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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *bAj-ra-m/k, bAj-ga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 feast 2 horse-race 3 a prize in horse-race
Russian meaning: 1 праздник 2 скачки 3 приз за победу в скачках
Karakhanid: baδram (MK), bajram (MK Oghuz) 1
Turkish: bajram 1
Tatar: bɛjrɛm 1, bɛjgi 2
Middle Turkic: bajram (Бор. Бад.) 1, bajɣa 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bajram 1, pajgä (R) 3, bajraq (dial., Khorazm) 3
Uighur: bajram 1, (dial.- Lobn.) bajɣa 1
Azerbaidzhan: bajram 1
Turkmen: bajram 1, bajraq 3
Khakassian: paj 1 (Sag.), pajram 1
Shor: bajram 1, pajɣa 1 (R)
Oyrat: bajram 1
Kirghiz: majram 1, bajge 2, 3
Kazakh: mäjram 1, bäjge 2, 3, (dial.) bajraq 3
Noghai: bajram 1
Bashkir: bajram 1, bäjgi 2, 3
Balkar: bajram 1
Gagauz: bajram 1
Karaim: bajram 1
Karakalpak: bajram 1, bäjge 2, 3, bajraq 3
Kumyk: bajram 1
Comments: VEWT 54, 56, ЭСТЯ 2, 32, 33-34 (erroneously under *baδrak 'flag'), 35-36, TMN 2, 384-385. Here one should reconstruct *-j- (not *-δ-), dissimilated before -r- according to Mudrak's rule. Formally *baj-ra-m and *baj-ra-k are deverbatives from a hypothetical *baj-ra- 'to celebrate'; *baj-ga is a denominative with a usual East.-Kypch. suffix. Menges' (1933, 101) hypothesis of bajga < Russ. is quite unlikely (cf. the areal and the Chag. fixation). A rather popular theory of Iranian origin is also excluded: the only acceptable etymology of Pers. bajram is < Turkic (see also ЭСТЯ). Because of semantics, hardly connected with Mong. baj 'sign, goal, road sign'. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bajgá (Аникин 109).
Proto-Turkic: *bạk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to look, watch
Russian meaning: смотреть
Karakhanid: baq- (MK, KB)
Turkish: bak-
Tatar: baq-
Middle Turkic: baq- (Abush.)
Uzbek: bɔq-
Uighur: baq-
Azerbaidzhan: bax-
Turkmen: baq-
Khakassian: pax-
Oyrat: baq-
Chuvash: pъʷx-
Yakut: bɨk- 'to appear, to arise'
Dolgan: bɨk- 'to look out'
Tuva: baq-qɨ-la- 'to peek, to arise'
Tofalar: ba'k-
Kirghiz: baq- 'to look after'
Kazakh: baq- 'to look after'
Noghai: baq- 'to graze'
Bashkir: baq-
Balkar: baq-
Gagauz: baq-
Karaim: baq-
Karakalpak: baq- 'to look after'
Salar: pax-, vax- (ССЯ 440, 542)
Kumyk: baq-
Comments: EDT 311, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 38-40, Мудрак 99, Stachowski 70.
Proto-Turkic: *bakań
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hoof 2 knucklebone 3 joints in animals' feet
Russian meaning: 1 копыто 2 бабка 3 суставы в ногах животных
Old Turkic: baqanaq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baqanaq, baqajaq 1 (MK)
Turkish: bakanak, bakɨnak 1, 2 (dial.)
Tatar: bɛkɛl 2
Uighur: baqalčäq 'shinbone'
Azerbaidzhan: baɣanaɣ, baɣančaɣ 3 (dial.)
Khakassian: paɣajax, maxajax 2
Tofalar: mahnɨq `metatarsus' (ФиЛ 205)
Kirghiz: baqaj 3
Kazakh: baqaj 3
Noghai: baqaj 3
Bashkir: bäqäl 3
Comments: VEWT 58, EDT 316-317, ЭСТЯ 2, 43-44, Дыбо 310, Лексика 286-287.
