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Южнодравидийская этимология :

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Праюжно-дравидийский: *adiral-
Значение: wild jasmine
Тамильский: atiral
Тамильское значение: wild jasmine, kāṭṭumallikai (= Jasminum angustifolium)
Тулу: edroḷi
Тулу значение: the creeper J. angustifolium
Комментарии: A Tamil-Tulu isogloss displaying typical "botanic correspondences" (i. e. strange dialectal irregularities). Tulu e- obviously has to do with -i- in the second syllable, but the very development *-i- > -0- in a three (if not four)-syllable-long word is quite exceptional.
Номер по DED: 0138
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍu-
Значение: to be fit
Тамильский: aṭu (-pp-, -tt-)
Тамильское значение: to be fit, becoming, deserving
Тамильские производные: aṭaivu fitness, propriety, order, manner, course; (?) aṇṭu (aṇṭi-) to fit, be appropriate to
Малаялам: aṭukka
Малаяльское значение: to beseem, become [i. e. be becoming to], be proportionate to
Малаяльские производные: aṭavu regular custom, dexterity, perfection; aṭavi dexterity, cleverness
Каннада: aḍagu
Каннада значение: the state of being fit, agreeableness, beauty
Каннада производные: aḍavu suitableness, properness, proper way, the state of being sufficient; aṭṭu fitting, being becoming or proper; ? (Hav.) eḍi to be able to do
Комментарии: The origin of forms like Tam. aṭai-vu is unclear (a different verbal stem *aḍai-, not preserved by itself?). Tamil aṇṭu hardly belongs here; no other Dravidian language has a nasal in this root, so it may have been a secondary contamination with *aṇai- "to approach, come near".
Номер по DED: 0078
Праюжно-дравидийский: *adu-
Значение: to be perplexed
Каннада: aduhu
Каннада значение: to be perplexed, suffer doubt, become suspicious
Комментарии: The only known outside parallels are found in Kui-Kuwi (PKK *ada-).
Номер по DED: 0139
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍu- ~ *aḍi- ~ *aḍar-
Значение: to pound, beat; to kill
Тамильский: aṭu (aṭuv-, aṭṭ-)
Тамильское значение: to pound (as rice), kill, destroy, conquer
Тамильские производные: āṭu killing, ruining, victory; aṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to beat, strike, dash against, strike, defeat, overcome, slay, punish; n. blow, stroke; aṭar (-v-, -nt-) to beat, strike, mould by beating; (-pp-, -tt-) to attack, kill, destroy; n. troubling, oppressing; thin flat plate of metal, esp. gold; aṭal killing, murdering; aṭalai battle, trouble, distress; (PR) aṭarppu attack
Малаялам: aṭi
Малаяльское значение: blow, stroke
Малаяльские производные: aṭikka to beat, strike; aṭippu printing, stamping, coining; aṭiccal beating; aṭal a fight; aṭalār enemies; aṭar war; aṭanta a mode of beating time in music
Каннада: aḍacu
Каннада значение: to rap, cuff
Каннада производные: aḍar to pounce upon, rush at (as dogs, etc., do); aḍaru an attack; aḍi beating, a blow; aḍe to strike or throw with finger; aṇe to strike, push, drive; to strike or propel with the fingers
Кодагу: aḍi- (aḍip-, aḍic-)
Кодагу значение: (lightning) strikes (song word)
Тулу: aḍikai
Тулу значение: defeated, vanquished
Тулу производные: aṇepuni to push, strike against; darpuni to thrash, beat, strike, break; dartele, darpele a striker, breaker; dartelụ breakage, what is broken
Пранильгирийский: *aḍ-ĭ-
Номер по DED: 0077
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍu- ~ *aḍai-
Значение: to approach; to reach
Тамильский: aṭu (-pp-, -tt-)
Тамильское значение: to be next, near, approach, come in contact with, seek protection; to join (tr.), join together; to happen, occur
