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Южнодравидийская этимология :

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\data\drav\sdret
Праюжно-дравидийский: *avi-
Значение: to repress; to perish
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: avi (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to become repressed, subdued, cease, desist from action, become extinguished, fail, diminish, perish
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to suppress, repress, subdue, extinguish, destroy; avivu extinction, annihilation; navi (-pp-, -tt-), naviẓ (-pp-, -tt-) to extinguish
Малаялам: avikka, amikka
Малаяльское значение: to destroy
Каннада: avi
Каннада значение: to go out, be extinguished, perish
Пранильгирийский: *avĭ-
Комментарии: Tamil navi and naviẓ are a rather obvious result of contamination between this stem and PSDR *navai- ~ *namai- 'to trouble, etc.'.
Номер по DED: 0267
Праюжно-дравидийский: *avi-
Значение: to boil
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: avi (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming, swelter
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to boil in a liquid, cook by boiling or by steaming; n. boiled rice, food; aviyal boiling, cooking, food, swelter, sultriness; avai (-pp-, -tt-) to cook, boil; aviẓ boiled rice; (Tinn.) aviyalu a kind of vegetable curry
Малаялам: aviyuka
Малаяльское значение: to boil on fire, be digested
Малаяльские производные: avikka, amikka to boil, digest; aviyal a kind of vegetable curry; boiling, cooking
Номер по DED: 0268
Праюжно-дравидийский: *av-i-
Значение: to rot
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: avi (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to ferment (as decayed fruit, vegetable matter, manure heaps)
Тамильские производные: avical that which is decayed
Малаялам: aviyuka
Малаяльское значение: to rot, spoil (as fruits laid on a heap)
Малаяльские производные: avikka, amikka to produce rotting (as of fruits for distillation)
Каннада: avi
Каннада значение: to rot, be spoiled, damaged
Номер по DED: 2341
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aviri
Значение: indigo plant
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aviri, avuri
Тамильское значение: indigo plant, Indigofera tinctoria
Малаялам: amari, avari
Малаяльское значение: indigo plant, Indigofera tinctoria
Комментарии: The variant aviri is considered primary only because it is also found in the same form in Telugu.
Номер по DED: 0269
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aviẓ-
Значение: grain of boiled rice
Тамильский: aviẓ
Тамильское значение: single grain of boiled rice
Каннада: avuḍu
Каннада значение: a grain of anything
Каннада производные: agaḷu, aguḷu a grain of boiled rice, a small lump of rice kneaded into a ball
Разное: KOR (O) avrɨ cooked rice
Комментарии: Kan. aguḷu is a regular (but apparently dialectal) development from *avuẓu < *aviẓ-u. The form itself is a rather apparent derivative from *avi- 'to boil'; the reason for the separation in DEDR is not quite clear (especially considering that Tam. aviẓ 'boiled rice' obviously the same word! - is found under *avi- as well.)
Номер по DED: 0270
Праюжно-дравидийский: *avuḷi-
Значение: pomfret
Тамильский: avuḷiyā
Тамильское значение: pomfret, Stromatens
Малаялам: āvōli, āvēli, ākōli
Малаяльское значение: Stromatens
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with the usual "botanical irregularities".
Номер по DED: 0272
Праюжно-дравидийский: *avuẓ-
Значение: loose
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aviẓ (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to become loose, untied
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to loosen, untie, unpack
Каннада: agal
Каннада значение: to become loose
Каннада производные: agulu to become loose as a peg
Комментарии: In Kannaḍa we have the regular neutralisation *-m-, *-v- > -g- before -uẓ- (cf. also PSDR *amuẓ-).
