Notes :Irregular (expressive?) vowel lengthening is observed in some Gondwan languages. This is one of the two main PDR roots for 'father', the other being *t-and_-; judging by the difference in meaning, the latter was the more 'formal' appellation (which is why it is more frequently met with archaic pronominal prefixes than *ápa-), whereas the latter is clearly a "children's" word. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Meaning :cake (of rice flour; of special interest to children)
Notes :Certain problems are caused by the Tamil-Malayalam forms which feature initial ā-; also unclear is the fact that Old Indian has the word as apūpá-, pūpa- (Turner 491). This does not include the possibility of Proto-Dravidian origin (cf. the Brahui parallel), but if the vowel length in Tamil and the trisyllabic structure of the OI form are related (e. g. āppa- < *apūpa-), this may hint at an obscure borrowing source for both subgroups. // Present in 3/6 branches.