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Proto-Altaic: *čḕlV
Meaning: to split, hole, crack
Russian meaning: расщеплять, дыра, щель
Turkic: *dil-
Mongolian: *čilüɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯēlge
Comments: KW 444, Владимирцов 183, Poppe 16 (Turk.-Mong.). A Western isogloss. The root was originally verbal (cf. PT); Mong. and TM reflect a velar derivative *čḕlV-gV. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 2, 554) criticism the comparison still seems valid (although the narrowing *e > i in PT is not quite clear). Miller (1985b, 207) cites a MJ tir- 'cut in narrow strips' which would be a nice match, but we were unable to identify the source of the word.
Proto-Altaic: *č`àlù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp, to cut
Russian meaning: острый, резать
Turkic: *čal-
Mongolian: *čali
Tungus-Manchu: *čal-
Japanese: *tùrù(n)kì
Comments: KW 420, ОСНЯ 1, 196-197. KW 420, ОСНЯ 1, 196-197. The Jpn. form can be alternatively compared with PTM *dargi 'harpoon'.
Proto-Altaic: *č`àro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut off, tear off
Russian meaning: отрезать, отрывать
Turkic: *čar
Tungus-Manchu: *čari-
Korean: *čărɨ-
Japanese: *tàt-
Comments: Martin 229, АПиПЯЯ 76, ОСНЯ 1, 209. The Japanese form may be alternatively derived from PA *t`at`V q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *č`ire
Meaning: to cut, scrape
Russian meaning: резать, царапать
Turkic: *čert-
Tungus-Manchu: *čire-
Comments: A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *gijo
Meaning: notch, to cut aslant
Russian meaning: зарубка, резать наискосок
Turkic: *Kɨj-
Tungus-Manchu: *gia-
Japanese: *ki
Comments: Kalm. kāčǝ- (WMong. kijači-, KW 222) 'to split (wood)' is probably borrowed from the Turk. derivative *Kɨjgač- (although the latter now means basically 'slant', the original meaning was 'cut aslant'). If the latter was the original meaning in PA, one could also compare Mong. *geji-, *geje- 'slanting, oblique' (otherwise see notes to *k`i̯úŋ(k)u).
Proto-Altaic: *gi̯óro ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut, carve, shear
Russian meaning: резать; измельчать, ломать
Mongolian: *gur-
Tungus-Manchu: *giri-
Japanese: *kár-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288, Miller-Street 1975, 108ff (with a somewhat different distribution of roots). MKor. kằr-hằi- < *kǝ̀r-hằi- through assimilation (?). The root tends to contaminate with a number of similar roots: see *k`ĭ̀rka, *k`ĭ̀régV, *kìro.
Proto-Altaic: *kằle
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: knife, to cut
Russian meaning: нож, резать
Turkic: *Kɨlɨ̄̄č
Tungus-Manchu: *kaliki
Japanese: *kǝ̀r-
Comments: One of the many "verbs of cutting" in PA, with only nominal derivatives preserved in PT and PTM.
Proto-Altaic: *kìro
Meaning: to cut, mince
Russian meaning: резать, размельчать
Turkic: *Kɨr-
Mongolian: *kira-
Tungus-Manchu: *kire-
Japanese: *kìr-
Comments: KW 244, Menges 1982.
Proto-Altaic: *kū̀rV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut out, sharp
Russian meaning: вырезать, острый
Turkic: *Kurč
Mongolian: *kurča
Tungus-Manchu: *kōri-
Comments: KW 199. A Western isogloss. Doerfer (TMN 3, 441) (and Clark 1980, 43) regard Mong. as borrowed from Turk. (saying that the original meaning in Turkic is 'steel' - which is not the case, see EDT 647). On a possible Jpn. reflex see under *k`[ŭ]ri. {ND 1154 gives WMo kürü- 'sharpen an arrow'.}
Proto-Altaic: *k`ắsi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut; piece
Russian meaning: отрезать; кусок
Turkic: *kes-
Mongolian: *kasu-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)asu-
Korean: *kàsk- / kǝ̀sk-
Japanese: *kínsú
Comments: SKE 103 (Turk.-Kor.; despite TMN 3, 596, Kor. kǝsk- is not a "teleologischer Sternchenform"). Cf. also Nan. (Bik.) kesi- 'to cut out' - with quite inexplicable k- (a borrowing?). Reasons for prenasalization in Jpn. are unclear (perhaps a suffixed form like *k`ắsi-gu-n is reflected).
Proto-Altaic: *k`ĭ̀régV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: cutting tool
Russian meaning: режущий инструмент
Turkic: *kerki
Mongolian: *kiröɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *xirege
Japanese: *kìrí
Comments: Цинциус 1984, 92, Ozawa 80-81. The stem may be connected to PT *kert- (ЭСТЯ 5, 54, Stachowski 145), Mong. *kerči- 'to cut' ( > Evk. kerči- etc., ТМС 1, 453, see Doerfer MT 110; the two words were compared in KW 228, Poppe 19, 51, 83, Menges 1982, and despite Щербак 1997, 127, Mong. kerči- is hardly borrowed < Turk.): we may be dealing with two derivatives (*k`ire-gV vs. *k`ire-t`V). However, direct derivation PT *kerki < *kert-ki is hardly plausible, despite Menges 1944; it rather goes back to *kirge-ki.