Номер по DED: 0014
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓ- ~ *aẓai-
Значение: to cry
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aẓu (-v-, -t-)
Тамильское значение: to cry, weep, lament
Тамильские производные: aẓai (-pp-, -tt-) to call, cry out, summon; n. crying, weeping; aẓukuṇi tearful person, one who is always crying; aẓukai pathetic sentiment; aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-) to weep; aẓuŋkal loud noise, uproar
Малаялам: aẓuka
Малаяльское значение: to weep, cry
Малаяльские производные: aẓaykkuka to shout, cry out
Каннада: aẓ, aẓu (aẓt-, att-)
Каннада значение: to weep, cry
Каннада производные: aẓ, aẓu, aẓa, aẓke, arke, akke weeping, lamenting; aẓasu, aẓisu to make to cry; aẓuvike crying; aẓukuḷi an easily crying or fretful person
Тулу: arpini
Тулу значение: to weep, cry
Тулу производные: arpāṭa lamentation; arpele one easily moved to tears, a fretful person; leppuni to call, invite; leppu, lāvu a cry
Пранильгирийский: *aṛ-
Комментарии: Two stems - one monosyllabic, one ending in *-ai- - are clearly seen throughout SDR, as far as Tulu, where the latter is syncopated (*aẓai-puni > leppuni).
Номер по DED: 0282
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓag-
Значение: beauty
Тамильский: aẓaku
Тамильское значение: beauty, happiness, excellence
Тамильские производные: aẓakan_, aẓakiyan_, aẓakiyān_ handsome man; fem. aẓaki; aṇaŋku beauty, form (or with DEDR 116)
Малаялам: aẓaku
Малаяльское значение: beauty
Малаяльские производные: aẓakan handsome man; fem. aẓaki; aẓakiya fair
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss. Several roots with close semantics and phonetics exist in SDR, but it is unclear how to derive these particular forms from any of them.
Номер по DED: 0274
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓal-
Значение: to burn, shine
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aẓal (aẓalv-, aẓan_r-)
Тамильское значение: to burn, glow, shine, be acrid, become angry, envy; n. fire, flame, heat, pungency, rage
Тамильские производные: (Koll.) aṇal warmth; aẓalavan_, aẓalōn_ Agni, sun; aẓali fire; aẓalikkai burning smart; aẓar_ci burning sensation, pungency, rage, envy, inflammation in cattle; aẓar_r_u (aẓar_r_i-) to burn (tr.), heat, cause smarting (as a burn, caustic, poison), irritate; aẓar_r_i that which causes burning; aẓan_am heat, fire; aẓukku envy; aẓukkar_u (aẓakkar_i-) to be envious; aẓukkār_u envy; aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-) to suffer, be in distress, anguish, grieve, sorrow, regret; aẓuŋkal affliction, compassion, pity; aẓukkam care, anxiety, concern; aṭalai trouble, distress (prob. < Te.)
Малаялам: aẓal
Малаяльское значение: heat, fire, heat of pepper, brightness, inflammation, grief
Малаяльские производные: aẓaluka to burn (as a wound, the eye from pepper), be chafed, burn from grief, envy, or lust; aẓalca excessive heat, inflammation; aẓar_r_uka to burn as with pepper, afflict
Каннада: aẓal (aẓald-), aḍalu (< Te.)
Каннада значение: to grieve, be afflicted; n. grief
Каннада производные: aẓaṭu to be in anguish (as the sick in a violent fever); aẓalike state of being afflicted; aẓalcu to make sorrowful, harass; aẓkaja, akkaja envy, jealousy; (PBh.) aẓv- to burn
Тулу: arluni
Тулу значение: to burn, blaze, smart
Тулу производные: aratè, aradè heat, burning, impetuosity; (B-K.) areggālo hot season, summer
Пранильгирийский: *aṛǝl-
Комментарии: This DEDR entry obviously contains two different stems. One has to be reconstructed as PSDR *aẓal-, present ubiquitously with the original meaning 'to burn' (but always with the secondary semantics of 'smart' as well). The other is *aẓ[u]-k-, found almost exclusively in Tamil (possibly also in such Kannaḍa forms as aẓkaja, akkaja, but these may actually belong elsewhere, see Mal. aẓivu, etc.).
