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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"light grey, greyish blueface="Times New Roman Star"светло-серый, серовато-голубой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (MK, Tefs.) (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|ir-qano|t 'a white-eyed dunbird, нырок белоглазый'face="Times New Roman Star"c?eqir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'dried in the sun, bleached'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'yellow'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekir 'grey (of eyes), wall-eye'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'grey (of eyes, horses)', s?egir 'grey (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'colourless (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'whitish'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr
face="Times New Roman Star"s?egir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, TMN 2, 77, EDT 409, Федотов 2 387. Despite Fedotov c?okur 'variegated' is not related, it is < Mong. c?obkur (v. sub *s?op`e/). Despite Ra"sa"nen borrowed from Mong. can be only Yak. c?akyr 'white (of a horse)' (cf. also Dolg. c?akyr, see Stachowski 72), and perhaps the front-row forms (Kirgh. c?ekir, Kaz. s?egir, KKalp. s?egir - because of their restriction to the Kypch. area); but Mong.. c?akir / c?ekir 'whitish' is itself an obvious Turkism (see TMN ibid., Clark 1977, 134 with doubts). The root should be distinguished from nasalized forms: Oyr. c?an|qyr, Chuv. senker, Yak. c?en|gir, z?|en|gir, Kirgh. c?enkil, c?an|yl with the same set of meanings ('whitish, blue', often of eyes) = Mong. (Khalkha) cenxer id.; those should be compared with Tokh. A, B tsem. 'blue (of eyes)', Pers. zanga:r 'verdigris', whence Tat. za"n|ga"r (from Pers. zang 'rust', further derived with *za:'to leave, remain', Sak. ysa:ya" 'rust', Osset. zga", see Bailey 348-349). This is most probably an Iranian loanword in Turkic, Tokh. and Mong. (although a Chinese origin - cf. MC chien| 'blue' - is also possible). Cf. VEWT 104 (Turk. < Mong.), 531.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?en|eface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"челюсть



face="Times New Roman Star"c?an|a, c?en|e (Pav. C., AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"
face="Times New Roman Star"sen|ie







face="Times New Roman Star"c?ena"face="Times New Roman Star"cen|ge

face="Times New Roman Star"c?eneface="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. c?a:nah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drawface="Times New Roman Star"чертитьface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iz- (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-, syz- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-(mo|q)face="Times New Roman Star"siz-(maq)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-yr- 'to scrape, plane'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/yz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 'to draw, scrape, tear'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-, syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"hyd|-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"cyz-, c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-
face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 112, EDT 432, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413-414. The variant *syr/- is probably due to assimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ert-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to cut (off edges), make notches 2 to click 3 to pinch 4 to pinch (a musical instrument)face="Times New Roman Star"1 обрезать (края), делать зарубки 2 щелкать 3 щипать 4 играть на щипковом инструменте
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?irt- 2, 3, c?a"rda"k-la"- 'to hew'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"rt- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?irt- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"sirte- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?irte- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/art 'a dent for inserting bottom into banded vessels'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ert- 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ert- 2, 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"sirt- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 'to mark'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ert- 2, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ert- 1, 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 428, Федотов 2, 87-88. The semantic development here is 'to make notches, indents' > 'break the edge', 'pinch' (whence 'to click with fingers') - not onomatopoetic, as suggested by Clauson.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eknface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"part of shoulder between the neck and shoulderbladeface="Times New Roman Star"часть плеча между шеей и лопаткойface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin, dial. c?eg|in, c?eg|n
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (Abush., Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijinface="Times New Roman Star"c?igin


face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:nface="Times New Roman Star"s/an 'body'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415, VEWT 103, Дыбо 129-130, Лексика 238-239 (see there about details of phonetic reconstruction).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ygyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stamp, ram (ground) 2 stamped snow 3 boundary, limit 4 small pathface="Times New Roman Star"1 топтать, утаптывать (землю) 2 утоптанный снег 3 граница 4 узкая тропа
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|ru- 1, c?yg|yr 4 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 4, 'coomb, trace of an avalanche'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'thawed spot' (Sangl.), 'snow stamped by strong wind' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijir 'trace'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ir jol 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yGyr 3


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'bad road'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 'spot on snow or ground with many tracks'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr, c?ijir 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjyr 'stamped'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr-t- 'to stamp snow, grass'




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, 107, EDT 409, 410. Cf. perhaps also PT *c?ig- 'to draw a line' (VEWT 110). Turk. > Mong. Khalkha c?ijr 'stamped road', Kalm. c?i:r 'eaten and stamped grass' (KW 443).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ta:mface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 roof 2 wall 3 hutface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыша 2 стена 3 хибараface="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 (MK), 1 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"dam 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2 (КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"tam 1 (Abush.), 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|m 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ta:m 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'layer (of earth)'

face="Times New Roman Star"da:%m 1 ( < Ogh.)




