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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *tepö (-ü)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hill, top; top of head
Russian meaning: холм, вершина
Old Turkic: töpü
Karakhanid: tepe (Tefs.), töpü (KB)
Turkish: tepe, dial. depe
Tatar: tübɛ
Middle Turkic: tepe, töpe (MA, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: tepa
Uighur: töpä
Azerbaidzhan: täpä
Turkmen: depe
Oyrat: töbö
Chuvash: tübǝ, töbe (NW)
Yakut: töbö
Dolgan: töbö
Tuva: t`ej
Kirghiz: töbö
Kazakh: töbe
Noghai: töbe
Bashkir: tübɛ
Balkar: töbe
Gagauz: tepe
Karaim: tebe
Karakalpak: töbe
Kumyk: töbe
Comments: VEWT 494, 505, TMN 2, 450-452, EDT 436, ЭСТЯ 3, 197-199, Лексика 201, Stachowski 227. The original meaning was probably 'crest, top of head': cf. Kirgh. tüpök 'бунчук', Chuv. tǝʷbek 'crest, top of head'. Forms with d- in Oghuz may be a trace of a different root (see below); but Kirgh. döbö and Uygh. döwä are most probably < Mong. döbe.
Proto-Turkic: *ter
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hired labour 2 wages
Russian meaning: 1 работа по найму 2 зарплата
Karakhanid: ter 1, 2 (MK, IM)
Turkish: ter oɣlan 'hired worker'
Middle Turkic: ter 2 (MA)
Chuvash: tar(a) 1
Yakut: terij- 'to organize'
Tuva: xol deri 2 (contamination: lit. 'arm sweat')
Kirghiz: maŋdaj teri 2 (contamination: lit. 'forehead sweat')
Comments: VEWT 474, EDT 528, Лексика 353, Федотов 2, 176 (the root should be kept distinct from *der 'sweat'.
Proto-Turkic: *tEŕek
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dung
Russian meaning: навоз
Old Turkic: tezek (OUygh. - YB)
Karakhanid: tezek (MK)
Turkish: tezek
Tatar: tizäk, kizäk
Middle Turkic: tezek (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: tezak
Uighur: tezäk
Azerbaidzhan: täzäk
Turkmen: tezek
Khakassian: tizek
Shor: tezek
Oyrat: tezek
Halaj: täzäk
Chuvash: ? tirǝs
Tuva: de's 'clotted blood'
Tofalar: de's 'clotted blood' (Рас. ФиЛ)
Kirghiz: tezek
Kazakh: tezek
Noghai: tezek
Bashkir: tiδäk
Balkar: tezgek
Gagauz: tezek
Karaim: tez'ak
Karakalpak: tezek
Salar: tesex, tözex (ССЯ)
Kumyk: tezek
Comments: VEWT 477, TMN 2, 508, EDT 574, Федотов 2, 236. Chuv. > Tat., Bashk. tires.
Proto-Turkic: *Tẹrk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to curse, despise
Russian meaning: упрекать, ругать
Tatar: tirgɛ-
Middle Turkic: te/irke- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: terga-
Uighur: tärgi-
Yakut: tirē- 'to threaten'
Bashkir: tirgä-
Comments: VEWT 481.
Proto-Turkic: *TẹrKe-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to observe, research
Russian meaning: исследовать, обдумывать, расследовать
Middle Turkic: te/irke- 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: terga- 'to interrogate'
Uighur: tärgäw 'examination, inquiry'
Chuvash: tirge- 'to judge, discriminate'
Kirghiz: terge-
Kazakh: terge-
Noghai: terge-
Balkar: terge-
Karaim: terge-
Karakalpak: terge-
Kumyk: terge-
Comments: VEWT 475, Федотов 2, 236-237 (the meaning `judge, discriminate' cannot be explained from Arab. terk `leave').
Proto-Turkic: *Terki
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: table, portable table
Russian meaning: столик
Karakhanid: tergi (MK, KB)
Middle Turkic: tirki (CCum.)
Karaim: tirki 'sacrificial table'
Comments: VEWT 475, EDT 544.
Proto-Turkic: *terkü ( ~ -i-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: saddle straps
Russian meaning: торока
Karakhanid: tergü (MK)
Turkish: terki `rear saddlebow'
Middle Turkic: terki (Pav. C.), (MKypch.) tergü (Houts.)
