Комментарии:PKE 39 (Kor.-Mong.). The meaning 'paper' in Mong. and Kor. must be derived from original '(reed) bast, bark'. Labialized -o- (as well as the source of modern -ŋ-) in Kor. is not quite clear.
Комментарии:Martin 227, Lee 1958, 107, АПиПЯЯ 32-33, 76, 88, 279. An expressive reduplicated root, but no doubt common Altaic. Because of its structure, liable to assimilations (*č`ằjǯV > *ǯằjǯV or *č`ằjč`V).
Комментарии:АПиПЯЯ 283. The comparison of PT *čok with Sino-Kor. čjok (SKE 39, AKE 7, EAS 63) should be, of course, rejected; on the other hand, the comparison of Kor. čhă- (a regular reduction < *čăhă-) with Mong. čad-, čas- in SKE 46 cannot explain the aspiration of č- in Korean. See further МССНЯ, 331.
Комментарии:Дыбо 311, Лексика 250. A reconstruction *č`ajk`e is not excluded because of the Korean form; this is perhaps the reason for *-x- in TM (where in this context one would rather expect *čakan).
Комментарии:A Western isogloss. Note a labial vowel in the second syllable which in this case must be reflecting suffixation (*č`ăk`i-bV-); Mong. *čoku < *čaku with a frequent secondary vowel assimilation.
Комментарии:The Kor. form reflects an earlier *čămh- < *čam(o)-g-, with a velar suffix (cf. the Mong. form). The root is sufficiently attested in Mong. and Kor.; but the Turkic forms may have a borrowed origin, the TM and Jpn. forms are attested worse, so the archaic nature of the root is somewhat dubious.
Комментарии:SKE 47. It is worth noting that the Korean word also means 'sesame' or 'anise' (in compounds, see KED 1570, 1571): this may be in fact a merger with the reflex of PA *č`i̯umu 'seed, cone' (q. v.).
Комментарии:Jpn. and Mong. suggest that the original meaning was "people, public gathering"; in TM and Kor. the root shifted the meaning to "foreign people" > (TM) "enemies, robbers", (Kor.) "slave(s)".