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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kon|akface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dandruffface="Times New Roman Star"перхоть

face="Times New Roman Star"konak





face="Times New Roman Star"Gon|aq


















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 280.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kobgaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"pail, bucketface="Times New Roman Star"ведроface="Times New Roman Star"qovg|a (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qova (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"kova, kog|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qova (AH), qopqa (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qawg|a (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"Govaface="Times New Roman Star"Gova






face="Times New Roman Star"xuva

face="Times New Roman Star"qawg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qawg|a


face="Times New Roman Star"qova, qopqaface="Times New Roman Star"qawg|a, g|awg|a

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 583-584, Ё—“я 6, 12-13. Turk. > Mong. qobug|a 'bucket, trough'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gErtmeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"pearface="Times New Roman Star"груша

face="Times New Roman Star"germes?ik 'cornus sanguinea'
face="Times New Roman Star"kertme '€блоко, груша' (OKypch.: AH, Houts., CCum.), kirni 'quince'















face="Times New Roman Star"kertpe
face="Times New Roman Star"kertme
face="Times New Roman Star"gertme

face="Times New Roman Star"gertmeface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 257. Perhaps < *gu"rt-me, cf. the attested OT (MK-Osm., see EDT 738) ku"rt 'mountain tree for making bows, Pyrus'; (AH) ku"rt 'quince'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rank, stage, row 2 similar, equal 3 one of a pair, odd 4 timeface="Times New Roman Star"1 ранг, степень, р€д 2 сходный, равный 3 один из двух, нечетный 4 врем€, разface="Times New Roman Star"qur 1, 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qur 1, 4 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kor 1, kur 1, 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qor 4face="Times New Roman Star"qur 4 (AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qur 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qur 'line' (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qor 4
face="Times New Roman Star"Gor 'layer'



face="Times New Roman Star"xъrax 2,3face="Times New Roman Star"kurduk 2


face="Times New Roman Star"qur 4

face="Times New Roman Star"qor 4, (dial.) 'row of coins'





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 642, Ё—“я 6, 73, 151-152, VEWT 301-302 (to be distinguished from *Kur 'belt'). Ё—“я (ibid.) distinguishes between *Kor 'layer, row' and *Kur 'time' - but the roots, even if distinguished originally, became quite confused already in Old Turkic. Turk. > Hung. kor 'age', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kasyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"enclosureface="Times New Roman Star"загон, огороженное место
face="Times New Roman Star"qasy (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"qasu (dial.)










face="Times New Roman Star"xoz?ъ 'space, surroundings'

face="Times New Roman Star"qazanaq 'shed, kennel'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 666, Ё—“я 5, 346-347.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Tydynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"time, appointed timeface="Times New Roman Star"срокface="Times New Roman Star"tydyn (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyd|yn



















face="Times New Roman Star"tyna (3 Sg. Dat.) 'промежуток рабочего времени от одной передышки до другой'





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 457.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kat-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to heat (oven) 2 (fire) steel 3 to bakeface="Times New Roman Star"1 топить печь 2 огниво 3 печь













face="Times New Roman Star"xot- 1face="Times New Roman Star"xatat 2


face="Times New Roman Star"qatyr- 3








face="Times New Roman Star"јшм. XVI, 256, Ё—“я 5, 335 (connected with *kat- 'dry', but in fact a different root because of the Chuvash form). However, if Mari oltas? 'heat' is from Bulg., the original form could be *Kal-t- and should be removed from the etymology (cf. ‘едотов 2, 372).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to mixface="Times New Roman Star"смешивать
face="Times New Roman Star"qar- (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"kar-
face="Times New Roman Star"qar- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|r-


face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:r-



face="Times New Roman Star"jor-, jur-










face="Times New Roman Star"qary-

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 285, EDT 642-643, јшм. IV, 351-352, ‘едотов 2, 490-491.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyc?-gyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to shout, cryface="Times New Roman Star"кричать


face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?qyr-

face="Times New Roman Star"qic?qir-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gys?Gyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"xysxyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qys?yr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?yr-

face="Times New Roman Star"kyskyj- 'to whistle'
face="Times New Roman Star"qys?qyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?qyr-

face="Times New Roman Star"qysqyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?yr-



face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?yr-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 261. Turk. > WMong. qaskira-, Kalm. xa"s?kr- (KW 178).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to criticize, maliceface="Times New Roman Star"критиковать, злобствовать
face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?ur- (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qyz?|y- (R.)




face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z?|yt 'reproach'face="Times New Roman Star"xysxar- 'to reproach, blame', xyz?|yr- 'to tease smb.'