Proto-Turkic: *bAkan
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: necklace, torque
Russian meaning: ожерелье
Karakhanid: baqan (MK)
Comments: EDT 316.
Proto-Turkic: *bakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 copper 2 patina
Russian meaning: 1 медь 2 налет, патина
Old Turkic: baqɨr 1 (Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baqɨr 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: bakɨr 1
Tatar: baqɨr 1
Middle Turkic: baqɨr (MA, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: baqir, paqir 1
Uighur: paqir 1
Sary-Yughur: paqɨr 1
Azerbaidzhan: paxɨr 2
Turkmen: baqɨr 1
Khakassian: pāɣǝr (Kyz., Joki) 1
Oyrat: baqras 'brass kettle'
Chuvash: pъʷgъʷr 1
Yakut: baɣaraχ 'pot for boiling milk'
Kirghiz: baqɨr 1
Kazakh: baqɨr 1
Noghai: baqɨr 1
Bashkir: baqɨr 1
Balkar: baɣɨr 1
Gagauz: baqɨr 1
Karaim: baɣɨr 1
Karakalpak: baqɨr 1
Kumyk: baɣɨr 1
Comments: EDT 317, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 45-46, Лексика 405-406. Turk. > WMong. baqar, baqur (Kalm. baχr), see KW 29, Щербак 1997, 104. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bakírka (Аникин 111-112).
Proto-Turkic: *bakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cockle
Russian meaning: куколь
Tatar: baqra
Chuvash: poxra
Comments: Федотов 1, 441-442. Cf. Tel. paɣɨr 'allium nutans', 'слизун' (R).
Proto-Turkic: *bakna ( ~ -g-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rung of a ladder, step of a staircase
Russian meaning: ступенька лестницы
Karakhanid: baɣna (MK)
Comments: EDT 316.
Proto-Turkic: *bạl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: mud, clay
Russian meaning: грязь, глина
Karakhanid: balčɨq (MK,IM), bal(ɨ)q (MK)
Turkish: balčɨk
Tatar: balčɨq
Middle Turkic: balčɨq (Pav. C.), palčɨq (Sangl.)
Uzbek: balčiq
Uighur: balčuq
Azerbaidzhan: palčɨG
Turkmen: palčɨq
Khakassian: palčax (Sag.)
Oyrat: bal-qaš
Halaj: palčoq ( < Az.)
Chuvash: pɨlǯъk
Yakut: bɨlɨ̄k 'sand, silt, brought by water' (Пек.)
Tuva: balɣaš, malɣaš
Tofalar: ba'lxaš
Kazakh: balšɨq, balqaš
Noghai: balšɨq
Bashkir: balsɨq
Karaim: balčɨq
Salar: palčɨx (ССЯ 435 и др.)
Kumyk: balčɨq
Comments: EDT 333, 336, VEWT 60, Мудрак Дисс. 179, Лексика 374. Turk. > Mong. balčig (Щербак 1997, 103). In Chuv. one would rather expect pɨśǝx, so the form may reflect a slightly different morphologically *bạlɨ-čak.
Proto-Turkic: *bạl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: honey
Russian meaning: мед
Karakhanid: bal (MK Suvar, Kypchak, Oghuz)
Turkish: bal
Tatar: bal
Middle Turkic: bal (Sangl.)
Uzbek: bɔl
Uighur: bal
Azerbaidzhan: bal
Turkmen: bal
Khakassian: pal
Shor: pal
Chuvash: pɨl
Kirghiz: bal
Kazakh: bal
Noghai: bal
Bashkir: bal
Balkar: bal
Gagauz: bal
Karaim: bal
Karakalpak: bal, pal
Salar: pal
Kumyk: bal
Comments: VEWT 59, EDT 330, ЭСТЯ 2, 47. Turk. > Mong. bal (Щербак 1997, 103).