Azerbaidzhan: tärk `place behind the saddle'
Turkmen: tirkiš
Khakassian: tirgǝ
Shor: terig
Oyrat: terki
Chuvash: türt `back, back side', türt-lǝx 'чресседельник'
Yakut: törgǖ
Tuva: dergi
Comments: VEWT 475-476, EDT 544, TMN 2, 499-500. The stem is connected - in a somewhat unclear fashion - with *tirke- 'to hitch' (derived from tiz- 'to string' in Хелимский 1986 and Дыбо 1995, 282 - but the latter should be properly reconstructed as *diŕ-, so this derivation is by no means certain). External evidence suggests that *-i- is original here; the vowel *-e- in *terkü may be due to the influence of *dēr-ke- 'to gather; equip' (see *dēr-).
Proto-Turkic: *tēk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 odd 2 only, solitary 3 understanding nothing 4 zero 5 vain, in vain
Russian meaning: 1 нечетный 2 единственный, только 3 ничего не понимающий 4 ноль 5 напрасный, напрасно
Old Turkic: tek 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tek 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: tek 1, 2
Tatar: tik 2
Middle Turkic: tek 2 (Sangl.)
Azerbaidzhan: täk 1, 2
Turkmen: tǟk 1, 2
Khakassian: tik 3
Shor: tek 5
Tuva: tik 3, tek 3, 4
Kirghiz: tek 5
Kazakh: tek 2
Noghai: tek 2
Bashkir: tik 2
Balkar: tegaran 2
Gagauz: tek 1, 2
Karaim: tek 2
Karakalpak: tegin 2
Kumyk: tek 2
Comments: VEWT 470, TMN 2, 660, EDT 475. Turk. > Mong. Khalkha teg `zero', Kalm. teg 'kurz, niedrig' (KW 389).
Proto-Turkic: *tēl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 wire, string 2 thong 3 strand
Russian meaning: 1 волосок, струна, проволока 2 ремешок, которым привязан наконечник стрелы 3 прядь, пучок нитей
Karakhanid: tili 2 (MK)
Turkish: tel 1
Azerbaidzhan: tel 1
Turkmen: til 1
Chuvash: tal 3
Noghai: tel 1
Gagauz: tel 1
Kumyk: tel 1
Comments: VEWT 471, EDT 491. Turk. > NPers., Kurd., Osset. tel etc. Bailey 129 cites Saka ttīla 'thread, wire' and considers it the source of Turkic forms, tracing it back to *tarɵrya - cf. Pers. tār < *tarɵra. However there are no direct Iranian parallels for the Saka form (cf. Аб. 3, 288, maintaining that the Osset. and Kurd. form do not go back to Proto-Iranian but are borrowed from neighbouring languages); so the word may well be a Turkism in Saka and other Iranian languages. The Turkic origin is also corroborated by the Chuv. parallel.
Proto-Turkic: *Tẹ̄l
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to put the kid or calf to a different milch-ewe or cow 2 a kid or calf sucking two milch-ewes or cows
Russian meaning: 1 отдать ягненка другой кормящей самке 2 теленок, сосущий двух маток
Karakhanid: tel- (MK) 1
Tatar: tile- 1
Oyrat: telkin 'roe (female)'
Yakut: tīl 2, tilij- 1
Tuva: tel 2
Kirghiz: teli- 1, tel 2
Kazakh: tel- 1, tel 2
Bashkir: tile- 1
Karakalpak: teli- 1
Comments: EDT 490 (sub 'to pierce'), VEWT 471. Turk. > MMo, WMong. tel, teleɣe id. (see Щербак 1997, 166).
Proto-Turkic: *tēŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to run away, flee 2 swift; scary, shy
Russian meaning: 1 убегать 2 быстрый; пугливый, робкий
Old Turkic: tez- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tez- 1 (MK)
Turkish: tez 2
Middle Turkic: (MKypch.) dez- 1 (AH)
Uighur: täz- 1
Azerbaidzhan: täz- 1, täz 2
Turkmen: tez- 1, tīz 2
Khakassian: tis- 1
Halaj: täz- 1
Chuvash: tar- 1
Yakut: tehī 2
Dolgan: tehī 2
Tuva: des- 1
Tofalar: des- 1
Comments: VEWT 477, EDT 572, Stachowski 220. Turk. > Pers. tīz (not vice versa, as sometimes suggested).
