picture at all from a strictly phonetic point of view (the fact that *ń- is regularly eliminated in some positions in some Dravidian languages does not mean that we can easily correlate any two Kannaḍa dialectal variants with and without the initial nasal). They are rather to be compared with similar Tamil roots like naccu 'tease, vex, trouble'.
Number in DED :0190
Proto-South Dravidian :*ajjā
Tamil meaning :excl. of wonder; excl. of pity, concern
Tamil derivates :aiyakō excl. of pity, sorrow; ai wonder, astonishment; aiy-en_al uttering ai expressive of wonder, of distress or mental suffering, of assent; aiyaiyō excl. of pity or grief; aiyō excl. of wonder; excl. of pity, concern; excl. of poignant grief
Malayalam meaning :interj. of derision
Malayalam derivates :ayyō, ayyayyō interj. of pain, grief
Notes :Expressive interjection, for some reason grouped together with *ajja- 'father' in DEDR.
Number in DED :0196
Proto-South Dravidian :*ajkaḷai
Kannada meaning :cockroach
Tulu :ekkale, ekkalu
Tulu meaning :cockroach
Miscellaneous :Also KOR hakkaḷa id.
Notes :Inlaut *-jk- is provisionally reconstructed on the basis of initial e- in Tulu, unexplainable otherwise.
Number in DED :0022
Proto-South Dravidian :*akakāj
Tamil meaning :asunder
Tulu :akkakka, akkoḷu
Tulu meaning :n. part; adv. asunder
Number in DED :0019
Proto-South Dravidian :*akar_ai (?)
Tamil :akkar_ai, akkarai
Tamil meaning :concern, interest, need, necessity
Kannada meaning :want, necessity, need
Notes :Burrow & Emeneau give this root a separate entry in DEDR but it is almost certainly the same as Kan. aẓkar_, akkar_e, akkar_a "love, affection" (DEDR 281). The Tamil form is then Kannaḍa in origin.
Number in DED :0021
Proto-South Dravidian :*akaǯa
Kannada :akkaja, aẓkaja
Kannada meaning :wonder, surprise; a wonderful thing
Notes :An expressive root, also found in Telugu and Kui but certainly not reliable.
Notes :Burrow & Emeneau suggest borrowing from Skt. agni-.
Number in DED :0026
Proto-South Dravidian :*akil-
Meaning :confusion, fear
Tamil meaning :confusion, confusion of mind (loc.)
Kannada meaning :to fear, flinch, withdraw
Notes :An expressive root.
Number in DED :0025
Proto-South Dravidian :*akir_-
Tamil meaning :dandruff, scurf; scab in sheep and goats
Tamil derivates :ayar_u excrescence resulting from a sore; akir a kind of scurf
Kannada :agaru, hagaru, adaru, aduru
Kannada meaning :dandruff
Notes :An interesting case of inlaut palatalisation in Tamil (the original variant is still seen in the dial. form akir). The original vowel in the 2nd syllable is obviously *-i-, otherwise there would be no reason for palatalisation in Tamil; variants with -a- are secondary by assimilation with the anlaut a-.
Tamil meaning :(1 sg. allē̆ṇ, 1 pl. allēm, 2 sg. allai, 2 pl. allir, 3 sg. m. allan_, 3 pl. m. allar, 3 sg. f. allaḷ, 3 sg. neut. an_r_u, 3 pl. neut. alla; alla is used in mod. Tamil for all persons and numbers) to be not so-and-so
Tamil derivates :allatu evil, sin; or, if not, or else; allavai sin, evil, uselessness; allāta which is not, different from; allāmal, allāl, an_r_i, an_r_iyil except, besides; an_mai negation of identity, reciprocal negation; evil
Malayalam meaning :is not that, not thus
Malayalam derivates :allātē else, otherwise, except; allāykil if not
Kannada meaning :(for all persons and numbers; also 3 sg. neut. alladu,altu) to be not so-and-so, be not fit or proper
Kannada derivates :allada being not so or that, being not proper
Kodagu meaning :(for all persons and numbers) to be not so-and-so