Proto-Turkic: *bAla- (?)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fir tree
Russian meaning: ель
Kirghiz: balatɨ 'young fir tree'
Bashkir: balaštɨ (VEWT)
Balkar: balas (VEWT)
Comments: VEWT 60 (the Bashk. and KBalk. forms are only found there, so the root is somewhat dubious).
Proto-Turkic: *bAlak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 ankle 2 trouser leg 3 foot sole
Russian meaning: 1 щиколотка 2 штанина 3 стопа
Turkish: balaq 2 (dial.)
Tatar: balaq 1, 2
Middle Turkic: balaq 2 (Pav. C.)
Azerbaidzhan: balaG 2
Turkmen: balaq 2
Kazakh: balaq 2; 'bird's foot'
Noghai: balaq 2
Bashkir: balaq 2
Balkar: balaq 2, 3
Karaim: balaq 2
Karakalpak: balaq 2
Kumyk: balaq 2
Comments: VEWT 59, TMN 2, 312, ЭСТЯ 2, 51, Лексика 478. Turk. > Russ. Siber. baláki (Pl.) (Аникин 114). [The latter contains a mistake: balaq 'пахи' is not attested in Kirgh. - it is found in Radloff marked as Kirgh., which means Kazakh. Modern Kazakh dictionaries do not note this meaning; according to the КТТС (1, 86) it means `a trouser leg from the knee downwards; horse's ankle; part of bird's leg from the knee down to the ankle'. In Kirgh. a related stem may be balak-ta- 'to hang loose (of clothes, particularly of wide trouser legs)'.]
Proto-Turkic: *bAlbal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a stone pillar erected on a grave
Russian meaning: каменная колонна на могиле, истукан
Old Turkic: balbal (Orkh., Yen.)
Comments: EDT 333. Borrowed (possibly from an unattested Bulgar source) in Old Russ. bolvanъ, Hung. bálvány 'stone idol' (suggestion of Melioranski, evidently preferable to the hypothesis of Korsch-Dmitriev < Pers. pahlavān, see Шипова 84-85, Аникин 114).
Proto-Turkic: *baĺč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: head
Russian meaning: голова
Old Turkic: baš (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baš (MK, KB)
Turkish: baš
Tatar: baš
Middle Turkic: baš (Abush., MA)
Uzbek: bɔš
Uighur: baš
Sary-Yughur: baš
Azerbaidzhan: baš
Turkmen: baš
Khakassian: pas
Shor: paš
Oyrat: baš
Halaj: baš
Chuvash: poś
Yakut: bas; battaq 'hair of head'
Dolgan: bas; battak 'head of reindeer; reindeer skin'
Tuva: ba'š
Tofalar: ba'š
Kirghiz: baš
Kazakh: baš
Noghai: bas
Bashkir: baš
Balkar: baš
Gagauz: baš
Karaim: baš
Karakalpak: bas
Salar: baš
Kumyk: baš
Comments: VEWT 64, ЭСТЯ 2, 85-88, TMN 2, 250-253, EDT 375-6, Федотов 1, 452, Ашм. X, 15, Лексика 194, Stachowski 54, 55.
Proto-Turkic: *bAldak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 hilt 2 stalk, stem
Russian meaning: 1 рукоятка 2 стебель, ствол
Turkish: baldak 1
Tatar: baldaq 1
Middle Turkic: baldaq 1 (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: bɔldɔq 1
Uighur: baldaq 1
Turkmen: baldaq 2
Kirghiz: baldaq 1
Kazakh: baldaq 1
Noghai: baldaq 1
Bashkir: baldaq 1
Karakalpak: baldaq 1
Comments: VEWT 60, ЭСТЯ 2, 52. Similar forms of the type *balčak may be borrowed from Mong., while WMong. baldaɣ, bardaɣ, Khalkha baldag, bardag, Mongor bardaG 'hilt' are rather < Turkic.
