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Южнодравидийская этимология :

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\data\drav\sdret
Праюжно-дравидийский: *allija-
Значение: stray elephant
Тамильский: alliyan_
Тамильское значение: stray elephant separated from the fold
Тамильские производные: alliyam Kẓṣṇa's dance when he broke the tusk of the elephant that was set upon him by Kaṃsa
Малаялам: alliyan
Малаяльское значение: female elephant
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Номер по DED: 0258
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-ur-
Значение: to enclose, cover
PRNUM: PRNUM
Каннада: aḷur
Каннада значение: to enclose, cover, overspread, prevail, fall upon
Каннада производные: vb. n. aḷurke
Номер по DED: 0307
Праюжно-дравидийский: *aḷ-Vk-
Значение: to prick, throb
Каннада: aḷaku, aḷuku
Каннада значение: to prick, throb (as a thorn in the flesh); n. the pricking of a thorn, state of being pricked as with a thorn, state of being distressed or annoyed
Номер по DED: 0304
Праюжно-дравидийский: *am-
Значение: to dissemble
Тамильский: ammu (ammi-)
Тамильское значение: to dissemble, act with reserve and duplicity
Тамильские производные: ammu-kkaḷḷan_ thievish person, dissembling rogue; amukkan_, amukkuṇi dissembler
Малаялам: amma-kkaḷḷam
Малаяльское значение: sagacity and roguery
Малаяльские производные: amma-kkaḷḷan deep fellow; amukkan a deep rogue
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with no reliable parallels.
Номер по DED: 0185
Праюжно-дравидийский: *am- ~ *am-ŋ-
Значение: to press, sink
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: amuŋku (amuŋki-)
Тамильское значение: to sink, be pressed down, crushed (as by a weight), mashed (as ripe fruit)
Тамильские производные: amukku (amukki-) to crush, press, squeeze (as a fruit, a boil), press down, press in or under (as a vessel into water), overcome, repress; n. pressure (as in a nightmare), thing that compresses, incumbent weight; amukkan_, amukki nightmare
Малаялам: amuŋŋuka
Малаяльское значение: to sink, settle, be squeezed (as hand in hand)
Малаяльские производные: amukkuka, amakkuka to press down, squeeze, knead, turn food in mouth; amaŋŋuka to be pressed down; amukkam, amukkal, amukku, amakku the act of pressing down, squeezing, compressing; ampikkuka to press down; ammuka to be pressed, subside
Каннада: amugu, avugu
Каннада значение: to yield to pressure (as the surface of a ripe fruit or tumour)
Каннада производные: amuku, amiku, avuku, avuŋku to press or hold firmly, squeeze, trouble; avuŋku pressing or holding firmly; amucu, avacu, avucu to press, hold firmly, confine, embrace
Тулу: avuŋkuni, auŋkuni
Тулу значение: to press down
Тулу производные: amepuni, amaṭupattuni to press, hold in the arms, hug; avumpuni to press
Пранильгирийский: *amǝ-g-
Комментарии: In DEDR 169 this stem is frequently confused with *amai- ~ *amar- 'to be united, join, crowd together', right down to several forms included in both entries at the same time. Nevertheless, although some semantic contamination is possible, and both stems may be related on some higher level, they are clearly distinguished in SDR at least, and I prefer to only include forms with final -ŋ- (-k- in the corresponding transitive stem) here, as well as the possibly archaic monosyllabic suffixless variant (as seen in Mal. ammuka).
Номер по DED: 0169
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amai
Значение: purification; impurity
Каннада: amE
Каннада значение: purification after childbirth (Gowda)
Тулу: amè
Тулу значение: ceremonial impurity or defilement in case of birth
Комментарии: In DED compared with PNDR (Kurukh) emsnā 'to allow (oneself) to be defiled by someone of a different taste'. According to Grignard, however, the actual meaning is rather just 'to let touch' (cf. emsrnā 'to touch'); considering the highly irregular vocalic correspondence, I would reject the etymology. In SDR, if, however, the meaning 'purification' is primary, cf. perhaps Tamil am 'water'?
