Тамильское значение:number, calculation, cowries (as signs of number in reckoning)
Кодагу значение:(Mercara) cowrie
Комментарии:A strange Tamil-Kodagu isogloss; perhaps an external source should be located.
Номер по DED:0238
Тамильское значение:handful, anything contained within the hollow of the hand
Тамильские производные:aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to take up in the hollow of the hand; n. handful of grain given on the threshing floor or in the bazaar as perquisite
Малаяльское значение:to take up with the hollow of the hand
Комментарии:In DEDR these forms are compared with PNDR *lā̆p- 'to measure with handful(s)'. That stem, however, fits in much better morphologically with PSDR *aḷa- 'to measure' (cf., in particular, such Tulu forms as aḷapuni, lappu, etc.). Yet it is not excluded that both stems are, in fact, the same, with Tamil aḷ simply preserving the original monosyllabic variant.
Тамильские производные:aḷḷal crowdedness, closeness; aḷḷāṭu (aḷḷāṭi-) to be close; aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to be dense, thickly interwoven; aḷam density, closeness
Номер по DED:0292
Тамильское значение:sharpness, keenness of edge
Малаяльские производные:aḷḷay-āyi-pōka to become very thin and sharp
Номер по DED:0293
Значение:to shake (body), wag
Тамильское значение:side of the body
Каннада значение:shaking, rising, and falling with alternate motions, heaving of the aḷḷe's
Каннада производные:aḷḷe that portion of the abdomen of man which is immediately below the costal margin, is regarded as a very tender spot, and heaves in quick breathing; the weak spot, tenderness, weakness; the flank of an animal; (Hav.) aḷañcu to agitate (liquid)
Тулу значение:to shake, move
Тулу производные:aḷḷè, allè the side, groin, hip
Тамильские производные:aḷakkar sea, ocean, saltpans; aḷatti woman of maritime tracts; aḷavar persons belonging to the caste of salt manufacturers; aḷar saltishness, brackishness; upp-aḷam saltpan, saline land; ump-aḷam saltpan
Малаяльское значение:salt marsh, saltpan
Малаяльские производные:aḷakkar sea; upp-aḷam salt marsh; aḷavan a member of the caste of salt manufacturers
Тулу производные:aḷaka large basket for measuring rice; aḷakè, aḷatè measurement; aḷapuni to measure; lakkè measure, mark; lappu measuring, measurement; lappuni to measure; lappāvuni to cause to measure
Тамильское значение:to mingle, blend, talk together, hold converse, gossip
Тамильские производные:aḷappu chatter; aḷapp-aḷa to chatter; aḷavu (aḷavi-) to blend, mingle, mix; aḷav-aḷāvu to hold intimate intercourse, live socially, converse freely; n. intimacy; aḷāvu (aḷāvi-) to mingle, converse, hold social intercourse; stir (tr.); aḷi (-v-, -nt-) to mix, mingle; aḷai (-v-, -nt-) to be mixed, mingled; to mix up (tr.), mingle
Тамильское значение:to suffer, be in distress, suffer privation, be in want
Тамильские производные:alam distress, pain, misery; alappu confusion of mind; alantalai distress, vexation, confusion; alantai trouble; alantōn_ one who is in distress; alati-kulati disorder, confusion; alaŋku (alaŋki-) to be agitated in mind, troubled; alacu (alaci-) to suffer, be distressed, be exhausted, become weary; alamaru (alamari-) to be agitated, distressed; alamala (-pp-, -nt-) to be confused, dazed, be anxious; alampal vexation, trouble; alavu (alavi-) to be troubled in mind; n. confusion, perturbation; alavalai hasty action, confusion of mind, distress; alu (-pp-, -tt-) to be weary, tired by overwork or care; aluppu weariness, exhaustion; aluval business, affair; alai (-v-, -nt-) to be harassed, wander in weariness, (-pp-, -tt-) to harass, vex, afflict, annoy; n. oppression; alaicu (alaici-) to be lazy; alaiccal weariness, vexation; alaippu disturbance, distress, trouble; alaivu mental agitation, trouble, distress; allal affliction, distress; allā (-pp-, -nt-) to suffer, be in distress; n. distress; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to suffer
Малаяльские производные:alaŋŋuka, alukka to be worn out, grow lean; aluppu weariness; alampal having enough of it, vexation; alayuka to be wearied; alaccal vexation, mourning; alasal, alaśal agitation, fatigue, disappointment; alasuka to be tired; alati troublesome; alappu confusion, stir, fright; alampu trouble; alampuka to be agitated, tired; aluval bustle, business; allal sorrow, grief; alla tumult, disturbance
Каннада производные:alapaṭe, lampaṭe, alasaṭe exhaustion, weariness, harassment; alasu to become weary, be tired, vexed, disgusted, loiter; n. weariness; ale to annoy, slight, disgrace; allari state of being troubled, disturbed, harassed
Комментарии:In Tamil there exists evidence for at least three bisyllabic stems with similar semantics: ala-, alu-, alai-. The variant with -u- is the least well represented of the three and may be secondary (e. g., a back-formation from aluppu, which itself would be a reduced dialectal variant of *alappu). The other two, however, both find parallels outside of the Tamil-Malayalam area (cf. the Kan. opposition ala - ale), and the question is whether they go back to the same root or not. According to the general policy of DEDR, we would have to judge in favour of the former; in this particular case, however, even Burrow & Emeneau note that "these etyma and those s. v. Ta. alaŋku seem to have started from two roots with different basic meanings: suffer and move, shake". It seems, therefore, reasonable to trace *ala- back to a stem with the basic meaning 'suffer', and *alai- back to 'move, shake, dangle', with a whole bunch of derived forms (see *ala-ŋ-, *ala-ṭ-, etc.). For the same reason of numerous possible contaminations, however, that Burrow & Emeneau also complain about, we do not separate the forms in this database entry.