Тамильские производные: aṭai (-v-, -nt-) to reach, arrive at, take refuge in, go to roost, sit on eggs as a hen, obtain, get, enjoy; (-pp-, -tt-) to lease, entrust, bestow; n. joining, delivering, conveying, resort, refuge, deposit, incubation; aṭaippu lease; aṭaivu pledge, help, aid, refuge, perching place for birds; aṭaikkalam refuge, shelter, deposit; aṭaku, aṭaimān_am pledge, property mortgaged; aṭaiyal reaching; aṭaiccu (aṭaicci-) to put, place, insert (as flowers in the hair); aṭaicu (aṭaici-) to be joined, placed; aṭṭu (aṭṭi-) to put, place, put on
Малаялам: aṭuka (aṭṭu)
Малаяльское значение: to come into contact, come to be close upon
Малаяльские производные: aṭukka to come nigh, approach, close; aṭuppikka to bring near; aṭuppam, aṭuppu nearness; aṭakkaḷam shelter; aṭayuka to get into, come into possession, obtain; aṭekka to take in, receive, collect, pay in; aṭakkam possession, enjoyment; aṭa incubation; bail, pledge; shelter, refuge; aṭavu money that has come to hand; aṭamānam a pawn, mortgage
Каннада: aḍar
Каннада значение: to be united or joined with, arise, come, appear
Каннада производные: aḍarcu to bring together, set in readiness, prepare; aḍasu to join, be joined with, unite with, be near to, associate oneself to; aḍe to obtain, get; n. trust; aḍavu, aḍapu pawn, pledge, deposit, mortgage; aṭṭu to be within reach, keep close to, follow, run after, pursue; to put; n. closeness, pursuing, putting, placing
Кодагу: aḍɨ- (aḍɨp-, aḍɨt-)
Кодагу значение: to approach
Тулу: aḍavu, aḍāvu
Тулу значение: mortgage, pledge
Тулу производные: aḍepuni, aḍevuni to roost, perch; aṭṭuni to put
Пранильгирийский: *aḍ-
Номер по DED: 0079
Праюжно-дравидийский: *adum-
Значение: to grind; to press, squeeze
Тамильский: atakku (atakki-)
Тамильское значение: to grind, rub in the hand, press softly as fruit, cram in the mouth as betel, subdue, subject, control
Тамильские производные: atavu to kill, attack; atuŋku (atuŋki-) to be forced out or in by pressure, be stuffed in, compressed; atukku (atukki-) to press with fingers (as a ripe fruit or boil), squeeze, pinch (as the stomach in grief), bite (as one's lips), chew, stuff into the mouth; n. state of being pressed in (as of parts of a vessel); atukkam reduced condition (as of a boil)
Малаялам: atakkuka
Малаяльское значение: to cram down, turn betel in the mouth
Малаяльские производные: atukkuka to squeeze
Каннада: adaku, adapu, adamu, adimu, adugu, adupu, adubu, adumu
Каннада значение: to press, compress, squeeze, cram; to be depressed, bruised (as a metal vessel)
Каннада производные: adakisu, adugisu, adumisu to cause to press, etc.; adaku a bruise in a metal vessel; adugu to be mollified by being pressed with the fingers; adugisu to mollify by pressing
Комментарии: The presence of an inlaut *-m- in this root is well confirmed by external data. We have, therefore, to regard Kannaḍa forms like adamu, adimu, adumu as the most archaic, despite the confusing mixture of dialectal forms. In Tamil a form like *atumu would be impossible since -umu can only be found after resonants (cf. ur_umu, kuẓumu etc.); it is possible that Kan. adumu = Tam. atavu, with secondary loss of nasalisation in Tamil (although the 2nd syllable vowel is still irregular). However, the original *atum- may have yielded atuŋ- when combined with the intransitive suffix: *atum- + *-ŋ- > atuŋku, and atukk- when combined with the corresponding transitive suffix. The form atakku is then either dialectal or due to contamination with aṭakku 'control, repress, conceal' (cf. the spectrum of meanings).
