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Праюжно-дравидийский: *al-
Значение: cowrie
Тамильский: alaku
Тамильское значение: number, calculation, cowries (as signs of number in reckoning)
Кодагу: alu
Кодагу значение: (Mercara) cowrie
Комментарии: A strange Tamil-Kodagu isogloss; perhaps an external source should be located.
Номер по DED: 0238
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: handful
Тамильский: aḷ
Тамильское значение: handful, anything contained within the hollow of the hand
Тамильские производные: aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to take up in the hollow of the hand; n. handful of grain given on the threshing floor or in the bazaar as perquisite
Малаялам: aḷḷuka
Малаяльское значение: to take up with the hollow of the hand
Комментарии: In DEDR these forms are compared with PNDR *lā̆p- 'to measure with handful(s)'. That stem, however, fits in much better morphologically with PSDR *aḷa- 'to measure' (cf., in particular, such Tulu forms as aḷapuni, lappu, etc.). Yet it is not excluded that both stems are, in fact, the same, with Tamil aḷ simply preserving the original monosyllabic variant.
Номер по DED: 0290
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ăḷ-
Значение: strength
Тамильский: aḷ
Тамильское значение: strength, firmness
Каннада: aḷa, aḷavi, aḷavu, alavu
Каннада значение: power, strength, force, ability, possibility, practicability
Номер по DED: 0291
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: dense; narrow
Тамильский: aḷ
Тамильское значение: closeness, thickness
Тамильские производные: aḷḷal crowdedness, closeness; aḷḷāṭu (aḷḷāṭi-) to be close; aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to be dense, thickly interwoven; aḷam density, closeness
Малаялам: aḷ
Малаяльское значение: narrowness
Номер по DED: 0292
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: sharp
Тамильский: aḷ, aḷam
Тамильское значение: sharpness, keenness of edge
Малаялам: aḷ
Малаяльское значение: sharpness
Малаяльские производные: aḷḷay-āyi-pōka to become very thin and sharp
Номер по DED: 0293
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: to shake (body), wag
Тамильский: aḷḷai
Тамильское значение: side of the body
Каннада: aḷ, aḷḷu
Каннада значение: shaking, rising, and falling with alternate motions, heaving of the aḷḷe's
Каннада производные: aḷḷe that portion of the abdomen of man which is immediately below the costal margin, is regarded as a very tender spot, and heaves in quick breathing; the weak spot, tenderness, weakness; the flank of an animal; (Hav.) aḷañcu to agitate (liquid)
Тулу: aḷaṇṭuni
Тулу значение: to shake, move
Тулу производные: aḷḷè, allè the side, groin, hip
Пранильгирийский: *aḷ-
Номер по DED: 0294
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: sea; salt water
Тамильский: aḷam
Тамильское значение: saltpan, maritime tract, saline soil, sea
Тамильские производные: aḷakkar sea, ocean, saltpans; aḷatti woman of maritime tracts; aḷavar persons belonging to the caste of salt manufacturers; aḷar saltishness, brackishness; upp-aḷam saltpan, saline land; ump-aḷam saltpan
Малаялам: aḷam
Малаяльское значение: salt marsh, saltpan
Малаяльские производные: aḷakkar sea; upp-aḷam salt marsh; aḷavan a member of the caste of salt manufacturers
Номер по DED: 0299
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-
Значение: to fear
Тамильский: aḷukku (aḷukki-)
Тамильское значение: to be perturbed, frightened
Малаялам: aḷukkuka
Малаяльское значение: to start, shrink, cramp of limbs
Малаяльские производные: aḷukkam awe, fear; aḷarkka to lament, cry; aḷarcca bellowing; aḷappu shriek
Каннада: aḷar_, aḷaku, aḷiku, aḷuku, aḷku, aḷkar_
Каннада значение: to fear
Каннада производные: aḷar_isu, aḷakisu, aḷikisu to frighten; aḷar_, aḷaku, aḷku, aḷarpu fear, anguish; aḷasu sound in coitu
Тулу: alkuni, aḷkuni
Тулу значение: to be afraid, start, shudder
Тулу производные: alkụ timidity; timid, frightened
Номер по DED: 0306
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ăḷ-
Значение: hole
Тамильский: aḷai
Тамильское значение: anthill, hole in the ground, hollow in tree, cave
Малаялам: aḷa