Тамильское значение:blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow, weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp
Тамильские производные:alakku roof laths, a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves
Малаяльское значение:lath, splint, palm or bamboo leaf, weaver's staff, blade of sword, knife, or spear
Каннада значение:blade of a knife, sword, etc.
Номер по DED:0237
Тамильский:alaku, (Tinn.) alavu
Тамильское значение:jaw, mandibles, bird's beak
Малаяльское значение:upper portion of the jawbone
Каннада значение:the lower part of the cheek
Комментарии:In Kannaḍa *alagu would be expected; the form is probably dialectal, and initial h- may be explained as the result of contamination with (?) halaku 'toothed harrow' < hal < *pal 'tooth' (although several cases of apparently secondary h- in roots with vocalic anlaut are also seen in var. Kan. dialects). In any case, the word has no etymology outside South Dravidian.
Комментарии:Auslaut *-ai- is clearly seen in such forms as Tam. alai-cu (alongside the less archaic ala-cu) and, of course, Kan. ale. In most cases, however, the original stem has been extended by means of the suffix *-mb-, with PSDR *-ai- neutralised in this position (*alai-mb- > *alamb-).
Тамильское значение:to move, shake, swing, dangle, be in motion
Тамильские производные:alaŋkal wreath, waving ear of corn; alakku (alakki-) to cause to move, shake; alacu (alaci-) to shake, be agitated; alamaru to whirl; alampu (alampi-) to move, wabble (as water in a vessel not full), swerve from a proper line of conduct, fluctuate, wander; cause to wander on account of panic; aluŋku (aluŋki-) to shake (intr.) slightly; alukku (alukki-) to shake (tr.) slightly; strut, swagger; alai (-v-, -nt-) to wave, shake, move (as a reflection in water), go to and fro for an object, roam, wander, stagger, totter; (-pp-, -tt-) to move (tr.), shake, cause to wander back and forth; n. wave, billow, ripple; alaiccal, alaical wandering; alaicu (alaici-) to shake (tr.), agitate; alaippu moving, shaking; alaiyal wandering, waving; alaivu moving, shaking, waving; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to wander from place to place
Малаяльские производные:alukka, alaŋŋuka to shake; alaŋŋal commotion; aluŋŋal stir; alukkuka to agitate; alayuka to fluctuate, be tossed, roam; alekkuka to beat against (as waves on a shore); anaŋŋuka to move, shake; anakkuka to shake, fan, excite; anakkam moving, shaking
Каннада значение:to move about, shake, be shaky, tremble
Каннада производные:alacu, alasu, alagisu, alugisu to shake (tr.); ale to move about, move to and fro, shake, dangle, wander; shake (tr.); n. wave, billow; aleta act of wandering, etc.; allāḍu to be agitated, shake, move, swing
Тулу значение:to shake (tr.), agitate, wave, move; be agitated
Тулу производные:alaŋkāvuni to cause to shake, perturb, confuse; alambuni to shake, be agitated as water; alagụ, alagu tremulousness of the voice in singing; alaguni to shake (intr.); alacuni to move (intr.), shake; alasuni, alajuni to agitate (tr.), shake; alajāvuni to shake (tr.); aluguni to move; alejuni, alejjuni to be agitated, disturbed; alejāvuni to cause to shake; aleyuni, alevuni to wander; landuni to lead a vagabond's life; landele a vagabond, vagrant
Комментарии:Burrow & Emeneau rightly state that the root must have undergone severe contamination with *ala- 'to suffer'. The different forms are even harder to disentangle because of the root's high productivity: derivate stems *ala-ŋ-, *ala-mb-, and *ala-s- all go back to at least PSDR and probably even further back.
Номер по DED:0240
Значение:water; a k. of fluid
Каннада значение:neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids