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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ek-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sow 2 to scatterface="Times New Roman Star"1 сеять 2 разбрасыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ek- (Late OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- (MK, KB) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ik- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- (Abush., Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"a"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ha"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ak- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ik- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ek- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ex- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 100, ЭСТЯ 1, 251-252. Turk. > Hung. eke 'plough' (< *a"ka"g|), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge:c? (-e)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 long time 2 late 3 be late 4 night 5 evening 6 yesterdayface="Times New Roman Star"1 долго 2 поздний 3 опаздывать 4 ночь 5 вечер 6 вчераface="Times New Roman Star"kec? 1, 2, kec?- 3, kec?e 4, 5 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 1, 2 (KB, MK), kec?- 3 (MK), kec?a" 4, 5 (KB, MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gec? 2, gez?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kic? 5, kic?e| 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"gec?e 4 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec?a 4, 6face="Times New Roman Star"ka"c?a" 5face="Times New Roman Star"kic?e 4 (Mal.)face="Times New Roman Star"gez?|a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"gi:c? 2, gi:z?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kiz?|e: 6face="Times New Roman Star"kec?ik 5 (Верб.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 2, 5, kec?e 6face="Times New Roman Star"ki:ec?a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"kas/ 5face="Times New Roman Star"kiehe 5face="Times New Roman Star"kiehe 5face="Times New Roman Star"kez?e: 5face="Times New Roman Star"kez?|e 5face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 2, kec?e: 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5, kes?a" 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"kis 5, kisa" 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 5, kec?eface="Times New Roman Star"gez?|a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"gez?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"ga"z?|i 4face="Times New Roman Star"gec?e 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 245, EDT 692-3, 694-5, ЭСТЯ 3, 40-41, 50-51, Лексика 82, Stachowski 147.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gEr/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to walk, walk throughface="Times New Roman Star"ходить, проходить черезface="Times New Roman Star"kez- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kez- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"gez-face="Times New Roman Star"giz-face="Times New Roman Star"ke/z- (Sangl., MA, Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kez-face="Times New Roman Star"g/ka"z-
face="Times New Roman Star"ga"z-face="Times New Roman Star"gez-


face="Times New Roman Star"ka"z-



face="Times New Roman Star"kes-face="Times New Roman Star"kez-
face="Times New Roman Star"kez-face="Times New Roman Star"gid|-face="Times New Roman Star"[kezik 'очередь']face="Times New Roman Star"gez-face="Times New Roman Star"gez-face="Times New Roman Star"gez-face="Times New Roman Star"gez- (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"gez-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 260, EDT 757, ЭСТЯ 3, 10-11. Cf. also (with -r-) Yak. kerij- 'walk around'. The derived Turk. *ger/ik 'turn, order' ( < *'going through') > MMong. kes?ik (SH), WMong. kesig 'wake, turn' (see TMN 1, 467-468, Clark 1980, 40). The verb itself was also borrowed, cf. WMong. kesu"-, Khalkha, Bur. xese-, Dag. kese- 'to wander, roam'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"ku"r/ (/*go"gu"r/), *Ko"krekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast 2 middle of the back 3 reason, sense, emotion 4 female breastface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь 2 поясница, середина спины 3 женская грудьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1, 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"go"g|u"s 1, ko"krek 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1 (dial., КСТТ), ku"kre|k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gs, ko"gu"s (Sangl.), ko"ku"s (MA) 1, ko"krek (Abush., Бор. Бад.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku.ks 1, 3, ko|kra"k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s, go":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ks, ko"ku"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"s 1, ku"krek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gis 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|gъw|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"g|u"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ksu" 'back'

