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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *mŭ́t`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to complete, gather together
Russian meaning: завершать, собирать вместе
Turkic: *büt-
Mongolian: *möči-
Tungus-Manchu: *mute-
Korean: *mòt-
Japanese: *muta
Comments: EAS 58, АПиПЯЯ 27, 70, 86, 274, Дыбо 13. Doerfer (TMN 2, 208) is hardly right in criticizing the Turk.-Tung. match : it is quite satisfactory both phonetically and semantically.
Proto-Altaic: *mūga
Meaning: bonfire
Russian meaning: костер
Mongolian: *maj
Tungus-Manchu: *mōgdi
Japanese: *mákí
Comments: Somewhat dubious because of a possible alternative etymology of the Japanese word and because of tonal discrepancy between TM and Japanese.
Proto-Altaic: *mū̀jV
Meaning: to cut, tear
Russian meaning: резать, рвать
Tungus-Manchu: *mǖ- (*mūj-)
Korean: *mɨ́i-
Comments: A Tung.-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mū̀k`é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fish
Russian meaning: вид рыбы
Mongolian: *mök-
Tungus-Manchu: *mōk-
Japanese: *mànkúrúa
Comments: Cf. also Kor. mik:uri 'амурский вьюн'.
Proto-Altaic: *mūk`o ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: male
Russian meaning: самец
Turkic: *būka
Mongolian: *mok-
Tungus-Manchu: *muxa- / *muxe-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *mūńa(kV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of deer
Russian meaning: вид оленя
Turkic: *buńgak
Tungus-Manchu: *mōń(i)ka-
Japanese: *manaka
Comments: Лексика 153. The Jpn. form is traditionally analysed as resp. prefix mana- + ka 'deer', which may be a folk etymology in the light of external evidence; otherwise the root is a Turk.-TM isogloss. Cf. Mong. (Khalkha) dial. mundu 'female deer', Tuva mɨndɨ, Tof. mundučaq id. - see Аникин, 142. According to Helimski and Anikin, the Turkic forms are borrowed from Southern Samoyedic, and Mongolian < Turkic; but the S.-Sam. word has no Uralic etymology, while Mong. mundu - if not for its poor attestation - could be a regular reflex of PA *mūńa, and a possible source both for the Turkic (Tuva-Tof.) and the Samoyedic forms.
Proto-Altaic: *mū́ro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tree, forest
Russian meaning: дерево, лес
Mongolian: *mo-du ( < *mor-du)
Tungus-Manchu: *mō
Korean: *mōi(h), *mòró
Japanese: *mǝ́rí
Comments: EAS 79, KW 263, Poppe 35, Martin 237, АПиПЯЯ 33-34, 69, 292; SKE 150, Doerfer MT 24. The parallel form *mōi in Kor. presupposes a suffixed form *mōr-jV(-gV) (?).
Proto-Altaic: *mū̀sV ( ~ -ō-, -i̯ō-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: swamp, pond
Russian meaning: болото, пруд
Tungus-Manchu: *mūsa
Korean: *mós
Comments: See SKE 152. A Tung.-Kor. isogloss; cf. perhaps also Chuv. pozъ 'well' ( < *bos-).
Proto-Altaic: *mV́
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: an interrogative root
Russian meaning: вопросительная основа
Turkic: *-mi
Mongolian: *-mu, -mi
Korean: *mɨ̀
Japanese: *mǝ́-si
Comments: SKE 147, АПиПЯЯ 297. Cf. perhaps also Evk. mu 'or' (in interrogative sentences) (Титов 1926, 94). Further Nostratic parallels of this grammaticalized interrogative stem see in ОСНЯ 2, 66-8.
Proto-Altaic: *ná
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thou
Russian meaning: ты
Turkic: *-ŋ
Korean: *nǝ̀
Japanese: *ná
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 102, 280. Velarization in Turkic is not quite clear and probably secondary (perhaps a fusion with the attributive *-k`i). The root is widely used only in the Kor.-Jpn. area, and its original function (to judge from the OJ opposition of si and na) was probably limited to the oblique stem of the suppletive 2d p. paradigm.
Proto-Altaic: *nable
Meaning: net, fish-trap
Russian meaning: сеть, ловушка для рыбы
Turkic: *jɨlɨm
Tungus-Manchu: *nalba
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ńabĺu(-ǯV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: young, child
Russian meaning: молодой, ребенок
Mongolian: *ǯulǯa-gan
Tungus-Manchu: *ńab[l]ǯa-
Japanese: *mus-
Comments: The etymology seems probable, although the medial cluster demonstrates a complicated behaviour. It is not quite clear whether -ǯa- in Mong. and Tung. should be treated as a suffix or as a part of the root here.