Номер по DED: 0171
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amai- ~ *amar-
Значение: to be calm, settled
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: amar (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to abide, remain, become tranquil, rest, be deposited (as a sediment), become close and hard (as sand by rain), be engaged (as a house), become established (as in a work)
Тамильские производные: amarttu (amartti-) to make quiet, restrain, engage (as a house, servant), establish (as one in life); amarvu abode; amarikkai quietness, tranquillity; amai (-v-, -nt-) become still, quiet, subside, be satisfied, acquiesce, be settled, fixed up, abide, remain; (-pp-, -tt-) cause to be still, patient, control; amaiti calmness, humility; amaivan_ a sage; amaivu rest
Малаялам: amaruka
Малаяльское значение: to subside, settle, be seated, rest on, be allayed, calmed, quiet
Малаяльские производные: amaral abating of wind or fire, peace; amarcca calmness, self-government; ameyuka to be subject, agree; amekka to subject, join, rule
Тулу: amaruni
Тулу значение: to become quiet, calm; settle
Тулу производные: amapuni to quiet; to press down
Номер по DED: 0161
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amai- ~ *amar-
Значение: to get close; to join
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: amar (-v-, -nt-)
Тамильское значение: to get close to, resemble, be suitable, wish, desire, do, perform
Тамильские производные: amai (-v-, -nt-) to crowd together, be close, be attached, connected, joined, suffice, prepare (oneself), be suitable, appropriate, be complete, prepare; (-pp-, -tt-) to effect, accomplish, create, appoint, institute, bring together, prepare, get ready; n. fitness, beauty; amaiti being attached, joined, nature of a thing, abundance, occasion, opportunity, deed, action; amaippu structure, constitution, destiny, fate; amaivu being acceptable, suitable, fitting
Малаялам: amarkka
Малаяльское значение: to press down, subdue
Малаяльские производные: amarttu piṭikka to grasp tightly; amarcca subjection, severity
Каннада: amar (amard-)
Каннада значение: to be closely united, gather in a mass, be connected with, be produced, arise, appear, be fit or agreeable, be nice or becoming, be known or famous, fit, agree with, seize firmly, embrace
Каннада производные: amarike, amarke fitness, agreeing with (as a ring with the size of the finger), state of being closely joined; amarisu, amarcu to cause (a person) to join or stick by, prepare, do fitly, make ready
Тулу: amarige
Тулу значение: heap
Тулу производные: amariyuni, amaryuni to cleave to; amaruni to seize, touch, hold; amāruni to suit, fit, embrace, hold, a plant to twine; amarāvuni to hold fast
Пранильгирийский: *amä-p-
Комментарии: Some of the forms (notably all the Malayalam entries) have been entered a second time or relocated to PSDR *amu- by Burrow & Emeneau.
Номер по DED: 0162
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amaḷ-
Значение: to bully, repress
Тамильский: amaṭṭu (amaṭṭi-)
Тамильское значение: to hector, bully, intimidate; n. threat, menace
Малаялам: amaṭṭuka
Малаяльское значение: to repress, threaten
Малаяльские производные: amaṭṭu a threat
Каннада: amarisu
Каннада значение: to reprove
Комментарии: The Tamil-Malayalam stem is causative (*amaḷ-t-). Kan. amarisu can belong here if it is a dialectal variant of *amaḷisu (cf. appaḷisu vs. apparisu "to stroke").
Номер по DED: 0160
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amal-
Значение: close; full
Тамильский: amal (amalv-, aman_r_-)
Тамильское значение: to be close, thickly grown; n. fulness
Тамильские производные: amalai abundance, denseness
Малаялам: amal
Малаяльское значение: fullness
Малаяльские производные: amali Lakṣmī, abundance; amalikka to abound, remain in store
Комментарии: Possibly a dialectal variant of *amai- ~ *amar-.
Номер по DED: 0164
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amaḷ-
Значение: tumult
Тамильский: amaḷi
Тамильское значение: tumult, uproar, bustle, press of business
Тамильские производные: amalai noise, din
Малаялам: amaḷi
Малаяльское значение: tumult, affray, cry, wail
Малаяльские производные: amaḷikka to be troubled; aviḷi tumult
Каннада: amakkaḷa
Каннада значение: tumult
Комментарии: An expressive form. Dialectal development *-m- > -v- in Malayalam. Kan. amakkaḷa < *amaḷi-kaḷa?
Номер по DED: 0166
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amaḷi
Значение: bed
Тамильский: amaḷi
Тамильское значение: bed, mattress
Малаялам: amaḷi
Малаяльское значение: bed
Номер по DED: 0165
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amanǯi
Значение: forced labour
Тамильский: amañci, amiñci
Тамильское значение: forced labour, unpaid labour
Комментарии: Cf. also Telugu amanji id.; otherwise isolated.