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"ro"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kis 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"frix 4?face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 714, VEWT 288, ЭСТЯ 3, 54-55, 5, 136-137, Лексика 272-274, Stachowski 155. The Oghuz forms with k- (Turkm. ku"krek, Tur. dial. ko"krek) may be < Kypchak, cf. -u"- instead of -o"- in Turkm.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"jn|-ilface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"heart, moodface="Times New Roman Star"сердце, духface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"n-u"l; go"ju"n, go"jn (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"n, ko"n|-u"l (arch. - borrowed from Tu"rki)face="Times New Roman Star"ko":l, ko"n|n-@face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|n-u"face="Times New Roman Star"ku":nface="Times New Roman Star"ki:ilface="Times New Roman Star"k@w|m@w|lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'will, freedom'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'permission'
face="Times New Roman Star"xo":lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"l, ko"lu"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|il, kewilface="Times New Roman Star"go"jn|yface="Times New Roman Star"go"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 291, EDT 731, ЭСТЯ 3, 75-77, Лексика 274, Stachowski 156. Almost all languages reflect a suffixed form (a substantivized adjective in -il, see Gabain AG 75). Khak., Shor reflect a nominalized attributive form of ko"n|u"l.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"r/ ( = *go"r-s) / *go"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye (*go"r/) 2 to see, look (*go"r-)face="Times New Roman Star"1 глаз 2 видетьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2 (Orkh., Yen.,OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z 1, ku"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"z (Sangl., Pav. C.), ko"z (Vam.) 1, ko"r- (MA, Abush., Sangl.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku.z 1, ku.r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, go"r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s (Sag.) 1, ko"zenek (Kyzil.) 'window', ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s (R) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s, dial. ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ke.r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ 1, kor- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r- 2; ko"hu"n- 'to be seen'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r- 2; ko"hu"n- 'to be seen'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"stu"k 'eye-glass', ko"sku" 'visible, good-eyed', ko"skenek 'window', ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"sku"t- 'to show', ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"d| 1, ku"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"goz/koz 1, kor- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z 1, ko"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"(:)z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"z 1, go"r- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 292, TMN 3, 637f, EDT 756 (*go"r/), 736 (*go"r-), Федотов 1, 310, 314, ЭСТЯ 3, 60-64 (*go"r/), 77-79, 81-84 (*go"r-), Лексика 209, Stachowski 155, 156. The Chuv. reflex requires a supposition of a final cluster (*rs) in the nominal stem; this may be a suffixed deverbative. OT ko"ru"g 'glance; image' > MMo, WMong. ko"ru"g 'image'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kul-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to roll (down), fall 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 скатываться, падать 2 круглый



face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1 (Буд.)face="Times New Roman Star"qula"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula-, g|ula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula-, Gol- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1





face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qola- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1face="Times New Roman Star"gulylu"x 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 298, ЭСТЯ 6, 122.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"n(el/) / *gun/al/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sun 2 day 3 sunny place 4 sun-heatface="Times New Roman Star"1 солнце 2 день 3 солнечное место 4 солнечный жарface="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2 (Orkh., OUygh.), ku"nes? 3 (YB), isig qujas? 4 (OUygh. - Br.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 4 (MK), ku"nes? 3 (Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 2, gu"nes? 1, (dial.) gujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n 1, 2, qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"qujas? 1 (Sangl., Abush., Pav. C.), ku"nes? 1 (Pav. C., Abush., Бор. Бад.), ku"n 1, 2 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"kun 1, 2, qujo|s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, (dial.) qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"kun 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"na"s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"nes? 1, 4, quja:s? 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, dial. qujas? 1 (Kumd., Leb.)face="Times New Roman Star"kin, ku"n 1, 2, kina"s? 'sonnig'face="Times New Roman Star"kon 2, x@w|vel 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, kuja:s 'heat'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, kun/a:s 'heat'face="Times New Roman Star"xu"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"xu"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qyjas 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n 1, 2, ko"na"s 4, qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"nes? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, ku"nes? 1, qujas?, qujas 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu":n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2 gu"nes? 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 301, 309 (Ra"sa"nen separates *gu"n and *gun'al', which is hardly justified); EDT 679, 725, 734, ЭСТЯ 3, 100-104, 6, 112-113, Лексика 20-21, 64-65, 77-78, Федотов 1 306-307, Stachowski 161, 164. The forms *gu"n/el/ and *gun/al/ must be old dialectal variants.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)an|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 vehicle, cart 2 skis, sleighface="Times New Roman Star"1 повозка 2 лыжи, саниface="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kag|ny, dial. kanny, kangylly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ly (Sangl., Houts., AH) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"xan|a: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qan|na 2




face="Times New Roman Star"xa:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"qan|ha 2 (ФиЛ 91)