Номер по DED: 0276
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓi-
Значение: to perish, die
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aẓi (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to perish, be ruined, decay, be mutilated, fail, be defeated, suffer, be used up
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, spend, ruin, damage, efface, bring to a close; n. ruin, destruction; aẓipu, aẓippu destruction; aẓimpu evil deed; aẓimpan_ one who does evil; aẓivatu harm; aẓivu destruction, loss, immoral action, expenditure, defeat, distress; aẓan_, aẓan_am corpse (or with DEDR 284)
Малаялам: aẓiyuka
Малаяльское значение: to be destroyed, spent, sold, become loose, untied
Малаяльские производные: aẓikka to loose, waste, spend; aẓi, aẓivu, aẓiccal expense; aẓayuka to slacken (intr.); aẓekka to loosen, slacken
Каннада: aẓi
Каннада значение: to be ruined, be destroyed, perish, decay, disappear, die; to ruin, destroy, etc.; n. ruin, waste, damage, loss
Каннада производные: aẓipu, aẓavu, aẓivu, aẓusu, aẓiyisu, aẓisu, aẓicu, aẓupu to destroy; aẓipu, aẓivu, aẓihu, aẓupu, aẓuvu, aẓuhu, aẓvu ruin, destruction, death; aẓika destroyer; aẓikisu to efface, erase; (PBh.) aẓkāḍu to be consumed, finished; aḷar_u to be destroyed
Тулу: arpuni
Тулу значение: to efface, waste, obliterate
Тулу производные: aḷipuni, aḷiyuni, alipuni to perish, die, be destroyed, be ruined; aliyuni to perish, die, become extinct; alivu, aḷikaṭṭu, aḷiyantara extinction, ruin; areḍuni to spoil, corrupt, mar, destroy, ruin
Пранильгирийский: *aṛĭ-
Номер по DED: 0277
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓi
Значение: inlet or rivermouth
Тамильский: aẓi
Тамильское значение: place where the lagoon joins the sea
Тамильские производные: aẓi-vāy sandbank at the mouth of a river or harbour; aẓivi inlet to a backwater, mouth of a river; aẓivu mouth of a river
Малаялам: aẓi
Малаяльское значение: bar, rivermouth
Каннада: aẓave
Каннада значение: mouth of a river in which the tide ebbs and flows, bar
Тулу: aḷuve
Тулу значение: mouth of a river, harbour
Тулу производные: (B-K.) āṇa the entrance to a harbour
Разное: KOR (M) aḷūbāgalu the mouth of a river
Комментарии: More often met as a compound: *aẓi-vāj (where *vāj = 'mouth'), whence Kan. aẓave, Tulu aḷu-ve, etc., with vowel reduction in the 2nd syllable. In Koraga the compound is different: *aẓi-vāyil (see *vāɣil 'doorway, entrance'). No etymology outside of SDR.
Номер по DED: 0278
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓi
Значение: lattice
Тамильский: aẓi, aḷi
Тамильское значение: lattice
Малаялам: aẓi, aḷi
Малаяльское значение: bars of bamboo, lattice, trellis
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Номер по DED: 0279
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓi-, *aẓi-kar_ai
Значение: love, desire
PRNUM: PRNUM
Малаялам: aẓivu
Малаяльское значение: tenderness, love
Каннада: aẓipu
Каннада значение: (K2) desire, affection
Каннада производные: (Kitt.) aẓugu, aẓkar_ to love; aẓti, arti love, desire, a pleasant object; aẓkar_, akkar_e, akkar_a, akkar_u, akkasa love, affection
Тулу: arkame
Тулу значение: strong desire, eagerness
Тулу производные: (B-K.) akkare affection, fondness; (Männer) arti amusement, fun, curiosity, fondness (or with DEDR 381)
Пранильгирийский: *ark- (?)
Комментарии: This seems to be a rather variegated mix of forms, some of which may not belong here at all and some are almost certainly the result of interborrowings (most notably the Nilgiri forms like Toda arkyn, which clearly display the presence of dental -r- and could only have appeared under the influence of Kannaḍa dialects). The original form must have been the bisyllabic root *aẓi-; in Kannaḍa it served as the basis for the complex form *aẓi-kar_ai (second component unclear) > *aẓkar_e, which was later appropriated by neighbouring dialects.