Малаяльское значение: hole in trees, in the ground
Малаяльские производные: aḷḷāppu hollow, hole
Пранильгирийский: *aḷ-
Разное: KUR (LSB) aḷe hole
Номер по DED: 0308
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-a-
Значение: to measure
Тамильский: aḷa (-pp-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to measure, limit, define
Тамильские производные: aḷapu, aḷappam measurement; aḷappu id., bounds, limit; aḷavu measure, extent, size, number; aḷavi limit; aḷavai measure, bounds, limit; aḷavan_ one who measures the grain
Малаялам: aḷakka
Малаяльское значение: to measure
Малаяльские производные: aḷavu measure, capacity, measure of time; aḷattam measurement; aḷavan measurer
Каннада: aḷe (aḷad-, aḷed-)
Каннада значение: to measure; n. measure
Каннада производные: aḷate, aḷte measure, extent, measurement; aḷavu, aḷabu measure
Кодагу: aḷa- (aḷap-, aḷand-)
Кодагу значение: to measure
Кодагу производные: aḷate act of measuring
Тулу: aḷa
Тулу значение: measure, capacity
Тулу производные: aḷaka large basket for measuring rice; aḷakè, aḷatè measurement; aḷapuni to measure; lakkè measure, mark; lappu measuring, measurement; lappuni to measure; lappāvuni to cause to measure
Пранильгирийский: *aḷä-
Номер по DED: 0295
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-a-
Значение: to mix
Тамильский: aḷa (-pp-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to mingle, blend, talk together, hold converse, gossip
Тамильские производные: aḷappu chatter; aḷapp-aḷa to chatter; aḷavu (aḷavi-) to blend, mingle, mix; aḷav-aḷāvu to hold intimate intercourse, live socially, converse freely; n. intimacy; aḷāvu (aḷāvi-) to mingle, converse, hold social intercourse; stir (tr.); aḷi (-v-, -nt-) to mix, mingle; aḷai (-v-, -nt-) to be mixed, mingled; to mix up (tr.), mingle
Малаялам: aḷayuka
Малаяльское значение: to mix up, mingle
Каннада: aḷa, aḷavu, aḷavi
Каннада значение: joining, contact, contiguity, nearness
Тулу: aḷavuni
Тулу значение: to mix
Тулу производные: alamuni to mix with the hand; alavuni to mix, temper; alavu steel; allāvuni to mix; alejuni, alejjuni to mix, mingle, be united; alejāvuni to cause to mingle
Номер по DED: 0296
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ala- ~ *alai-
Значение: to suffer
Тамильский: ala (-pp-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to suffer, be in distress, suffer privation, be in want
Тамильские производные: alam distress, pain, misery; alappu confusion of mind; alantalai distress, vexation, confusion; alantai trouble; alantōn_ one who is in distress; alati-kulati disorder, confusion; alaŋku (alaŋki-) to be agitated in mind, troubled; alacu (alaci-) to suffer, be distressed, be exhausted, become weary; alamaru (alamari-) to be agitated, distressed; alamala (-pp-, -nt-) to be confused, dazed, be anxious; alampal vexation, trouble; alavu (alavi-) to be troubled in mind; n. confusion, perturbation; alavalai hasty action, confusion of mind, distress; alu (-pp-, -tt-) to be weary, tired by overwork or care; aluppu weariness, exhaustion; aluval business, affair; alai (-v-, -nt-) to be harassed, wander in weariness, (-pp-, -tt-) to harass, vex, afflict, annoy; n. oppression; alaicu (alaici-) to be lazy; alaiccal weariness, vexation; alaippu disturbance, distress, trouble; alaivu mental agitation, trouble, distress; allal affliction, distress; allā (-pp-, -nt-) to suffer, be in distress; n. distress; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to suffer
Малаялам: ala
Малаяльское значение: lamentation
Малаяльские производные: alaŋŋuka, alukka to be worn out, grow lean; aluppu weariness; alampal having enough of it, vexation; alayuka to be wearied; alaccal vexation, mourning; alasal, alaśal agitation, fatigue, disappointment; alasuka to be tired; alati troublesome; alappu confusion, stir, fright; alampu trouble; alampuka to be agitated, tired; aluval bustle, business; allal sorrow, grief; alla tumult, disturbance
Каннада: ala, alapu, alupu, alavu, alavike, alasike
Каннада значение: fatigue, weariness, trouble
