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\data\alt\turcet
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ-ɨl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 green 2 yellow
Russian meaning: 1 зеленый 2 желтый
Old Turkic: jašɨl (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: jašɨl (MK, KB) 1
Turkish: ješil 1
Tatar: jɛšel 1
Middle Turkic: jašɨl (MA) 1
Uzbek: jašil 1
Uighur: ješil 1
Sary-Yughur: jahsɨl 1
Azerbaidzhan: jašɨl 1
Turkmen: jāšɨl 1
Khakassian: čazɨl 1
Shor: čažɨl (R.) 1
Oyrat: d́ažɨl 1
Halaj: ja:šɨl 1
Chuvash: śulźa, śulǯa, śъvъlś 'leaf' ( = Bashk. jäšelsä 'greens, vegetables')
Yakut: saha-r- 2
Dolgan: haha-r- 2
Kirghiz: ǯašɨl 1
Kazakh: žasɨl 1
Noghai: jasɨl 1
Bashkir: jäšel 1
Balkar: žašil 1
Gagauz: ješil 1
Karaim: ješli 1
Karakalpak: žasɨl 1
Salar: jäšil 1
Kumyk: jašɨl 1
Comments: Derived from PT *jāĺ 'young, green vegetables' (OUygh. jaš, MK jaš, Turkm. jāš, see ЭСТЯ 4, 162, EDT 975, 976, Федотов 2, 134, Stachowski 93). This root is often mixed with homophonous *jāĺ 'tear' and *jāĺ 'age, year', see ЭСТЯ 4, 161-164 (all three roots have different Altaic etymologies). Turk. > Mong. jasil 'buckthorn' (Clark 1980, 41).
Proto-Turkic: *gȫk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 blue 2 green ("macro-blue" according to Wierzbicka)
Russian meaning: 1 синий 2 зеленый
Old Turkic: kök 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kök 1 (MK, KB), 2 (KB)
Turkish: gök 1
Tatar: kük 1
Middle Turkic: kök 1 (MA)
Uzbek: kọk 1, 2
Uighur: kök 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: kük 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: göj 1
Turkmen: gȫk 1, 2
Khakassian: kök 1
Shor: kök 1, 2
Oyrat: kök 1, 2
Halaj: kīek 2
Chuvash: kъʷvak 1
Yakut: küöx 1, 2
Dolgan: küök 1
Tuva: kök 1
Tofalar: kök 1
Kirghiz: kök 1
Kazakh: kök 1
Noghai: kök 1
Bashkir: kük 1
Balkar: kök 1
Gagauz: gök 1
Karaim: kök 1
Karakalpak: kök 1
Salar: Gux 1
Kumyk: gök 1
Comments: VEWT 287, TMN 3, 640-642, EDT 708-9, ЭСТЯ 3, 66-68, Лексика 60, 604, Stachowski 165. In most languages the root also means 'sky'. Turk. > Hung. kék 'blue', see Gombocz 1912.
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fresh, raw
Russian meaning: свежий, сырой
Old Turkic: jaš (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaš (MK)
Turkish: jaš
Middle Turkic: jaš (AH, Ettuhf.)
Azerbaidzhan: jaš
Turkmen: jāš
Khakassian: čas
Oyrat: jaš, d́aš
Tuva: čaš
Kirghiz: ǯaš
Kazakh: žas
Noghai: jas
Bashkir: jäš
Balkar: ǯaš, žaš, zaš
Gagauz: jaš
Karaim: jaš
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 161-163, EDT 975-976, VEWT 192 (one of several *jāĺ roots). Within Turkic interacts actively (in fact almost completely merges with *jāĺ 'green' and *jāĺ 'young' - but all three roots, and, additionally, *jāĺ 'tear' and *jāĺ 'age' - seem to have different Altaic origins.
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tear
Russian meaning: слеза
Old Turkic: jaš (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaš (MK)
Turkish: jaš
Tatar: jɛš
Middle Turkic: jaš (AH, Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: jɔš
Uighur: jaš
Sary-Yughur: jas
Azerbaidzhan: jaš
Turkmen: jāš
Khakassian: čas
Oyrat: d́aš
Halaj: jāš
Chuvash: koś-śol
Tuva: čaš
Kirghiz: ǯaš
Kazakh: žas
Noghai: jas
Bashkir: jäš
Karaim: jaš
Karakalpak: žas
Salar: jaš
Kumyk: jaš
Comments: VEWT 192, EDT 975-976, Ашм. VII, 32, ЭСТЯ 4, 161-163 (because of external evidence should be distinguished both from *jāl' 'age' and *jāl' 'fresh, green').
