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Южнодравидийская этимология :

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Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambārai
Значение: a k. of insect
Каннада: ambāre
Каннада значение: a kind of insect existing in dry wood
Каннада производные: ambār-uṇṇi a tick infesting cattle; abukāra a kind of troublesome insect in the dust, esp. where people and cattle used to halt
Комментарии: Kan. ambār-uṇṇi < *ambār[ai]-puṇi (cf. puṇija 'a k. of insect'). The word has an exact parallel in Telugu but is not found anywhere else.
Номер по DED: 0176
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambi
Значение: boat
Тамильский: ampi
Тамильское значение: small boat, raft, float, ship, suspended water-shovel
Малаялам: ampa-ppāṭṭu
Малаяльское значение: rower's song
Каннада: ambi
Каннада значение: boat
Каннада производные: ambiga, ambaga, ambuga, ambigār_a man who rows a boat, boatman
Тулу: ambigāre
Тулу значение: boatman
Номер по DED: 0177
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambVli (?)
Значение: moon
Тамильский: ampuli
Тамильское значение: moon
Тамильские производные: āmpal moon (lex.)
Малаялам: ampiḷi
Малаяльское значение: moon
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with irregular correspondences. It is tempting to suggest an Austronesian origin for these forms, cf. PAN *bulan 'moon' and esp. Jav. wulan, rĕm-bulan id. [Dempwolff 33]. Cf., perhaps, also Tel. jābil(l)i id.
Номер по DED: 0179
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amma- ~ *ammi-
Значение: nipple, breast
Тамильский: ammam
Тамильское значение: woman's breast, food of babies
Малаялам: ammiññi
Малаяльское значение: nipple
Каннада: ammi
Каннада значение: the mother's breast (in the language of small children)
Каннада производные: ammaṇṇi nipple, teat, breast
Тулу: amaṇi, amani, umani
Тулу значение: nipple
Комментарии: Obviously the same as *amm- 'mother'.
Номер по DED: 0181
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ammanai
Значение: a k. of ball game
Тамильский: amman_ai, ammān_ai
Тамильское значение: girls' game of keeping a number of balls in the air, some rising while others are falling; balls used in the game
Малаялам: ammāna, ammānam
Малаяльское значение: game of throwing and catching handballs
Каннада: ammāle
Каннада значение: game of throwing handballs or stones in the air and catching them in the hand
Комментарии: The word is also found in Telugu; etymology is obscure.
Номер по DED: 0182
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ammā ~ *ammai
Значение: mother
Тамильский: ammā, ammāḷ
Тамильское значение: mother, matron, lady
Тамильские производные: (also amma, ammamma) excl. of pity, surprise, joy; ammai mother, name of various goddesses, grandmother; amman_ai mother, lady; amman_ goddess; amman_ē excl. of surprise; ammācci, ammāttāḷ, ammāy maternal grandmother; ammān_ maternal uncle, wife's father, husband of father's sister; ammāmmi maternal uncle's wife, husband's mother; ammanti maternal uncle's wife; ammāñci son of a maternal uncle, fool; ammaŋkār, ammaŋkāḷ daughter of a maternal uncle, wife of a Vaiṣṇava priest; ammaṇi term of respect used in referring to or calling a woman
Малаялам: amma
Малаяльское значение: mother, goddess (esp. Kāḷi)
Малаяльские производные: interj. (also ammē, ammammā); ammamma mother's mother; ammān, ammāvan, ammāman, ammōn, ammōman maternal uncle; ammāyi, ammāvi maternal aunt, uncle's wife, mother-in-law; ammiṇi affectionate appellation esp. of infants, sometimes of mother and wife
Каннада: amma, ama
Каннада значение: mother, respectable woman, grandmother, village goddess; interj. denoting pain or weariness, grief, surprise (also amama, ammamma)
Каннада производные: amba, ambe mother
Кодагу: ammë
Кодагу значение: Amma Coorg (a brahminized subcaste of Coorgs, said to be descended from a Coorg man and a Brahman girl [their amma or mother] whose customs they observe)
Кодагу производные: fem. ammati
Тулу: amma
Тулу значение: mother, lady
Тулу производные: amme father; ammayya interj. of sorrow or pain; tammalè maternal uncle, father-in-law
Пранильгирийский: *am-
Ирула: amme
Ирула значение: father
Комментарии: The most common stem is the one ending in *-ā; *ammai is also reconstructible on the basis of Tam. ammai, Mal. amma, Iru. amme. Kannaḍa forms with -mb- seem to have been reborrowed from Indo-Aryan. The meaning 'mother' is common for almost all dialects, but in some of them the derivative form *ammai has assumed the meaning 'father' (cf. Tam. ammān_ 'maternal uncle, wife's father', i. e. 'he-of-mother').
