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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *Kalpak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hat
Russian meaning: шапка, шляпа
Turkish: kalpak
Tatar: qalpaq
Middle Turkic: qalpaq (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qalpɔq
Uighur: qalpaq
Sary-Yughur: qalmaq
Turkmen: Galpaq
Khakassian: xalbax, xalpax
Yakut: xalpāq
Kirghiz: qalpaq
Kazakh: qalpaq
Noghai: qalpaq
Bashkir: qalpaq
Balkar: qalfaq
Gagauz: qalpaq
Karaim: qalpaq
Karakalpak: qalpaq
Kumyk: qalpaq
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 234-235. The word is not attested in OT; cf. however the common Slavic loanword *klobukъ, attested in Russian sources already in the 12th century (in чьрнии клобуци 'black hats' = the Karakalpaks, but with characteristically Bulgarian phonology).
Proto-Turkic: *KAĺuk / *KAlgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 spoon 2 oar, shovel
Russian meaning: 1 ложка 2 весло, лопатка
Old Turkic: qašuq 1
Karakhanid: qašuq, qašɨq (MK)
Turkish: kašɨk 1, dial. kalak 2
Tatar: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2 > Chuv.
Middle Turkic: qašɨq (IM), qašuq (Houts., AH, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qɔšiq 1, qɔlɔq 2
Uighur: qošuq, dial. qašuq 1, qalaq 2
Azerbaidzhan: GašɨG 1
Turkmen: qašɨq 1
Khakassian: xazɨx 1, xalɣax 1,2
Shor: qalaq 2
Oyrat: qažɨq 1, qalaq 2
Tofalar: qah́ik 1, qalɣaq 2
Kirghiz: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Kazakh: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Noghai: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Bashkir: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Balkar: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Karakalpak: qasɨq 1, qalaq 2
Kumyk: qašɨq 1, qalaq 2
Comments: VEWT 225, 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 231-232, 353-354. Turk. > Russ. Siber. kašík, see Аникин 277.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bed-bug 2 beetle
Russian meaning: 1 клоп 2 жук
Turkish: kandalaj 1 (dial.)
Tatar: qandala 1
Middle Turkic: qandala (Houts., Буд.) 1, qandala (Qum.) 1
Uzbek: qɛndɛlɔ 1
Turkmen: Gandala 1
Khakassian: xandala 1
Oyrat: qandrɨjaq 'cochlea' (Верб.)
Chuvash: xъʷmtla, xъʷmdъʷla, xъʷmgъʷla ~ xъʷngъʷla 1
Kirghiz: qantala 1
Kazakh: qandala 1
Noghai: qandalaj
Bashkir: qandala 1
Balkar: qandaɣaj 1, qamažaq 2
Karakalpak: qandala 1
Kumyk: qandala 1
Comments: VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 253-254, Лексика 183.
Proto-Turkic: *KĀma-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 become blinded, dumb 2 (set) teeth on edge 3 to be tired, pine, droop
Russian meaning: 1 слепнуть, глохнуть 2 набивать оскомину 3 уставать, изнемогать
Old Turkic: qamaš- (Orkh.) 3
Karakhanid: qama- (MK, KB) 1, 2
Turkish: kamaš- 1
Tatar: qamaš- 3
Middle Turkic: qamaš- (Pav. C., Бор. Бад., MA) 1, 2
Uzbek: qɛmɛš- 1
Uighur: qamaš- 2
Azerbaidzhan: Gamaš- 1
Turkmen: Gāmaš- 2
Kirghiz: qama- 2
Kazakh: qama- 2
Noghai: qama- 2
Bashkir: qamaš- 2
Karakalpak: qamas- 2
Kumyk: qama- 2
Comments: VEWT 228, ЭСТЯ 5, 242-243, 246-247. Cf. also Kirgh., Kaz. qam 'sorrow', Turkm. Gam GajGɨ 'mischief, sorrow'. Turk. > MMong. (MA) qama- id. (see Щербак 1997, 197).