Proto-Altaic: *k`[ŭ]ri
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to rake up
Russian meaning: сгребать
Turkic: *küre-
Mongolian: *kura-, *kurija-
Tungus-Manchu: *xeri- / *xeru-
Japanese: *kur-
Comments: EAS 97, KW 248, Poppe 79, Цинциус 1984, 121-122. The etymology seems quite probable, although the TM vocalism is not clear (a result of some contamination?). For Jpn., however, cf. alternatively PA *kū̀rV 'to cut out' or PA *k`uli 'dig' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *mált`u
Meaning: to dig, bury
Russian meaning: копать, хоронить
Turkic: *baĺtar (?)
Mongolian: *malta-
Tungus-Manchu: *malta-
Korean: *mùt-
Japanese: *úntú-m- ( < *múntú-m-)
Comments: Poppe 1966, 196, Doerfer MT 61, Rozycki 155 regard the TM form as borrowed from Mong., which is not excluded (although dubious). The Karakh. word may belong here if its original meaning was 'digging instrument' ( > 'cutting instrument' > 'sickle'), but on the whole it is rather dubious, because of the unique cluster -št- (violating Helimski's rule). The Jpn. form reflects a frequent confusion between *mV- and *V- in front of the following nasal. {AD: from Turkic rather *mal- 'immerse'}
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯ā̀sò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a cutting or grinding tool
Russian meaning: орудие для резания или перетирания
Mongolian: *mese
Tungus-Manchu: *mōsa
Japanese: *màsà-
Comments: Cf. also Orok masāri `axe' (probably < Jpn.).
Proto-Altaic: *mi̯úkč`[à]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of hammer
Russian meaning: вид молотка
Tungus-Manchu: *mukča
Korean: *màčhí
Japanese: *mútì
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. Cf. perhaps also Turk. *bɨčkak 'knife' (if re-analysed semantically on analogy with *bɨč- 'cut'). The vowel reflex in Jpn. points to a variant *mi̯ukč`o (or mi̯ukč`u).
Proto-Altaic: *mṓli
Meaning: to cut into pieces
Russian meaning: резать на куски
Turkic: *bȫl-
Mongolian: *möli-
Tungus-Manchu: *m[o]l-
Korean: *mằrằ-
Comments: PKE 108. In Kor. one has to suppose vocalic assimilation *mằrằ- < *mòrằ- (cf. similarly *k`ṓli).
Proto-Altaic: *pi̯ŭ̀č`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to tear, split, cut
Russian meaning: раздирать, расщеплять, резать
Turkic: *bɨč-
Mongolian: *biči-
Tungus-Manchu: *puče- ( ~ -š-)
Korean: *pčɨ́č-
Japanese: *pàtùr-
Comments: EAS 144, KW 47, ОСНЯ 1, 178. In Turk. also OT biče 'small', Tuva biče id. Cf. also MKor. pčằ- 'to wring out, squeeze' (SKE 18); MKor. pči- 'to cut' (SKE 32); mod. pit-ta (piǯ-) 'cut, slice'. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 427) doubts are hardly justified - the semantic development in Mong. is perfectly well explainable. One should note, however, that low tone in Jpn. does not correspond to Mong. *b- here (one would rather expect *h-); either this is an incorrect tone notation (the Jpn. word is attested in RJ, but not accented in Hirayama's dictionary), or an irregularity in an expressive etymon.
Proto-Altaic: *pŏ̀k`è ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: to dig, cut off; a cutting instrument
Russian meaning: копать, отрезать; режущий инструмент
Turkic: *bügde ( ~ -ö-)
Mongolian: *hoktal-, *(h)okčira-
Tungus-Manchu: *poK-
Japanese: *pǝ̀kǝ̀
Comments: Cf. other similar roots: *p`i̯ùgV, *bā̀k`ù, *p`ū̀gé, *p`àgò.
Proto-Altaic: *p`ajo
Meaning: to rub off, wipe off, cut off
Russian meaning: стирать, вытирать, разламывать
Turkic: *ajɨt-
Mongolian: *haɣu-
Tungus-Manchu: *pajū-
Korean: *pūi-
Japanese: *pajas-
Comments: One of the common Altaic "Verba des Schlagens", with a rather uncertain semantics. The basic meaning seems to be "rub off, peel off", whence "break, tear into small pieces" etc. MMong. xa'ut- may reflect the same derivative as PT *ajɨt-, PA *p`ajo-t`V.
Proto-Altaic: *p`i̯ṑpo (*p`ṑjpo)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut through, grind
Russian meaning: разрезать, точить
Turkic: *ob-
Mongolian: *(h)öb-
Tungus-Manchu: *pībē-
Korean: *pìpɨ́i-
Japanese: *pǝ̀pur-
Comments: In TM cf. also derived forms: Orok pīpu, Ul. pīpu, Ud. siɣi 'drill' (ТМС 2, 39) - possibly reflecting a contamination with *pi̯ŭ̀bi q. v. In Turkic one would rather expect *job-, so perhaps we should rather reconstruct *p`ṑjpo.
altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-reference,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-reference,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,altet-meaning,
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