Proto-Turkic: *baldɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: beginning of the spring season, lambing season
Russian meaning: начало весеннего сезона, сезона рождения ягнят
Karakhanid: baldɨr (MK)
Uighur: baldi(r) (dial.: УДС 23) 'last year'
Comments: The root tends to mix with *bɨldur 'last year', but is explicitly distinguished by MK (as baldɨr vs. bɨldɨr).
Proto-Turkic: *bạlgɨn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 tamarisk, 2 viburnum
Russian meaning: 1 тамариск 2 калина
Karakhanid: bulɣuna, (dial.) malɣuna (MK) 1
Tatar: balan 2
Uzbek: balxi 'white mulberry'
Uighur: balan 2 (РУС 1956)
Azerbaidzhan: palan 2 (R)
Turkmen: balxɨ 'a k. of white mulberry'
Shor: palan 2 (R)
Oyrat: balan 2
Chuvash: (palan < Tat.), (*polan > Mari polan 2)
Yakut: bɨlax 'white willow; willow branches as fodder'
Kirghiz: balɣɨn 1 'a k. of bush similar to žɨlɣɨn'
Bashkir: balan 2
Balkar: balan 2 (Karach.)
Comments: EDT 338, ЭСТЯ 2, 52, VEWT 59, 324, Дмитр. 189, 201. Turk. > Mong. balɣu, balɣuna 'tamarisk'. Forms like balxɨ may be secondarily modified ('Balkh mulberry'), but in any case not < Iranian.
Proto-Turkic: *bAlɨg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: wounded
Russian meaning: раненый
Old Turkic: balɨɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: balɨɣ (MK, KB)
Khakassian: palɨɣ
Shor: palɨɣ
Oyrat: balu
Tuva: balɨɣ
Tofalar: balɨɣ
Comments: VEWT 53, EDT 335, ЭСТЯ 2, 88-89. Turk. > Bur. bala 'bruise, injury'.
Proto-Turkic: *bAlk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shine, glitter
Russian meaning: сверкать, сиять
Turkish: balk- (dial.)
Tatar: balqɨ-
Middle Turkic: (MKypch., Xwar.) balqɨ-(CCum., AH, Qutb)
Turkmen: balqɨlda-
Oyrat: malqɨl, malʁɨl 'bright, shining'
Kazakh: balqɨ-
Bashkir: balqɨ-
Karaim: balqɨ-
Karakalpak: balqɨ-
Kumyk: balqɨ-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 2, 56-57.
Proto-Turkic: *bAlka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hammer
Russian meaning: молоток
Tatar: balɣa (Sib.)
Uzbek: balɣa (Chag.)
Kirghiz: balɣa
Comments: VEWT 61, ЭСТЯ 2, 57-58. Turk. > Mong. balɣu, balig (KW 31).
Proto-Turkic: *bAĺ-mak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: boot, shoe
Russian meaning: ботинок, обувь
Karakhanid: bašmaq (MK Oghuz), bašaq (MK Chigil), bašmaq (IM)
Turkish: bašmak, pašmak
Tatar: bašmaq
Middle Turkic: bašmaq (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: dial. (Khorazm) baš-lɨq 'heel-piece of a boot'
Azerbaidzhan: bašmaG
Turkmen: bašmaq, pašmaq ("heel of a camel; boot")
Kirghiz: bašmaq-ta- 'to sole (a boot)'
Noghai: bašmaq
Bashkir: bašmaq
Balkar: bašmaq
Karakalpak: bašmaq
Kumyk: bašmaq
Comments: EDT 382-383, ЭСТЯ 2, 93-95, ОСНЯ 3 69, TMN 2, 293-294. Doerfer's inner etymology (bašmak with vowel elision < *baša-mak from *baša- 'to cut, make notches') is impossible: baša- is derived from *bāĺ(č) 'wound' with a long vowel, while bašmak has a short one.
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