Proto-Turkic: *Kạma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 beaver 2 otter
Russian meaning: 1 бобер 2 выдра
Tatar: qama 2
Uighur: qama 2
Khakassian: xam-nos, xam čat (Верб.) 1
Shor: qamna(ɣɨ) 2
Oyrat: qamdu 2
Chuvash: xъʷma 'beaver, marten'
Bashkir: qama 2
Karakalpak: qama 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 242, Лексика 162, Мудрак Дисс. 145. Also PT *Kam-tuŕ 'beaver, otter' (VEWT 228, Лексика 162) (*Kam-tuŕ may be a compound < *Kama + *utɨŕ 'otter' q. v. sub *óŋdu; Лексика ibid., however, suggests rather *Kam-luč, with a diminutive *-luč. There is also a variant *Kun-tuŕ (with *Kunu 'wolverine'? - see, however, TMN 3, 524, with a suggestion of Turk. < Pers.).
Proto-Turkic: *KAmgak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: saltwort, Salsula
Russian meaning: солянка, поташник, Salsula
Old Turkic: qamɣaq (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamɣaq (MK)
Middle Turkic: qamɣaq (Qutb., Pav. C.), qamqaq (Houts.)
Uzbek: qɔmɣɔq
Uighur: qamɣaq
Turkmen: Gamaq
Kirghiz: qamɣaq
Kazakh: qaŋbaq
Noghai: qambaq
Bashkir: qamɣaq
Karakalpak: qaŋbaq
Kumyk: qammaq
Comments: EDT 627, VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 244-245.
Proto-Turkic: *Kamɨč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: scoop, ladle
Russian meaning: черпак
Old Turkic: qamɨč (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamɨč (MK)
Middle Turkic: qamɨč (IM)
Uighur: qemič
Khakassian: xamɨs
Chuvash: (Bulg.) xumǯa (< *kamča(h))
Yakut: xamɨas, xomuos
Dolgan: komuos
Tuva: xɨmɨš
Comments: EDT 626, VEWT 229, ЭСТЯ 5, 248-249, Stachowski 152.
Proto-Turkic: *Kamɨĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: reed
Russian meaning: тростник
Old Turkic: qamuš, qamɨš (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamɨš (MK, IM)
Turkish: kamɨš
Tatar: qamɨš
Middle Turkic: qamɨš (Qutb, MA)
Uzbek: qɛmiš
Uighur: qomuš
Azerbaidzhan: Gamɨš
Turkmen: Gamɨš
Khakassian: xamɨs
Oyrat: qamɨš
Chuvash: xъʷmъʷl 'stalk of cereals'
Yakut: xamɨs, xomus
Kirghiz: qamɨš
Kazakh: qamɨs
Noghai: qamɨs
Bashkir: qamɨš
Balkar: qamiš
Karakalpak: qamɨs
Kumyk: qamuš
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 249-250, TMN 3, 517.
Proto-Turkic: *KAmug
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: all, together
Russian meaning: все, вместе
Old Turkic: qamuɣ (OUygh.), qamaɣ (Orkh., OUygh.), qamɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qamuɣ (MK, KB)
Turkish: kamu
Middle Turkic: qamuɣ (Qutb., Буд.), qamuq (Abush.)
Khakassian: xamɨx
Shor: qamɨq
Oyrat: qamɨq
Tuva: xamɨq
Comments: EDT 627, ЭСТЯ 5, 243-244. Modern forms like Kirgh., Kaz. qama- 'to surround, besiege', qamala- id., 'to gather in a crowd' etc. (see ЭСТЯ 5, 159) should be rather regarded as mongolisms.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạń
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: edge, hem
Russian meaning: край, кайма
Old Turkic: qaj (OUygh.) 'cross-road'
Karakhanid: qajɨɣ (MK) 'a place at an angle from the main road'
Khakassian: xaj
Oyrat: qajɨr 'steep, precipitous'
Chuvash: xъju
Yakut: kɨj̃ɨa (Пек.) 'road on the edge of a precipice'
Tuva: xajɨ̄ 'located sideways'
Bashkir: qajma
Comments: VEWT 221, Федотов 2, 338. Doubts about the OT word see in EDT 674, 676, Clark 1977, 146.