Номер по DED: 0281
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓincil-
Значение: Alangium lamarckii
Тамильский: aẓiñcil, aẓiñcu, aṇiñcil
Тамильское значение: sage-leaved alangium, Alangium lamarckii
Малаялам: aẓiññil
Малаяльское значение: Alangium decapetalum
Малаяльские производные: araññil the buttress tree (? = aẓiññil)
Комментарии: If Skt. aŋkola- 'Alangium hexapetalum' is indeed an old borrowing from Dravidian, the SDR form may represent an old palatalisation: *aẓiŋkil- > *aẓiñcil-. Unfortunately, the word is not attested outside Tamil-Malayalam.
Номер по DED: 0280
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓu-
Значение: fortress, wall
Тамильский: aẓuvam
Тамильское значение: fortress
Малаялам: aẓu, aẓuku
Малаяльское значение: high wall of irregular stones around an orchard, mud wall
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss of obscure origin. Same as aẓuvam 'greatness'?
Номер по DED: 0286
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓu-
Значение: greatness
Тамильский: aẓuvam
Тамильское значение: greatness, abundance, excellence, expanse
Каннада: aḷumba
Каннада значение: excess, greatness, excellence, further, etc.
Номер по DED: 0287
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓ[u]-k-
Значение: dirt, filth
Тамильский: aẓukku
Тамильское значение: dirt, stain, excrement, impurity of mind or soul, discharges after confinement
Малаялам: aẓukku, aẓuŋŋu, aẓukkal
Малаяльское значение: dirt, filth
Тулу: aḍaka, aḍka, aḍụkajāgụ
Тулу значение: an unclean place, a burying place
Комментарии: Most probably a nominal derivative of *aẓ[u]-ŋ- 'to be spoiled, rot' q.v.
Номер по DED: 0283
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓ[u]nd-
Значение: to be pressed or immersed (as cloth)
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aẓuttu (aẓutti-)
Тамильское значение: to press down, press hard, make firm, compact, insist on, plunge, immerse; n. pressure, imprint
Тамильские производные: aẓuttam hardness (as of wood), closeness of texture as of cloth, durability, emphasis, profoundness in one's mental application; aẓuntu (aẓunti-) to become pressed, be impressed, become firm, compact, persist, be immersed
Малаялам: aẓuttu
Малаяльское значение: strong texture, pregnant speech, full of dregs
Малаяльские производные: aẓuttuka to fix, set; aẓuntuka to be immersed, plunge, sink
Каннада: aẓdu, addu, ajju, eddu
Каннада значение: to immerse, dip, dye; sink in a fluid
Каннада производные: addayisu to immerse, put into; addike, adduge immersion
Тулу: arduni
Тулу значение: to wash or bleach clothes
Пранильгирийский: *aǯ- (?)
Комментарии: Kota aj- is a good match semantically, but unclear phonetically (a unique case of the development *-ẓ[u]t- > -j- in this language). The stem formally looks like a complex one, with the suffix *-nd-, but the simple root is not attested.
Номер по DED: 0285
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aẓ[u]-ŋ-
Значение: to be spoiled, to rot
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-)
Тамильское значение: to be spoiled, injured, disfigured
Тамильские производные: aẓuŋkal ruin; aẓuku (aẓuki-) to rot, decompose, putrefy; aẓukal rotten fruit, putrefied matter, uncleanness; aẓan_, aẓan_am corpse (or with DEDR 277)
Малаялам: aẓukuka
Малаяльское значение: to rot, decay
Малаяльские производные: aẓukkuka to putrefy
Каннада: aẓugu
Каннада значение: to decay, rot, spoil by being overboiled
Каннада производные: aẓkame state of being decayed, dissolved, digested; aẓku to be worn out, decayed, digested; aẓkisu, akkisu to digest; aẓgu to be dissolved, decay
Номер по DED: 0284
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-misc,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-misc,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-dednum,
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