Номер по DED: 0159
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amara-
Значение: stern (of vessel)
Тамильский: amaram
Тамильское значение: stern of a vessel, oar used to steer a boat
Малаялам: amaram
Малаяльское значение: stern of a vessel, elephant's hind part, abaft
Комментарии: A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss, also found in Telugu. Burrow & Emeneau tentatively suggest borrowing from Skt. apara-. This is only possible if the actual source (a) contained a fricative instead of stop, e. g. Prakrit avara (with further dialectal 'lenition' in Dravidian), (b) actually meant 'stern', since most Indian dialects have it as simply 'other, another' < Skt. 'posterior'. Nevertheless, there is no proper Dravidian etymology for the root.
Номер по DED: 0163
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amb-
Значение: arrow
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: ampu
Тамильское значение: arrow
Тамильские производные: appu-kkaṭṭu a sheaf of arrows
Малаялам: ampu
Малаяльское значение: arrow, porcupine quill
Каннада: ambu
Каннада значение: arrow
Кодагу: ambɨ
Кодагу значение: arrow
Тулу: ambu
Тулу значение: arrow
Тулу производные: ambige hunter
Пранильгирийский: *amb
Номер по DED: 0178
Праюжно-дравидийский: *amb[a]-
Значение: to bellow
Малаялам: amar_uka (?)
Малаяльское значение: to low
Каннада: ambā, ambē, ambyā, aṃhā
Каннада значение: the cry of cow or calf
Тулу: amba, ambā, ambē, ambo
Тулу значение: bellowing, lowing, a cry, noise
Комментарии: Mal. amar_uka < *ambá-r_-? An expressive root with parallels in Telugu (ambē).
Номер по DED: 0175
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambai-kāl-
Значение: crawling
PRNUM: PRNUM
Каннада: ambegālu, ambagālu, ambugālu
Каннада значение: the hands and knees placed on the ground for crawling
Каннада производные: (Coorg) ambāḷu to crawl
Тулу: ambekārụ
Тулу значение: crawling on hands and feet
Комментарии: The second part of the compound is *kāl 'foot'; the first one, however, does not have a secure inner etymology.
Номер по DED: 0180
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambala-
Значение: open space
Тамильский: ampalam
Тамильское значение: open space for the use of the public, village assembly for transacting village affairs
Малаялам: ampalam
Малаяльское значение: place devoted for public use, assemblies, etc., a temple
Каннада: ambala
Каннада значение: an open shed or hall where public affairs are discussed
Кодагу: ambɨla
Кодагу значение: house on village green for meetings
Тулу: ambila, ambela
Тулу значение: the place around or in front of a temple
Комментарии: A SDR cultural term. Cf. Old Indian ámbara- 'circumference' (RV) > Prakrit aṁbara- 'sky', Sinhalese am̆bura 'open space, open air, sky' (Turner 573). The word has no Indo-European etymology and may represent an old borrowing from Dravidian (reflecting PSDR *-l- > RV -r-). The problem is that it has no Dravidian etymology outside SDR either.
Номер по DED: 0173
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambali
PRNUM: PRNUM
Тамильский: amalai
Тамильское значение: boiled rice
Тамильские производные: ampali porridge, esp. of rāgi (< Te.)
Каннада: ambali, ambakaḷa, ambila, ambuli, amli
Каннада значение: pap or porridge made of jōḷa, rice, or rāgi, with buttermilk (also tamarind) generally added
Тулу: ambuli
Тулу значение: pap or gruel of rāgi or rice
Пранильгирийский: *a[m]bel-
Комментарии: In DEDR Tam. ampali is marked as a borrowing from Telugu ambali. Regardless of whether this is correct, the alternate Tam. form amalai cannot be a regular correspondence, because -ai <> Tel. -i and -m- <> Tel. -mb-; we can only consider it a dialectal irregular variant. Kan. ambakaḷa < *ambal-kaḷa; for the second part of the compound cf., perhaps, Tel. kali (< *kaḷi) 'water in which rice has been washed'. The alternate explanation from *amba-kaḷa, without the final resonant, is much more dubious in the light of external data.
Номер по DED: 0174
Праюжно-дравидийский: *ambarai-
Значение: to hurry, be confounded
Малаялам: amparakka
Малаяльское значение: to be confounded, perplexed
Малаяльские производные: amparappu perplexity
Каннада: amberpu
Каннада значение: (Hav.) hurry
Тулу: ambarappu
Тулу значение: hurry, confusion, perplexity
Комментарии: Expressive.
Номер по DED: 0172
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