Proto-Turkic: *Ti-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of biting insect
Russian meaning: вид кусающего насекомого
Old Turkic: ti-ler (OUygh.)
Comments: See EDT 501: the word is located in a list of harmful biting insects, between flies and ants.
Proto-Turkic: *T(i)adun
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 a one- or two-year old calf 2 ox
Russian meaning: 1 годовалый или двухгодовалый теленок 2 вол
Karakhanid: taδun (MK) 1
Khakassian: tazɨn 2
Comments: EDT 457.
Proto-Turkic: *t(i)agar(a)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 an earthenware dish 2 trough
Russian meaning: 1 глиняное блюдо 2 корыто
Karakhanid: taɣara (Tefs.) 1
Turkish: ṭagar 'dish' (Osm.)
Tatar: taɣaraq 2
Uzbek: taɣar 1
Turkmen: taGara 2
Tuva: tāqtɨg 'barrel'
Comments: EDT 471, VEWT 454, Радлов 3, 796-797. Should be distinguished from *dagar 'sack' (confused in ЭСТЯ 3, 120-122 and TMN 2, 512-519 - here with an additional confusion with *dabar 'wares').
Proto-Turkic: *tiakɨgu (/ -ŋu)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hen, fowl
Russian meaning: курица
Old Turkic: taqɨɣu (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: taqaɣu (MK)
Turkish: tavuk
Tatar: tawɨq
Middle Turkic: taɣuq, tawuq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: tɔwuq
Uighur: toxa, toxu
Sary-Yughur: taqaɣɨ
Azerbaidzhan: tojuG
Turkmen: towuq
Khakassian: taɣax, taŋax
Oyrat: taqā
Chuvash: čъxъ
Tuva: da'ɣā
Tofalar: taqqɨńaq (perhaps < Mong.)
Kirghiz: tōk
Kazakh: tawɨq
Noghai: tawɨq
Bashkir: tawɨq
Balkar: tawuq
Gagauz: tauq
Karaim: tawuq
Karakalpak: tawɨq
Salar: tox (Kakuk)
Kumyk: tawuq
Comments: VEWT 457, EDT 468, TMN 2, 441-442, Егоров 321. Turk. > Hung. tyúk, see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *T(i)āna-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: nostril
Russian meaning: ноздря
Tatar: tanaw
Khakassian: tanɨ̄
Yakut: tanɨ̄
Tuva: tanaq
Bashkir: tanau 'nose'
Comments: VEWT 460, Лексика 218. Because of late attestation borrowing from Mong. is not excluded; but it is not quite probable for phonetic reasons.
Proto-Turkic: *tik-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hate, fear
Russian meaning: ненавидеть, бояться
Turkish: tiksin-
Azerbaidzhan: diksin-
Turkmen: tiksin-
Kirghiz: tikireŋde- 'to assault viciously'
Kazakh: tik-baqaj 'stubborn, violent', tikireŋde- id.
Balkar: tiklik 'tension (of relations)'
Comments: Somewhat unclear voicing in Az. See Дыбо 1991.
Proto-Turkic: *tikö
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: slice, piece
Russian meaning: часть, кусок
Karakhanid: tikü (MK)
Turkish: tike
Middle Turkic: tike (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: tikä
Turkmen: tike
Halaj: tike
Kirghiz: bir tike 'a little bit'
Comments: TMN 2, 918, EDT 478.
Proto-Turkic: *ti-(kü)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Tatar: tege
Middle Turkic: (OKypch.) tigi (Bulgat), tik (Ettuhf.)
Turkmen: (dial.) šü-tki,šütüki, bitiki 'вот этот' (Akhaltek.)
Khakassian: tege; ĭ-di 'so, thus'
Yakut: i-ti 'this'
Dolgan: i-ti 'this'
Tuva: dȫ
Tofalar:
Kirghiz: tigi
Kazakh: tigi (dial.)
Bashkir: tege
Gagauz: te bu 'this here', te o 'that there'
Salar: düɣü,
Comments: VEWT 479, Räsänen 1957, 36, Котвич 1962, 142, Stachowski 129.
Proto-Turkic: *Tilgen
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wheel
Russian meaning: колесо
Old Turkic: tilgen, tilken (OUygh.)
Comments: EDT 499.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-jak,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-nogx,turcet-gagx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-blkx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-krg,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-reference,
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