Номер по DED: 0183
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ammi
Значение: grinding stone
Тамильский: ammi
Тамильское значение: horizontal stone for macerating spices for curry, grinding fine mortar, etc.
Малаялам: ammi
Малаяльское значение: grinding stone
Каннада: ammi
Каннада значение: a stone to grind or bruise things upon
Комментарии: Cf., perhaps, *am- ~ *am-ŋ- 'to press, crush'.
Номер по DED: 0184
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amuŋkirV-
Значение: a k. of root
Тамильский: amukkirā, amukkiri
Тамильское значение: Indian winter cherry, Withania somnifera
Малаялам: amukkiram
Малаяльское значение: a medicinal root, Physalis flexuosa
Каннада: amakī̆re, amaŋgura
Каннада значение: a medicinal shrub [P. flexuosa Lin. = W. somnifera Dunal.]
Комментарии: Another case of "botanic irregularity". The word actually looks like a compund (*amuŋ- + *kir-), because otherwise the derivational model is completely unclear. However, the etymology of the two parts is still obscure.
Номер по DED: 0168
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amuẓ-
Значение: to sink, be immersed
Тамильский: amiẓ (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to be immersed, plunged, sink
Тамильские производные: amiẓttu (amiẓtti-) to cause to sink, immerse, engulf, drown, press down, cover (as eyelids the eyes); amiẓntu (amiẓnti-) to sink
Малаялам: amiẓuka
Малаяльское значение: to sink
Малаяльские производные: amiẓttuka, amuẓttuka to fix, set
Каннада: aguẓ
Каннада значение: to sink in water, be immersed, dive
Каннада производные: aguẓcu to cause to sink in water, immerse
Комментарии: The development *amuẓ- > *aguẓ- in Kannaḍa is regular (cf. PSDR *avuẓ-). The stem is almost certainly related to *am- ~ *am-ŋ- 'to press, sink'.
Номер по DED: 0167
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇ-
Значение: up, above
Тамильский: aṇ
Тамильское значение: upper part
Тамильские производные: aṇa (-pp-, -nt-) to lift the head; aṇar (-v-, -nt-) to rise, move upwards; aṇavu (aṇavi-) to go upward, ascend; aṇṇal greatness, exaltation, superiority, great man, king, god; aṇṇam palate, roof of the mouth, uvula; aṇṇā, aṇṇākku uvula (cpd. with 3633 , nākku); aṇṇā (-pp-, -nt-) to look upward, gape, hold the head erect; aṇṇāvi teacher, director of theatrical performances, master, one in authority
Малаялам: aṇṇa
Малаяльское значение: upwards, above
Малаяльские производные: aṇṇal high, God, esp. Arhat; aṇṇā looking upwards; aṇṇāvi teacher, head of a company of actors; aṇṇan royal predecessor, ancestor; aṇṇam, aṇṇākku uvula
Каннада: aṇṇe, aṇṇa, aṇa
Каннада значение: excellence, purity
Каннада производные: aṇṇālige uvula
Тулу: aṇāvuni, aṇṇāvuni
Тулу значение: to look up, lift up the face, gaze
Номер по DED: 0110
Праюжно-дравидийский: *an-
Значение: fit, proper; fertile
Тамильский: a, aṃ (?)
Тамильское значение: beautiful, pretty
Тамильские производные: ammai beauty, prettiness
Каннада: anu, anuvu, anavu
Каннада значение: fitness, propriety, nicety, loveliness, that is pleasing, charming or beautiful, worth, merit, readiness, success, proper or correct way, scheme, device, circumstance, opportunity
Тулу: anutana
Тулу значение: fitness, opportunity
Пранильгирийский: *an-ǝv
Номер по DED: 0328
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aN- (?)