face="Times New Roman Star"g|an|ly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 531, EDT 638, ЭСТЯ 5, 259-260, Лексика 533.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ysyg / *isigface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hot 2 warmface="Times New Roman Star"1 горячий 2 теплыйface="Times New Roman Star"isig 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"isig 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"syz?|ak 1face="Times New Roman Star"esse 1face="Times New Roman Star"isti 2 (Pav. C.), ysyg| (Бор. Бад., Abush.)
face="Times New Roman Star"issiq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"isti 2face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"@z@g 1
face="Times New Roman Star"izu" 1face="Times New Roman Star"hissi:., hisk 1face="Times New Roman Star"ъw|z?ъw| 2face="Times New Roman Star"iti:, ic?iges ( < *isi-gec?) 2face="Times New Roman Star"iti:, ic?iges 2face="Times New Roman Star"izig| 1face="Times New Roman Star"i'sig| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ysyq 1, ysy 'heat, hot wind'face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"issi 1


face="Times New Roman Star"issi 1, 2 (HK), syz?|aq 2 (K), ysy-t- (K) 'to warm'face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"hyssy 2
face="Times New Roman Star"Derived from *ysy- / *isi- 'to be hot'. See VEWT 173-4, TMN 2,182, EDT 246, ЭСТЯ 1, 668-671, Лексика 19-20, Stachowski 123, 130.
face="Times New Roman Star"*egir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to twist, spinface="Times New Roman Star"крутить, прясть
face="Times New Roman Star"egir- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ejir-face="Times New Roman Star"ir- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"egir- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jigir-face="Times New Roman Star"jiger-, igir-
face="Times New Roman Star"a"jir-face="Times New Roman Star"egir-face="Times New Roman Star"i:r-face="Times New Roman Star"i:r-, egir-face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"ha"jir-face="Times New Roman Star"avъr-la-face="Times New Roman Star"i:r-is- 'спутаться о лесках'; ieregej 'humming-top'face="Times New Roman Star"ieregej 'drill'face="Times New Roman Star"e:r-
face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-
face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-
face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"ig|er-face="Times New Roman Star"ijir-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 112, ЭСТЯ 1, 227-231, TMN 2, 192, Федотов 1, 27, Stachowski 122. The Chuv. form reflects a partial merger with *ebir- (v. sub *i_a>\pV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jilikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"marrowface="Times New Roman Star"костный мозгface="Times New Roman Star"jilik (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jilik (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ilikface="Times New Roman Star"jelek, z?|elekface="Times New Roman Star"jilik (AH, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"ilikface="Times New Roman Star"jilik
face="Times New Roman Star"ilikface="Times New Roman Star"jilik

face="Times New Roman Star"d/ilik

face="Times New Roman Star"sili:
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilig
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ilik
face="Times New Roman Star"jilikface="Times New Roman Star"jelekface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ilik
face="Times New Roman Star"ilikface="Times New Roman Star"z?ilikface="Times New Roman Star"ileh (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"jilikface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 927, 928, VEWT 203, TMN 2, 214, ЭСТЯ 4, 265, Лексика 263. Turkm. and Uzb. dialectal ju"lu"k 'marrow' may reflect a contamination with *ju"lu"k / *juluk 'juice' q. v. sub *dilu.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(j)e:.n-c?ikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shin, shank 2 shin bone 3 boot-top strap 4 heelface="Times New Roman Star"1 голень 2 кость голени 3 ремешки для подтягивания голенищ 4 пятка
face="Times New Roman Star"jinz?|ik 2 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ik 1face="Times New Roman Star"jinz?|ik 1 (КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ik 'cou de pied' (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"i:nz?|ik 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"enz?|ik 4face="Times New Roman Star"enc?ik 4 (Leb.)