Номер по DED: 0133
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍu[-ŋ-/-k]
Значение: to pile up
Тамильский: aṭukku (aṭukki-)
Тамильское значение: to pile up one on top of another, heap up in order; n. pile, series, row, tier
Тамильские производные: aṭukkam pile, tier, range of mountains, mountain slope; aṭukkal series, mountain
Малаялам: aṭukku
Малаяльское значение: row, pile, layer
Малаяльские производные: aṭukkuka to pile up; aṭukkam a plain, field
Каннада: aḍaku, aḍuku
Каннада значение: to pack, pile as pots, heap up
Каннада производные: aḍakil, aḍikil piling up, a pile
Кодагу: aḍaŋg- (aḍaŋgi-)
Кодагу значение: to be piled in order, filling space
Кодагу производные: aḍak- (aḍaki-) to heap in order, filling space, to arrange formally
Пранильгирийский: *aḍǝ-
Номер по DED: 0080
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍV-
Значение: flesh, meat
Каннада: aḍagu, aḍabala
Каннада значение: flesh, meat
Комментарии: Phonetically = Tam. aṭaku "greens", but semantically the connection is somewhat dubious. Cf. also Mlt. aṛage.
Номер по DED: 0060
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍV
Значение: exclamation, interjection
Тамильский: aṭā
Тамильское значение: excl. addressed familiarly to an inferior or a child and in contempt to an enemy
Тамильские производные: aṭi excl. used in addressing women in a familiar manner; aṭē excl. of calling
Малаялам: aṭanna, fem. aṭī, hon. aṭō
Малаяльское значение: interj. calling persons of lower rank
Каннада: aḍa aḍā
Каннада значение: = Tamil aṭā, aṭē
Номер по DED: 0070
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḍVnd- (?)
Значение: a k. of tree
Пранильгирийский: *aḍǝd-
Комментарии: A Nilgiri isogloss.
Номер по DED: 0092
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aga-
Значение: to press, afflict
Каннада: agacu, agucu, agusu
Каннада значение: to press firmly, confine, hold firmly
Каннада производные: agacāṭ(a)lu, agacāṭ(a)le, agacāṭu affliction, trouble
Номер по DED: 0002
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aga-
Значение: inside
Тамильский: akam
Тамильское значение: inside, house, place, agricultural tract, breast, mind
Тамильские производные: akattān_ one who is in, householder; ōr-akatti, ōr-akattāḷ husband's brother's wife [i. e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself]; akakkāẓ, akaŋkāẓ heart of a tree; akaŋkai, aŋkai palm of the hand; aka-ppaṭu to be included, be obtained; akaṭu interior, belly, middle, impartiality; akaṇi inside, interior, agricultural tract; akappu depth; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; akavai inside, age within a certain limit; a locative ending; akalam breast; ākam body, breast, mind, heart
Малаялам: akam
Малаяльское значение: inside, abode, house, room
Малаяльские производные: akattu within, in the house; akattān master of the house; akattāḷ mistress of the house; akattōn indoor servant; fem. akattōḷ; akaŋkai palm of hand; akaŋkāl sole of foot; akā, akāyi inside of house, room; akaṭu, akiṭu udder; aka-ppeṭuka, āppeṭuka to get into, be caught, befall; aka-ppeṭukka to catch
Каннада: aŋ-gāl
Каннада значение: sole of the foot
Каннада производные: ōragitti, vāragitti husband's brother's wife; aŋ-gey palm of the hand; āge, āga in, into
Кодагу: aŋgay
Кодагу значение: palm of hand
Кодагу производные: aŋgālɨ sole of foot
Тулу: aŋgai
Тулу значение: palm of the hand
Тулу производные: aŋgārụ sole of the foot
Пранильгирийский: *ak-
Номер по DED: 0007
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aga-
Значение: to sound (as a peacock)
Тамильский: akavu (akavi-)
Тамильское значение: to utter a sound as a peacock, sing, dance as a peacock, call, summon
Тамильские производные: akavar bards who arouse the king in the morning; akaval calling, addressing, screech of a peacock, high tone, n. of a metre; akavalan_ bard of the Pāṇar caste; akavunar dancers, singers
Малаялам: akaval
Малаяльское значение: screech of a peacock, name of a metre in Tamil
Малаяльские производные: akar_uka, akir_uka to roar, bellow, children to cry; akar_al, akir_al, akir_cca roaring, bellowing
Комментарии: An onomatopoeic Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Номер по DED: 0010