Значение: to embrace
Каннада: appu, arpu
Каннада значение: to embrace
Каннада производные: appu, aḷpu, aḷke, appuge an embrace; appay(i)su to embrace, seize eagerly
Тулу: appiyuni
Тулу значение: to embrace, clasp
Тулу производные: appukai, appai folding the arms on the breast
Комментарии: A Kannaḍa-Tulu isogloss glossed by Burrow & Emeneau as if it contained a root *ap-. This is hardly likely, though, considering the several Kannaḍa variants with resonants - ar-pu and aḷ-pu; we should rather analyse -p- as a transitive suffix. On the other hand, the inlaut consonant is impossible to determine; with several dialectal varieties present, it could be almost anything.
Номер по DED: 0158
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇai-
Значение: to be extinguished
Тамильский: aṇai (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to be extinguished
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to quench, extinguish; aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-) to die, be slain
Малаялам: aṇayuka
Малаяльское значение: to go out (as light)
Малаяльские производные: aṇaykkuka to extinguish, put out
Каннада: aṇe
Каннада значение: to be extinguished or quenched, go out
Комментарии: The Tamil form aṇaŋku is met twice in DEDR: in this entry as well as independently in DEDR 112 (see *aṇ-ŋ- ~ *aṇa-ŋ-). It is quite possible that there is no homonymousness involved and that the latter forms are actually historical derivates from P(S)DR *aṇai-.
Номер по DED: 0121
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇai
Значение: dam
Тамильский: aṇai
Тамильское значение: embankment, dam, ridge for retaining water in a field, bank of river or sea
Тамильские производные: aṇṭai field bund, ridge of a field
Малаялам: aṇa
Малаяльское значение: dam
Малаяльские производные: aṇṭa bund, ridge of field
Каннада: aṇe
Каннада значение: dam, dike
Кодагу: aṇḍa
Кодагу значение: bank or edge of river
Пранильгирийский: *aṇ
Комментарии: The two "variants" - *aṇai and *anḍai - in reality cannot be joined together as easily as Burrow & Emeneau propose it in DEDR. In order to trace them back to the same source we would have to suppose that both go back to an early, and presumably, verbal root like *aṇ-, and even then the two lines of derivation would be rather vague. I would deem it more reasonable to reconstruct a PSDR nominal stem *aṇai "embankment". Tamil and Malayalam aṇṭa(i), with an obviously narrower meaning ('field bund', but not 'dam' in general) are a different, more local, formation, maybe contaminated with *anḍ- ' to approach, join' (?). As for Kodagu aṇḍa, in this case the retroflex cluster may actually go back to a simple retroflex nasal, i. e. reflect the earlier *aṇai; cf. a similar case in PSDR *pUṇai 'bamboo'. (It is possible that *-ṇ- > -ṇḍ- is a regular development in Kodagu nominal stems in the position before a strong suffix; unfortunately, the data are very scarce).
Номер по DED: 0122
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇai
Значение: interjection
Каннада: aṇe
Каннада значение: interj. used in calling to women
Тулу: aṇè
Тулу значение: oh! hey!