face="Times New Roman Star"inn/ia"x 1 (Пек. 1941)
face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik 3



face="Times New Roman Star"jensek 1face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik, inz?|ik 1
face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ix голень (ССЯ)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 172, 203, Лексика 286.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.ri-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to meltface="Times New Roman Star"таять
face="Times New Roman Star"eru"- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri- (Abushk.)face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-
face="Times New Roman Star"a"ri-face="Times New Roman Star"ere-face="Times New Roman Star"ir@-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"ir@l-face="Times New Roman Star"ir-face="Times New Roman Star"ir-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-
face="Times New Roman Star"ire-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"jeri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"eri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"iri-face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 289-290, Stachowski 128, EDT 198.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.k(k)iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"twoface="Times New Roman Star"дваface="Times New Roman Star"eki (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"e.ki (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ikeface="Times New Roman Star"iki (AH, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"s?igyface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ekeface="Times New Roman Star"igiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"a"kki, a"kki.face="Times New Roman Star"ikk@face="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ikkiface="Times New Roman Star"ijiface="Times New Roman Star"ixiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ikeface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"ikiface="Times New Roman Star"ekyface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"is?kyface="Times New Roman Star"ekiface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 39, EDT 100-1, ЭСТЯ 1, 337-339, Егоров 67-68, Stachowski 124.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yt / *itface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dogface="Times New Roman Star"собакаface="Times New Roman Star"yt (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"yt (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"it (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"yt (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"ys?tface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"it


face="Times New Roman Star"it face="Times New Roman Star"jydъface="Times New Roman Star"ytface="Times New Roman Star"ytface="Times New Roman Star"y'tface="Times New Roman Star"y'tface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"i_tface="Times New Roman Star"ijtface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"it

face="Times New Roman Star"ijtface="Times New Roman Star"is?t
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 174, TMN 2, 173-4, EDT 34, ЭСТЯ 1, 385, Егоров 83, Лексика 188, Stachowski 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.l/it-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hearface="Times New Roman Star"слышатьface="Times New Roman Star"es?id- (Orkh.), es?it- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-; dial. (Mishar) is?- 'hear' (ТТДС 156), (Bar.) is?e|n- 'listen' (ЯБТ 140)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it- (Abush. 63)face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"es?et- (Kashg., УНС 109)
face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-, pass. es?idil-face="Times New Roman Star"is- / ist-

face="Times New Roman Star"is?u"t-face="Times New Roman Star"ilt-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-face="Times New Roman Star"ihit-, pass. ihilin-

face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"est-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?et-face="Times New Roman Star"es?t-face="Times New Roman Star"is?it-face="Times New Roman Star"s?it-face="Times New Roman Star"esit-face="Times New Roman Star"is?ti-face="Times New Roman Star"es?it-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 318-319, Егоров 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Ku"a"r. a"s?-, Kach. es?- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *el/- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zaja,czkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. an|la- 'to hear' < an| 'mind'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drinkface="Times New Roman Star"питьface="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ec?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?- (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ys?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"@s-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-, es?- (R., Верб.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"@s/-face="Times New Roman Star"is-face="Times New Roman Star"is-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"es-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"is?-face="Times New Roman Star"i:c?-face="Times New Roman Star"ic?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 168, EDT 19, ЭСТЯ 1, 391, Егоров 66, Stachowski 129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bootface="Times New Roman Star"ботинок, сапогface="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"edikface="Times New Roman Star"iti>kface="Times New Roman Star"etu"k (Pav. C.), o"tu"k (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) a"dik, o"tik, o"tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"k

face="Times New Roman Star"a":dikface="Times New Roman Star"o"d@k
face="Times New Roman Star"o"du"k
face="Times New Roman Star"adъface="Times New Roman Star"eterbesface="Times New Roman Star"eterbesface="Times New Roman Star"idikface="Times New Roman Star"idikface="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"kface="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"etik



face="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"i:tix, itixface="Times New Roman Star"etikface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 50, VEWT 52, ЭСТЯ 1, 319-321, Егоров 36, Лексика 479, Stachowski 48.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fat n., butter 2 lard 3 thick, fat (adj.)face="Times New Roman Star"1 жир, масло 2 сало 3 толстый, жирныйface="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jag| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1 (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|g| 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja:g| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"d/u: 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja:g| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/u, s/ъw|v 1face="Times New Roman Star"sya 1face="Times New Roman Star"hya 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|oo-n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"z?au 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja: 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jag| 1face="Times New Roman Star"jav 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 177, EDT 895, ЭСТЯ 4, 58-59, Лексика 453, Федотов 2, 127, Stachowski 117.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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