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agaḍ-u
Значение: wicked, mean
Тамильский: akaṭu
Тамильское значение: wickedness
Каннада: agaḍu
Каннада значение: viciousness, savageness, meanness
Номер по DED: 0004
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agai-
Значение: to break
Тамильский: akai (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to be broken, crumpled, suffer
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to break, cut in pieces, beat, trouble, oppress
Номер по DED: 0016
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agai- / *aggai
Значение: to sprout, flourish
Тамильский: akai (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to flourish, sprout
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to sprout, rise; to raise; akaippu rising, elevation
Малаялам: aka
Малаяльское значение: germ, bud, shoot
Малаяльские производные: akekka to bud; ava bud, esp. the fruit-like sprout of Artocarpus; avekka to sprout
Каннада: age
Каннада значение: seedling, shoot from the root of a plant or tree, sprout
Кодагу: age
Кодагу значение: paddy seedling
Тулу: agge
Тулу значение: the shoot of a branch
Номер по DED: 0015
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agal-
Значение: to spread
Тамильский: akal (akalv-, akan_r_-)
Тамильское значение: to spread, widen, extend, depart, go away
Тамильские производные: akalam, (Tinn.) avalam width, extent, expanse, greatness, earth, sky; akali (-pp-, -tt-) to broaden out, enlarge (intr.); akaluḷ width, expanse, greatness, earth, town, village, country; akalvu extent, expanse; akar_ci breadth, separation, ascetic life; akar_r_u (akar_r_i-) to widen (tr.), broaden, extend, remove, expel, banish; akar_al extension; akavu (akavi-) to become long, lengthen out; ālam breadth; ār_r_u (ār_r_i-) to remove, put away; ān_r_a wide; ān_r_al extension, width
Малаялам: akaluka
Малаяльское значение: to become extended, distant, part, retire
Малаяльские производные: akalca separation, distance; akar_r_uka to extend (tr.), open, remove, put away; akattuka to distend; akalam breadth, distance; ālam breadth; akala, akalē far off, aside
Каннада: agal (agald-)
Каннада значение: to be spacious, extensive, separate from, go away
Каннада производные: agala space, width, extension; agalike separation from; agalcu to spread out, remove; agundale extensiveness, greatness; (PBh.) agunti greatness, vastness
Тулу: agapuni
Тулу значение: to depart; to separate (tr.), to extend
Тулу производные: agapāvuni to send away, cause to depart; agela breadth; (B-K.) agelụ to go apart, widen
Пранильгирийский: *ag-
Комментарии: The auslaut -al - on SDR grounds at least - forms part of the root (Tamil ālam < dial. *agalam; Toda ox in ox ɨn-, etc. may be a contraction from earlier *oxl- < *agal-).
Номер по DED: 0008
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agal
Значение: small earthen pot
Тамильский: akal
Тамильское значение: small earthen pot having a wide mouth, hollow earthen lamp, a measure of capacity
Тамильские производные: akaḷam jar, large earthen pot, bucket, body of the lute as shaped like a bowl; āl earthen vessel
Малаялам: akal
Малаяльское значение: small earthen lamp or pot having a wide mouth
Каннада: agal
Каннада значение: a metal plate used for eating
Каннада производные: (Hav.) aguḷi a kind of flat vessel
Тулу: agoli, agoḷi
Тулу значение: a large vessel
Номер по DED: 0009
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agapai
Значение: ladle
Тамильский: akappai, āppai
Тамильское значение: ladle, large spoon with long handle, usually of coco-nut shell
Малаялам: akappa, akappān, āppa
Малаяльское значение: ladle
Каннада: agape, āpe, hāpe
Каннада значение: scoop or ladle, made of a coco-nut shell or of wood
Комментарии: Kannada āpe is re-borrowed from Tamil (Kannada does not normally tolerate loss of inlaut *-g-).
Номер по DED: 0006
Праюжно-дравидийский: *agasai
Значение: common flax
Каннада: agase
Каннада значение: common flax, Linum usitatissimum Lin.
Тулу: agase-nārụ
Тулу значение: common flax
Номер по DED: 0003
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