Proto-Altaic: *nad[i]
Meaning: seven
Russian meaning: семь
Turkic: *jẹt(t)i
Tungus-Manchu: *nada-n
Korean: *nìr-kúp
Japanese: *nana-
Comments: Mong. *dal- '7' may suggest PA *ĺad[i]- (with a development > Mong. *ĺal- (through assimilation) > dal-). The medial consonant in general behaves rather irregularly: one may suggest an original cluster like *-dd- to explain the Turkic reflex. Jpn. *nana- regularly < *nada-n ( = TM *nada-n); in Kor. one has to assume vowel elision already after *-d- > -r- (i.e. *nìr-kup < *nìrV-kup). Despite all these difficulties, the numeral 'seven' seems to be safely reconstructable for PA. Cf. also Koguryo *nanǝn 'seven', see Lee 28, 39, Menges 1984, 278.
Proto-Altaic: *naja
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to envy, wish
Russian meaning: завидовать, желать
Mongolian: *najida-
Tungus-Manchu: *nadi-
Japanese: *nàità-m- ( ~ -ia-)
Comments: Poppe 37, 140, 158, JOAL 70. All forms reflect a dental suffix.
Proto-Altaic: *nàje
Meaning: pole, shaft
Russian meaning: шест, древко
Tungus-Manchu: *najü
Japanese: *nǝ̀
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ńằjla ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shoot, sprout; teeth, gills
Russian meaning: росток, побег; зубы, жабры
Mongolian: *ǯal-magaj
Tungus-Manchu: *ńal-
Korean: *ní
Japanese: *mài
Comments: Дыбо 1995b (Mong.-Tung.). The semantic interchange between 'teeth' and 'sprouts' is quite common, so in this respect the etymology seems plausible. In Jpn. one has to suppose a suffixed form *ma(i) < *ńằjl(a)-gV; medial *-j- is reconstructed to account for the loss of resonant in Kor. The root seems to be unattested in Turkic, but cf. Tur. dial. jalama 'white spot on horse's head from forehead down to the lower lip' (ЭСТЯ 4, 91) - cf. the semantic development in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *nàjĺV ( ~ -e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: age
Russian meaning: возраст
Turkic: *jāĺ
Mongolian: *na-su
Korean: *náh
Comments: EAS 75, SKE 157, KW 272, АПиПЯЯ 288, Лексика 84. Mong. nasun regularly < *nal-sun and the assumption of its being borrowed from Turk. (Щербак 1997, 123) is absolutely improbable (Doerfer in TMN 4, 97 refutes the comparison without further discussion). The cluster *-jĺ- has to be reconstructed to account for the loss of resonant in Korean (*-h is a trace of a velar suffix: *najĺV-gV). It could be also interesting to mention a verb attested in MJpn.: neba- ( < *nai-(m)pa-) 'to grow old; to become grown up' - perhaps with an irregular loss of -s- (that would be an expected reflex of *-ĺ-) in a cluster. The root should be distinguished from *ńā́ĺba 'young' q. v. (which, however, certainly influenced the Turkic reflex - whence an irregular long vowel).
Proto-Altaic: *najV(rV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: lake, river
Russian meaning: озеро, река
Mongolian: *naɣur
Tungus-Manchu: *niāru
Korean: *nāih
Comments: Should be kept apart from *ni̯úŕe, despite ОСHЯ 2, 89.
Proto-Altaic: *nak`i ( ~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of skin
Russian meaning: вид шкуры
Mongolian: *nekej
Tungus-Manchu: *naKita
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *ńàme
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: goat, deer
Russian meaning: коза, олень
Turkic: *jɨmga
Tungus-Manchu: *ńamī-
Korean: *jǝ́m-sjó
Comments: EAS 78, 116, KW 214, Poppe 32, АПиПЯЯ 20. Loss of *n- in Kor. is not quite clear: perhaps *jǝ́m- < *njǝ́m- through dissimilation. Mong. jimaɣan 'goat' (MGCD 734) may be borrowed from Turk. (see Щербак 1997, 124; but cf. the WMong. variant nimaɣan and Bur. ńamā (Владимирцов) which may be genuine); Mong. > Tung. (ТМС 1, 312), see Poppe 1966, 190, Doerfer MT 37.
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