Каннада производные: alapaṭe, lampaṭe, alasaṭe exhaustion, weariness, harassment; alasu to become weary, be tired, vexed, disgusted, loiter; n. weariness; ale to annoy, slight, disgrace; allari state of being troubled, disturbed, harassed
Кодагу: ala- (alap-, aland-)
Кодагу значение: to crave
Кодагу производные: alambalɨ hurry; ? alas- (alasi-) (curry, rice) becomes spoiled
Тулу: alasuni, alajuni
Тулу значение: to be fatigued, vexed, suffer griping pain
Тулу производные: alepuni, aleyuni, alevuni to be fatigued; alepāvuni to cause to tire, fatigue; alụmbe suffering; alubaŋga vexation, trouble; albe thin, weak, lean
Пранильгирийский: *al-ǝv-
Комментарии: In Tamil there exists evidence for at least three bisyllabic stems with similar semantics: ala-, alu-, alai-. The variant with -u- is the least well represented of the three and may be secondary (e. g., a back-formation from aluppu, which itself would be a reduced dialectal variant of *alappu). The other two, however, both find parallels outside of the Tamil-Malayalam area (cf. the Kan. opposition ala - ale), and the question is whether they go back to the same root or not. According to the general policy of DEDR, we would have to judge in favour of the former; in this particular case, however, even Burrow & Emeneau note that "these etyma and those s. v. Ta. alaŋku seem to have started from two roots with different basic meanings: suffer and move, shake". It seems, therefore, reasonable to trace *ala- back to a stem with the basic meaning 'suffer', and *alai- back to 'move, shake, dangle', with a whole bunch of derived forms (see *ala-ŋ-, *ala-ṭ-, etc.). For the same reason of numerous possible contaminations, however, that Burrow & Emeneau also complain about, we do not separate the forms in this database entry.
Номер по DED: 0236
Праюжно-дравидийский: *alag-
Значение: blade
Тамильский: alaku
Тамильское значение: blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow, weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp
Тамильские производные: alakku roof laths, a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves
Малаялам: alaku
Малаяльское значение: lath, splint, palm or bamboo leaf, weaver's staff, blade of sword, knife, or spear
Каннада: alagu, alugu
Каннада значение: blade of a knife, sword, etc.
Номер по DED: 0237
Праюжно-дравидийский: *alag-
Значение: jaw
Тамильский: alaku, (Tinn.) alavu
Тамильское значение: jaw, mandibles, bird's beak
Малаялам: alaku, alavu
Малаяльское значение: upper portion of the jawbone
Каннада: halaku
Каннада значение: the lower part of the cheek
Комментарии: In Kannaḍa *alagu would be expected; the form is probably dialectal, and initial h- may be explained as the result of contamination with (?) halaku 'toothed harrow' < hal < *pal 'tooth' (although several cases of apparently secondary h- in roots with vocalic anlaut are also seen in var. Kan. dialects). In any case, the word has no etymology outside South Dravidian.
Номер по DED: 0239
Праюжно-дравидийский: *alag-
Значение: grains of paddy
Тамильский: alaku
Тамильские производные: grains of paddy, ear of paddy or other grain
Комментарии: An isolated Tamil form with possible outside correspondences.
Номер по DED: 0255
Праюжно-дравидийский: *alai-
Значение: to wash
Тамильский: alampu (alampi-)
Тамильское значение: to wash, rinse
Тамильские производные: alacu (alaci-) to rinse; alaicu (alaici-) to wash, rinse; (RS) alaittal to wash clothes by moving them about in water
Малаялам: alakkuka
Малаяльское значение: to wash clothes by beating
Малаяльские производные: alakku washing; alampuka to shake clothes in water
Каннада: alambu, alumbu, alabu, alubu
Каннада значение: to rinse, wash
Каннада производные: ale to wash; alasu to shake or agitate in water (as a cloth, vegetables, etc., for cleansing)
Тулу: alambuni
Тулу значение: to wash
Тулу производные: alumbuni, lumbuni to plunge, wash, rinse
Пранильгирийский: *al_-ǝp-
Комментарии: Auslaut *-ai- is clearly seen in such forms as Tam. alai-cu (alongside the less archaic ala-cu) and, of course, Kan. ale. In most cases, however, the original stem has been extended by means of the suffix *-mb-, with PSDR *-ai- neutralised in this position (*alai-mb- > *alamb-).