Proto-Turkic: *čɨpčɨk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sparrow
Russian meaning: воробей, мелкая птица
Karakhanid: (MKypch.) čapčuq, čɨpčɨq (AH), šɨpšɨq (Ettuhf.)
Turkish: čimček, (dial.) čabčɨk, čɨpčɨk
Tatar: čɨpčɨq, dial. čɨpɨj
Middle Turkic: čɨpčuq, čupčuq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), čimčik (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čumčuq
Uighur: tumučuq
Turkmen: čɨmčɨq, dial. čɨpǯɨq
Shor: čimčigeš 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)
Oyrat: čibilčik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)
Kirghiz: čɨmčɨq; čimeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'
Kazakh: šɨbɨšɨq
Noghai: šɨmšɨq
Bashkir: säpseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sɨpqaj 'утка-поганка'
Karaim: cɨfcɨq
Karakalpak: šɨmšɨq
Kumyk: ǯimčiq, dial. čimčik
Comments: VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. čipčiqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
Proto-Turkic: *čekin
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: different weed kinds
Russian meaning: различные виды сорных трав
Karakhanid: čikin / čekin 'a plant growing among the vines and eaten by cattle' (MK)
Tatar: čɛkɛn 'corn cob' (< Chuv.?)
Middle Turkic: čekin 'greens, grass; a weed on rice fields, with black seeds and sharp awns' (Pav. C., Sangl.), čekil-dam 'tulip bulb; a root similar to wild garlic' (Pav. C., for dam cf. Uzb. dam 'pungency, bitterness' < Pers.)
Uzbek: čakalak 'bush thicket' (or perhaps to PT *čeke-t?)
Khakassian: sǝgen 'dry grass'
Chuvash: čakan 'reedmace'
Kirghiz: čeken 'рогоз широколистый'
Bashkir: sɛkɛn 'corn cob' ( < Chuv.?)
Karakalpak: šigin 'weed growing on rice fields, куриное просо', šigildik 'reed'
Comments: VEWT 111, EDT 415, Рас. ФиЛ 277, Егоров 316. Chuv. čakan, despite Дмитриева 1997, 52-53 and Róna-Tas, is not connected with *jeken 'reed' (v. sub *dék`à). Cf. other grass names: Chuv. čiken kurъkǝ 'geranium' (according to Ашм., grass helping from colics - Дмитриева 1997, 56); śikka kurъkǝ 'camomile' (according to Ашм. it hosts a plantlouse, to summon which the children say "śikka!" - Дмитриева 1988, 51); Uygh. čigä 'plant fibre, wild hemp (VEWT), Yak. sige 'тальниковые стружки, лыко'. Tuva sigen 'hay' (Tuva), (Tof. 'grass') has an irregular s-, so perhaps should be regarded as borrowed from Khak.
Proto-Turkic: *sagrɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 croup skin, shagreen 2 back of horse
Russian meaning: 1 кожа с крупа, шагрень 2 круп лошади
Karakhanid: saɣrɨ 1 (MK)
Turkish: sārɨ, saɣrɨ 1, 2
Tatar: sawrɨ 2
Middle Turkic: saɣrɨ (AH, IM) 2, saɣri (Pav. C.) 1, 2
Uzbek: saɣri 1, 2
Uighur: saɣra 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: saɣɨr
Azerbaidzhan: saɣrɨ 2
Turkmen: saGrɨ 1, 2
Oyrat: sūru, sūrɨ
Chuvash: sъran 'worked leather of bovines'
Kirghiz: sōru 1, 2
Kazakh: sawɨr 2
Noghai: sawɨr 2
Bashkir: hawɨr
Karakalpak: sawrɨ 2, sawɨr 1
Kumyk: savru, sawurɨ 2
Comments: EDT 815, VEWT 393, Лексика 385-386, Дыбо 119, Федотов 2, 30 (but with another etymology), ЭСТЯ 7. Bulg. *suran is the probable source of Tat. suran and Mong. sur(an) 'leather strap' - whence Manchu sur 'strap'.
Proto-Turkic: *jāĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: young
Russian meaning: молодой
Turkish: jaš
Tatar: jɛš
Middle Turkic: jaš (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: jɔš
Uighur: jaš
Sary-Yughur: jas
Turkmen: jāš
Khakassian: čas
Oyrat: jaš, d́aš
Tuva: čaš
Tofalar: češ
Kirghiz: ǯaš
Kazakh: žas
Noghai: jas
Balkar: ǯaš, žaš, zaš
Karaim: jaš, ješ
Karakalpak: žas
Salar: jaš
Kumyk: jaš
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 162, VEWT 192 (one of several *jāĺ roots; within Turkic hardly distinguishable from *jāĺ 'green vegetables; green', but historically different).
turcet-meaning,turcet-chv,turcet-meaning,turcet-krg,turcet-meaning,
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