Proto-Turkic: *Kandɨr (*Kantɨr)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: membrane
Russian meaning: мездра, пленка на мясе, остающаяся после снятия шкуры
Karakhanid: qandɨr (MK)
Chuvash: xundъ, e.g. in tǝʷplǝʷ pɨržъ xund-i 'appendix (anat.)' (dial.)
Comments: EDT 635.
Proto-Turkic: *KAŋ-čɨk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bitch 2 female
Russian meaning: 1 сука 2 самка
Old Turkic: qančɨq (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qančɨq (MK) 1
Turkish: kanǯɨk 2
Middle Turkic: qančɨq (Pav. C., Houts., Qutb.), qančuq (AH) 1
Uzbek: qɛnǯiq 1
Uighur: qančuq, qanǯiq (dial.) 1
Azerbaidzhan: GanǯɨG 1
Turkmen: Ganǯɨq 1
Kirghiz: qančɨq 1
Kazakh: qanšɨq, qaŋšɨ 1
Noghai: qanǯɨq 1
Bashkir: qansɨq, qansaj 1
Karakalpak: qanšɨq 1
Kumyk: qančɨq 1
Comments: VEWT 230, ЭСТЯ 5, 255-256, Лексика 190. The original *-ŋ- is probably preserved in Kaz. qaŋšɨ.
Proto-Turkic: *KAŋɨr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bend
Russian meaning: гнуть
Turkish: kanɨr-
Uzbek: qɛnir- (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: Ganɨr-
Turkmen: Gaŋɨr-
Khakassian: xāri-tart- 'to change direction, turn sharply'
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 194-195.
Proto-Turkic: *Kap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to snatch, take 2 to bite
Russian meaning: 1 брать, хватать 2 кусать
Old Turkic: qap- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qap- (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: kap- 1,2
Tatar: qap- 1,2
Middle Turkic: qap- (AH, IM, Pav. C., Qutb) 1
Uzbek: qɔp- 1,2
Uighur: qap- 1,2
Azerbaidzhan: Gap- 1,2
Turkmen: Gap- 1,2
Khakassian: xap- 1,2
Oyrat: qap- 1,2
Chuvash: xɨp- 1,2
Yakut: xap- 1,2
Tofalar: qa'p- 'to grab with one's mouth; bite (of fish)'
Kirghiz: qap- 1,2
Kazakh: qap- 1,2
Noghai: qap- 1,2
Bashkir: qap- 1,2
Balkar: qab- 1,2
Gagauz: qap- 1,2
Karakalpak: qap- 1,2
Comments: VEWT 233, EDT 580, ЭСТЯ 5, 264-265, TMN 3, 373-374.
Proto-Turkic: *Kạp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to catch fire
Russian meaning: загораться
Tatar: qap-, qabɨn-
Uzbek: qɔpin-
Khakassian: xabɨl-
Shor: qamɨn-
Oyrat: qamɨn-
Chuvash: xɨp-
Tuva: qɨ'p-
Tofalar: qɨ'p-
Kazakh: qabɨn-
Noghai: qabɨn-, dial. qamɨl-
Bashkir: qabɨn-
Kumyk: qabun-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 262.