Номер по DED: 0246
Праюжно-дравидийский: *al-ai-
Значение: to slap
Тамильский: alai (-pp-, -tt-)
Тамильское значение: to beat, slap
Номер по DED: 2374
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-ai
Значение: buttermilk
Тамильский: aḷai
Тамильское значение: curds, curdled milk, buttermilk, butter
Тамильские производные: aḷḷi butter
Каннада: aḷe
Каннада значение: buttermilk
Тулу: alè, aḷè
Тулу значение: buttermilk
Номер по DED: 2411
Праюжно-дравидийский: *alai- ~ *alaŋ-
Значение: to move, shake
Тамильский: alaŋku (alaŋki-)
Тамильское значение: to move, shake, swing, dangle, be in motion
Тамильские производные: alaŋkal wreath, waving ear of corn; alakku (alakki-) to cause to move, shake; alacu (alaci-) to shake, be agitated; alamaru to whirl; alampu (alampi-) to move, wabble (as water in a vessel not full), swerve from a proper line of conduct, fluctuate, wander; cause to wander on account of panic; aluŋku (aluŋki-) to shake (intr.) slightly; alukku (alukki-) to shake (tr.) slightly; strut, swagger; alai (-v-, -nt-) to wave, shake, move (as a reflection in water), go to and fro for an object, roam, wander, stagger, totter; (-pp-, -tt-) to move (tr.), shake, cause to wander back and forth; n. wave, billow, ripple; alaiccal, alaical wandering; alaicu (alaici-) to shake (tr.), agitate; alaippu moving, shaking; alaiyal wandering, waving; alaivu moving, shaking, waving; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to wander from place to place
Малаялам: ala
Малаяльское значение: wave
Малаяльские производные: alukka, alaŋŋuka to shake; alaŋŋal commotion; aluŋŋal stir; alukkuka to agitate; alayuka to fluctuate, be tossed, roam; alekkuka to beat against (as waves on a shore); anaŋŋuka to move, shake; anakkuka to shake, fan, excite; anakkam moving, shaking
Каннада: alaku, alagu, aluku, alugu, aluŋgu, aḷaku, aḷuku, aḷku
Каннада значение: to move about, shake, be shaky, tremble
Каннада производные: alacu, alasu, alagisu, alugisu to shake (tr.); ale to move about, move to and fro, shake, dangle, wander; shake (tr.); n. wave, billow; aleta act of wandering, etc.; allāḍu to be agitated, shake, move, swing
Тулу: alaŋkuni, alaŋguni
Тулу значение: to shake (tr.), agitate, wave, move; be agitated
Тулу производные: alaŋkāvuni to cause to shake, perturb, confuse; alambuni to shake, be agitated as water; alagụ, alagu tremulousness of the voice in singing; alaguni to shake (intr.); alacuni to move (intr.), shake; alasuni, alajuni to agitate (tr.), shake; alajāvuni to shake (tr.); aluguni to move; alejuni, alejjuni to be agitated, disturbed; alejāvuni to cause to shake; aleyuni, alevuni to wander; landuni to lead a vagabond's life; landele a vagabond, vagrant
Пранильгирийский: *alǝ-/*alä-
Разное: IRU lē- (lend-) to roam, wander
Комментарии: Burrow & Emeneau rightly state that the root must have undergone severe contamination with *ala- 'to suffer'. The different forms are even harder to disentangle because of the root's high productivity: derivate stems *ala-ŋ-, *ala-mb-, and *ala-s- all go back to at least PSDR and probably even further back.
Номер по DED: 0240
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷak-
Значение: water; a k. of fluid
Тамильский: aḷakam
Тамильское значение: water
Каннада: aḷaka, aḷḷaka
Каннада значение: neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids
Номер по DED: 0298
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