face="Times New Roman Star"ky:hyr-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyz?yry- 'to tease, ridicule'
face="Times New Roman Star"qyz?|yn-








face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 59.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyd-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 edge, border, seashore, frontier 2 margin, edgingface="Times New Roman Star"1 край, граница, берег 2 опушка, каймаface="Times New Roman Star"qydyg| (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd|yg| (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyjy, kyj 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyg| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyg| 2face="Times New Roman Star"quju 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r@ 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyty: 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qydyg| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyju: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyjuw 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyw 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 598, VEWT 261, Ћексика 94, Ё—“я 6, 196-197, 203. The root is also attested in verbal function (*Kydy- 'to border, hem'), see Ё—“я 6, 196.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ko"l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to freezeface="Times New Roman Star"замерзать


face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?ek-










face="Times New Roman Star"ko"hu"j-
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z?u"-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?u"-
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?u"-
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?ek-





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 294, Ё—“я 5, 127.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kuml/ujface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a louse or tick full of bloodface="Times New Roman Star"вошь или клещ, напившийс€ крови
face="Times New Roman Star"qums?uj (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 629. An expressive variant may be represented in OT (MK) ko"mic?e 'gnat' (EDT 722).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kumface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sandface="Times New Roman Star"песокface="Times New Roman Star"qum (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qum (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qum (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum, qomface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"Gumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qum
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|mface="Times New Roman Star"kumaxface="Times New Roman Star"kumakface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"xumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qu_mface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qomface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"qumface="Times New Roman Star"Gum
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 299, EDT 625, Ћексика 102, Ё—“я 6, 133-134, Stachowski 160. Turk. > WMong. qum, Kalm. xum 'sand' (KW 196; TMN 3, 508), Hung. homok (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku"nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"peopleface="Times New Roman Star"народface="Times New Roman Star"elgu"n (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"el ku"n (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"elgu"n (Osm. XIV c.)
face="Times New Roman Star"el wa ku"n (Sangl.), elgu"n (Pav. C.), elgu"n (Oghuz-nama), elgu"n 'goverment, realm' (Ettuhf.)























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 309, TMN 3,656-7, Ћексика 317, EDT 121-122, 725-726 (with doubts).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kypface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fabricface="Times New Roman Star"ткань









face="Times New Roman Star"xyp 'lining, covering'



face="Times New Roman Star"kybyas 'шерсть олен€ ранним летом'


face="Times New Roman Star"qypyq 'kerchief, sash'

face="Times New Roman Star"qyptyr 'перешита€ в подборку (о шубе)'face="Times New Roman Star"qyppa 'skein, clew'




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kypy-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sense, invention, cleverness 2 to invent, think offace="Times New Roman Star"1 смысл, изобретательность, ум 2 выдумывать









face="Times New Roman Star"xyby-
face="Times New Roman Star"qyby-
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|bъw|l 'dexterous'face="Times New Roman Star"kyp 'dexterously'


face="Times New Roman Star"qybac?y 'experienced person'








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 260.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ko"rtu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woodcock 2 turkey 3 black-cockface="Times New Roman Star"1 вальдшнеп 2 индюк 3 тетерев


face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rka" 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rku", dial. ku"rtku" 'black-cock', ku"rles (Sag.) 'grouse'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rtu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rtu"k 3, ku"rte 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|rka 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"rc?o"x 'young spring duck, already able to fly'
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rtu" 3face="Times New Roman Star"hu"'rtu" 3face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rp 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rke-tawyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rka" 2





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 311, ‘едотов 1, 258.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr/ak, *Kyr/aguface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sledgeface="Times New Roman Star"сани

face="Times New Roman Star"kyzakface="Times New Roman Star"qyzaw 'кузов'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzaq (AH)
face="Times New Roman Star"quzuq 'кровать'
face="Times New Roman Star"xiza"k












face="Times New Roman Star"qud|y 'лукошко'





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269.
face="Times New Roman Star"*kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"eyelashface="Times New Roman Star"ресницаface="Times New Roman Star"kirpik (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kirpik (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"kerfekface="Times New Roman Star"kirpik (Sangl., Pav. C.), kirpu"k (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"kiprikface="Times New Roman Star"ki(r)pikface="Times New Roman Star"kirmikface="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"k@rb@k
face="Times New Roman Star"kirbikface="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"xъrbъx, xъrbъk, (dial.) xъrbuface="Times New Roman Star"kirba"j, kirbi: 'edge'
face="Times New Roman Star"kirbik
face="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"k@rp@kface="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"kerpek
face="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"kirpik
face="Times New Roman Star"kirpikface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 272, EDT 737-738, Ё—“я 5, 74-75, ‘едотов 2, 333-334, Ћексика 213. Cf. also the verb *Kyrm- / *Kyrp- 'to wink' (Ё—“я 6, 221). The front row variant here is probably secondary.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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