Номер по DED: 0124
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇai ~ *anḍ-
Значение: to approach; to join
Тамильский: aṇai (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to approach, come near, touch, come in contact with, copulate with
Тамильские производные: (-pp-, -tt-) to join, put close (as earth to a tree), embrace, hold, tie, fasten (as animals), tie up in a bunch; n. coition; a yoke of oxen; aṇaippu embracing; area that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in one day; aṇmai, aṇumai, aṇimai nearness, proximity; aṇavu (aṇavi-) to go near, approach, come close to, embrace; aṇāvu (aṇāvi-) to approach; aṇa (-pp-, -nt-) to be joined, united; aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-) id.; aṇi (-v-, -nt-) to join with (tr.); adv. near; aṇiyan_ who is near by; aṇuku (aṇuki-) to approach; aṇukkam, aṇukku nearness, proximity; aṇukkan_ one who is near, intimate; fem. aṇukki; aṇṇu (aṇṇi-) to approach, draw near, join, unite with; aṇṇimai nearness; aṇṇaṇi in close proximity; aṇmu (aṇmi-), aṇpu (aṇpi-) to approach; aṇṭu (aṇṭi-) to approach, take refuge in; aṇṭai nearness, vicinity
Малаялам: aṇayuka
Малаяльское значение: to approach, arrive
Малаяльские производные: aṇavu arrival, closeness, love; aṇekka to bring into contact, embrace, hug; aṇa yoke, pair; aṇukuka to approach; aṇaccal embracing, drawing near; aṇappu embracing, an embrace; aṇayam vicinity, neighbourhood; (Kauṭ.) aṇukkan one who is near; intimate; aṇṭa nearness, proximity; aṇṭuka, aṇṇuka, aṇpuka to approach
Каннада: aṇe, aṇi
Каннада значение: to come near, come in contact, touch, embrace
Каннада производные: aṇe approach; aṇi joining, fitness, order; aṇiyara fitness; aṇasu that holds firmly together, a ferrule; a throng; aṇugu nearness; aṇṭu to come or be in contact with, touch (intr., tr.), embrace; n. menses (? < Te.); aṇṭisu to place in contact; aṇḍisu to go near, approach, resort to, come or go to for protection; aṇḍu going near, an approach, a resort; aṇḍe nearness, approach, side of anything
Кодагу: aṇḍa
Кодагу значение: side
Тулу: aṇepuni
Тулу значение: to come in contact, press
Тулу производные: anepini, anepuni to touch, hug, embrace; aṇasụ a handle, hilt
Пранильгирийский: *anḍ-
Комментарии: With a certain effort one could trace back all of these forms to a single monosyllabic protostem *aṇ-; however, there is no guarantee that such is indeed the case. Two forms that continuously crop up all over SDR are the bisyllabic stem *aṇai-, with a simple retroflex nasal, and the monosyllabic stem *anḍ- with a retroflex cluster. Most of the other stems (aṇi-, aṇa-, aṇ-) are only found in the Tamil area and may reflect dialectalisms or latter day contaminations. As to whether *aṇai- and *anḍ- go back to the same source, this is somewhat questionable. They are certainly two different entities on the PSDR level, albeit with similar meanings; on that level, there was no productive model according to which *aṇai- could become *anḍ- or vice versa.
Номер по DED: 0120
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇai ~ *anḍai
Значение: support, prop
Тамильский: aṇai
Тамильское значение: support, prop, protection, help
Тамильские производные: aṇṭai support
Малаялам: aṇa
Малаяльское значение: support, pillow
Каннада: aṇḍe
Каннада значение: support, prop
Пранильгирийский: *aṇ-
Комментарии: The alternation -ṇ-/-nḍ- is unclear, which makes the case similar to the one with *aṇai 'dam'. In this case, however, the semantics of the stem does suggest an old (or not so old) verbal derivative, most likely from *aṇai ~ *anḍ- 'to approach, join'. Since both variants are present in these verbal forms, the two variants of this nominal stem may correlate to them directly. The root is also found in Telugu, but due to the overall weakness of the etymology I do not include it in the common Dravidian database.
Номер по DED: 0123
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aṇak-
Значение: mockery, quarreling
Каннада: aṇaka
Каннада значение: mockery, derision, abuse
Каннада производные: aṇakisu to mock, deride; aṇakisuvike mocking
Тулу: aṇakasaṇaka
Тулу значение: quarrelling
Номер по DED: 0111
Праюжно-дравидийский: *anal-
Значение: fire, heat
Тамильский: an_al
Тамильское значение: fire, heat (as of fever), warmth, glow, thunderbolt
Тамильские производные: (an_alv-, an_an_r_-) to burn, glow, blaze, be hot, cause heat (as the sun, fire, fever); an_ali fire, sun; an_ar_kal flint; an_ar_r_u (an_ar_r_i-) to heat, make hot, burn, affect with colic pains, be angry with; groan with pain
Малаялам: anal, analca, anacca, anappu
Малаяльское значение: fire, heat
Малаяльские производные: analuka to become hot; analkkuka to be hot, be warm; anattuka to make warm or hot
Каннада: analu
Каннада значение: heat
Номер по DED: 0327
Праюжно-дравидийский: *anand-
Значение: sleep
Тамильский: an_antar
Тамильское значение: sleep, drowsiness, stupor, loss of consciousness, inebriety, confusion of mind
Тамильские производные: an_antal sleep, drowsiness, stupor
Малаялам: anantal
Малаяльское значение: light sleep
Номер по DED: 0326
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