Proto-Turkic: *Kap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cover (n.) 2 gate, door 3 to close
Russian meaning: 1 крышка 2 ворота, дверь 3 закрывать
Old Turkic: qapaɣ, qapɨɣ (Orkh., OUygh.) 2, qapɣɨ (Orkh.) 2, qapaq (OUygh.) 1, qap- 3
Karakhanid: qapuɣ (MK, KB), qapɣaq (MK) 1, qapuɣ (MK) 2
Turkish: kapak 1, kapɨ 2, kapa- 3, kap- 3
Tatar: dial. qapqaq 1, qapqa 2, qapla- 3
Middle Turkic: qabaɣ (Qutb.) 1, qapu (Houts., Pav. C.) 2, qabuɣ (Qutb.) 2
Uzbek: qɔpɛqɔq 1, qɔpqɛ 2, qɔplɛ- 3
Uighur: qap(q)aq 1, dial. qobuɣ 2, qapla- 3
Azerbaidzhan: GapaG 1, Gapɨ 2, Gapa- 3
Turkmen: Gapaq 1, Gapɨ 2, dial. Gap- 3
Khakassian: xaxpax 1
Shor: qabaq 1
Oyrat: qaqpaq 1
Chuvash: xobъ 1, xop(la)- 3
Yakut: xappax 1
Dolgan: kappaktā- 'to cover'
Tuva: qaqpaq 1
Kirghiz: qapqaq 1, qapqa 2
Kazakh: qaqpaq 1, qapɨ 2, qaqpa 2
Noghai: qapaq 1, qapɨ 2, qap(l)a- 3
Bashkir: qapqa 2, qapla- 3
Karaim: qabaq 2
Karakalpak: qaqpaq 1, qapɨ 2, qaqpa 2
Salar: qāvu 2 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: qapu 2, qabaq 2
Comments: VEWT 203, TMN 3, 369, ЭСТЯ 5, 160, 263-264, 274-275, Лексика 510, Федотов 2, 358-359, Stachowski 138 (there is also a variant *Kāp- - due to merger with another root *Kāp-, v. sub *k[ā]p`á; the meaning 'cover' here is probably secondary). Turk. > Mong. qabqaɣ 'cover' (whence Evk. kapkak, see Doerfer MT 125), qabqa 'gate', see TMN 3, 371, 415, Hung. kapu 'gate', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *KĀpan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: boar
Russian meaning: кабан
Turkish: dial. kaban
Tatar: qaban
Middle Turkic: qaban (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: qɔbɔn
Uighur: qavan
Azerbaidzhan: Gaban
Turkmen: Gaban
Oyrat: qaman
Tuva: xavan
Kirghiz: qaman
Kazakh: qaban
Noghai: qaban
Bashkir: qaban
Balkar: qaban
Karakalpak: qaban
Kumyk: qaban
Comments: VEWT 216, ЭСТЯ 5, 164, Лексика 156.
Proto-Turkic: *Kapɨrčak, *Kapsak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 box, coffin 2 basket
Russian meaning: 1 ящик, гроб 2 корзина
Karakhanid: qapɨrčaq 1,2 (MK)
Turkish: koburčuk, dial. kapurǯak 1, dial. kabzak, kabsak 2
Middle Turkic: qabɨrčaq (IM), qaburčuq (AH)
Turkmen: Gapɨrǯaq 1
Chuvash: > Hung. koporsó 1 (see Gombocz 1912)
Comments: EDT 587, ЭСТЯ 5, 276-278. Tekin (1979, 127) cites Uygh. qapɨz 'coffin', but we were unable to find the word either in Old or Mod. Uyghur. Perhaps he meant Karakh. xafsɨ 'small box' (MK, see EDT 587). Brockelmann derived the word from Lat. capsa through Syr. qafsā, but a loan in Turkic < Syr. is not quite probable, and the word might well be genuine. But modern forms: Tur. dial. kapsa 'box, chest', (CCum.) qapsa 'box, coffin' may well be < Syr. (cf. ЭСТЯ 5, 277).
Proto-Turkic: *Kaptal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: side
Russian meaning: бок
Middle Turkic: qaptal (R - ShS, Vam.)
Uzbek: qɔptɔl
Uighur: qaptal
Turkmen: Gapdal
Oyrat: qaptal
Yakut: xaptal
Kirghiz: qaptal
Kazakh: qaptal
Bashkir: qaptal
Karakalpak: qaptal
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 267-268.
Proto-Turkic: *KApuŋ (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bumble-bee
Russian meaning: шмель
Old Turkic: qabuŋ (OUygh. - Suv.)
Comments: ДТС 399.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-uzb,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-reference,
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