face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'dug-out, grave'face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2

face="Times New Roman Star"dam 'shed, barn'
face="Times New Roman Star"tam 'hut'face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 459 (the root has an irregular *t-/*d- variation), Лексика 529. TMN 2, No 834. Turk. > Bao. dem 'wall'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tabyl/ganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hareface="Times New Roman Star"заяцface="Times New Roman Star"tabys?g|an (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tavys?g|an (MK, IM), tavs?an (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"taws?an
face="Times New Roman Star"tawus?qan (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"to.s?qanface="Times New Roman Star"tos?qanface="Times New Roman Star"to:sqanface="Times New Roman Star"dows?anface="Times New Roman Star"tows?an


face="Times New Roman Star"dovus?g|an
face="Times New Roman Star"tabysxan




face="Times New Roman Star"taws?an

face="Times New Roman Star"taws?anface="Times New Roman Star"taws?anface="Times New Roman Star"taws?anface="Times New Roman Star"to:s?en (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"taws?anface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 453, EDT 447, Щербак 1961, 136, Лексика 164.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ekerface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hunting dogface="Times New Roman Star"охотничья собака


face="Times New Roman Star"ige|r (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"iger (Буд.)





face="Times New Roman Star"egerface="Times New Roman Star"egerface="Times New Roman Star"egerface="Times New Roman Star"agar jytti ( > Hung. aga/r, see Gombocz 1912)





face="Times New Roman Star"eger (Kum.)face="Times New Roman Star"ige|r 'a bastard of a wolf and a dog'





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 38, 23.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u"l-, *o"l-c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to measure 2 measure, measuringface="Times New Roman Star"1 мерить 2 мера, измерениеface="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"lc?a"- 1, u">lgi> 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2 (Pav. C.); o"lc?- (IM) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o.lc?a"- 1, ulgi 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?i- 1, u"lga" 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?- 1, u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?e- 1, u"ln|n|i 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lga" 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"elc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"vis/- 1, @lg@ 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"llehin- 'divide, distribute'face="Times New Roman Star"u"llehin- 'divide, distribute'

face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?o"- 1, u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi> 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lsa"- 1, u">lgu"> 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"jo"lc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ol/c?-, o"lc?e- 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi 2
face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 142, VEWT 371, ЭСТЯ 1, 529, 632, Stachowski 250.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u"sku"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to cough, sprinkle (from mouth)face="Times New Roman Star"кашлять, брызгать (ртом)

face="Times New Roman Star"o"ksu"r-
face="Times New Roman Star"o"ksu"r- (Houts., Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"o"sku"r-face="Times New Roman Star"u"sgu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"u"sku"r-

face="Times New Roman Star"e^.su"r-face="Times New Roman Star"u"z@r-








face="Times New Roman Star"u":su"r-face="Times New Roman Star"o"ksu"r-, o"ksir-


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 376, ЭСТЯ 1, 637-638.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)o"mface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"trousersface="Times New Roman Star"брюки, штаныface="Times New Roman Star"u"m (OUygh.) (=o"m)face="Times New Roman Star"o"m (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"im (Osm.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ym (Kypch. Houts.)

face="Times New Roman Star"ym, jym, ju"m




face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.mface="Times New Roman Star"j@w|m













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 155, VEWT 520-521, Егоров 78, Федотов 1, 195, Мудрак 119, Лексика 478.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go downface="Times New Roman Star"спускаться, идти внизface="Times New Roman Star"en- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"en- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"in-, dial. en-face="Times New Roman Star"in-, in|-face="Times New Roman Star"en- (MA, IM, Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"i:n-face="Times New Roman Star"in-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.n-face="Times New Roman Star"an-face="Times New Roman Star"enie



face="Times New Roman Star"en-, dial. en|-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"in-
face="Times New Roman Star"jin-face="Times New Roman Star"en-face="Times New Roman Star"en-
face="Times New Roman Star"in-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 43, ЭСТЯ 1, 353-354, Егоров 26.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:.r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to reach 2 to passface="Times New Roman Star"1 достигать 2 проходить мимоface="Times New Roman Star"er- (OUygh.) 1, er-t- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"er-, dial. e:r-, ir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"er- (Pav. C., AH) 1, ert- (CCum.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. eris?- 1, ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"irde:- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"er- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eris- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 288-289, 303, Федотов 1,172-173. Ra"sa"nen (VEWT 46) connects also PT *eril/- 'to contest, challenge' (ЭСТЯ 1, 293-294) - which, together with Mong. *eri- 'to seek, search' (HY ere- `to hope'), should be rather kept apart (possibly a separate PA root *erV). Turk. > Hung. e/r- 'to reach', see Gombocz 1912.
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