Comments: Chech. and Ing. have not preserved the verb, but cf. in Chech. ew-na, Ing. ow 'seam'. Cf. also the PN derivate *jub (obl. *ʔabrV-) 'awl' (Bacb. jub, Chech. jū, pl. ʔāraš, Ing. juw, erg. owro, pl. owraš).
Comments: Vowel differences in Chech. and Ing. can be explained by different analogical levellings of a paradigm like *ʔabla,*ʔabli-. The semantic difference can be explained if we look at external evidence (this root reveals meanings like "root" and "kin, family > village" in many languages). Thus the resemb- lance of the Chech. word to Turkish (e.g. Tat. aul "village" etc.) is probably accidental (at the most the Turk. word could have influenced the meaning of the Chech. word - but there are not enough reasons to speak of a loan).
Comments: A terminative verbal stem with no class markers. There are two archaic derivates:
1) PN *ħēr (obl. *ħāri-, sometimes passing to dir.) "mill": Chech. ħer (ħēra-) 'mill' (cf. also ka-ħar 'hand-mill', ħar-χō 'miller'); Ing. ħajra (erg. ħäro) 'mill' (cf. also kel-ħar 'hand-mill'); Bacb. ħajrĭ,ħajră 'mill'. 4th class in all languages.
2) PN *ħāru 'meal, flour': Ing. ħɔr, Bacb. ħajrŭ,ħajrĭ (3d class in Ing., 4th class in Bacb.).
Comments: Ing. ʕo- < *ʔoħ- with a secondary transfer of the emphatic laryngeal into Anlaut. In Chech. and Ing. the root is basically used as a preverb (it is also used as such in Bacb.); but cf. also Chech. oħara 'lower', oħanē '(place of) descent'.
Comments: 5th class in Chech. and Bacb., 3d class in Ing. Cf. also Chech. Lev., Cheb. stwo, Akk. āsta (with not quite clear vowel length - to judge from the reduction in most Chech. dialects and Bacb., the initial vowel in PN must have been short).
Comments: Short vowel reconstructed because of reduction in Bacbi. Ing. aχka = Chech. äχka 'in summer' (Chech. äχkē is a suffixed form).
The meaning "summer" is obviously secondary. The older meaning 'year' is still preserved in the PN compound *sṭā-χḳŭ 'last year' > Chech. stoχka, Ing. sɔχk, Bacb. sṭaŭχḳŭ (for the etymology of the first part see PEC *śwăjV).