Comments:VEWT 14, ЭСТЯ 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *āl 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but altɨ 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk altɨ 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see Дыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-tɨ- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *ăl is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alaša 'low, low place' (КСТТ 100). Another possible old derivative in -čak may be PT *aĺ(č)ak (Karakh. ašaq, Turkm. ašāq etc., see ЭСТЯ 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *āĺ- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-čak (see ЭСТЯ 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alčaq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' (КСТТ 101), Turkm. alčak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alčak 'mean, vile', alča- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alɨg, see under *ā̀le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alčaq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alčaq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -čak from the root al- (which is why -lč- did not yield -š- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alča-gar, alča-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alčaji- 'to spread legs apart'.
Meaning:1 to become weak 2 bad 3 to be vile (of a man), to turn septic (of a wound) 4 weak, inferior 5 upset 6 old, worn-out 7 crazy 8 lazy man 9 to hurry 10 fool 11 to go mad 12 to deceive 13 perplexed 14 dumb, foolish 15 doubt, surprise 16 error 17 be in doubt, perplexed 18 absent-minded, unattentive 19 weakness
Comments:EDT 127-128, VEWT 18, ЭСТЯ I 139, Федотов 2, 276. Clauson's hypothesis that the reflexes of *alpawut in recent languages are the result of a re-borrowing from Mong. (cf. Lit. Mong. albaɣut (Kow. 84) < Turk.), partly contaminated with Mong. alban 'tax', is unnecessary: a semantic shift 'warrior' > 'gentry' > 'landlord' seems to be natural. Cf. a borrowing from Mong. alba-tu in Tuva, Oyr. albatu, albatɨ, Kirgh. albatɨ 'tax-payers, people'.