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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Erinface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"lipface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"erin (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"erin (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"erin (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"iri>nface="Times New Roman Star"iren (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"irin


face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"iri>n
face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"a"`rin


face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"erin 'chin'face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"eri>nface="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"iri>nface="Times New Roman Star"erin
face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"erin
face="Times New Roman Star"erinface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 232-233, VEWT 48, 1, 292-293, 226-227. See also notes to *Erneg 'edge'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:.l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"friend, companion, mateface="Times New Roman Star", face="Times New Roman Star"es? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"es? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"es?
face="Times New Roman Star"es? (Sangl.)








face="Times New Roman Star"jys? 'family'

face="Times New Roman Star"es?face="Times New Roman Star"es?









face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 253-254, 1, 313-314, 83, 314.
face="Times New Roman Star"*i:l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to hang on (smth.) 2 hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 ( -.) 2 face="Times New Roman Star"il- (OUygh.) 1, ilin- (refl.) (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- (MK) 1, ylyn- (refl.) (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"dial. il- 1, ilmek 2face="Times New Roman Star"el- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yl- (Abush., Sangl.), ylyn- (refl.) (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmaq 2, 'loop'
face="Times New Roman Star"ilma"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"@l-
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jl, jlmak 'loop'face="Times New Roman Star"i:l- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"el- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ilin- (refl.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1, ilmek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"il- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 170, 1, 343-346, 73-74.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"notface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-my-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"*bejn|iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"brainface="Times New Roman Star"; face="Times New Roman Star"meji, men|i (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"men|i (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bejinface="Times New Roman Star"miface="Times New Roman Star"miji (MA), mejn (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"mijaface="Times New Roman Star"min|a"
face="Times New Roman Star"bejinface="Times New Roman Star"bejni, mejniface="Times New Roman Star"mi:face="Times New Roman Star"mi:-sface="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"meinface="Times New Roman Star"mim@face="Times New Roman Star"meji:face="Times New Roman Star"men/i: 'head'face="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"ma":face="Times New Roman Star"me:face="Times New Roman Star"myjface="Times New Roman Star"myjface="Times New Roman Star"mejeface="Times New Roman Star"mije
face="Times New Roman Star"mijiface="Times New Roman Star"mij
face="Times New Roman Star"mijiface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 70, EDT 348-349, 2, 106-107, TMN 4, 35, 195, Stachowski 178. Turk. > MMong. mije, miji ( 1997, 105).
face="Times New Roman Star"*be.-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 I 2 (*bi-r/) weface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 (*bi-r/) face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), men 1 (OUygh.), biz 2 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1 (MK, KB), biz 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bez 2face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1 (Abush.), biz 2 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, pyz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bi:z 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, p@s 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, pis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, mis 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"n 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"e-b@ 1, e-b@r 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bihigi 2 (Poss.)face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bihigi 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, bi's 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, miz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"min 1, bed| 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, miz 2face="Times New Roman Star"ben 1, bis 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"me:(n) 1, pise(r) 2 ( 128)face="Times New Roman Star"men 1, biz 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 346 (*be.-n), 388 (*bir/), 2, 129-130, VEWT 77, 333, Stachowski 60, 179.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o(-l)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thatface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"o-l (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o-l (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"oface="Times New Roman Star"u-lface="Times New Roman Star"o-l (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"u.face="Times New Roman Star"uface="Times New Roman Star"o-l, oface="Times New Roman Star"oface="Times New Roman Star"olface="Times New Roman Star"ol
face="Times New Roman Star"o-lface="Times New Roman Star"o:., o_, u.o:./-raface="Times New Roman Star"vw|-lface="Times New Roman Star"olface="Times New Roman Star"olface="Times New Roman Star"olface="Times New Roman Star"olface="Times New Roman Star"o-s?oface="Times New Roman Star"o-lface="Times New Roman Star"o-lface="Times New Roman Star"o-s?o, uface="Times New Roman Star"o-lface="Times New Roman Star"oface="Times New Roman Star"oface="Times New Roman Star"o-l, u-sy 'this'face="Times New Roman Star"uface="Times New Roman Star"o-lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 360, 1, 444-445, 456, 492-494, TMN 2, 93, EDT 123-4, Stachowski 191. The form o is attested later than ol, but it certainly does not mean that it was absent in PT (despite Clauson).
face="Times New Roman Star"*o:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tenface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"on (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"on (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"unface="Times New Roman Star"on (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o.nface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"on, unface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"o:nface="Times New Roman Star"on
face="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"o:^.nface="Times New Roman Star"vonface="Times New Roman Star"uonface="Times New Roman Star"uonface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"unface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"uon, onface="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"on
face="Times New Roman Star"onface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 166, VEWT 362, TMN 2, 163, 1, 455-456, 573, 1, 130-131, Stachowski 244.
face="Times New Roman Star"*on|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 right 2 good, lucky 3 Westface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 , 3 face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2, 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"on 1, 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"un| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"o.n| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"on| 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"w|n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"un|a 1, 'southern'; un|uor 'on the other bank'; on|or- 'to do, make'face="Times New Roman Star"on|uor 'on the other bank'; on|or- 'to do, make'face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"un| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 166-167, 168-169, VEWT 352, 1, 456-460, TMN 2, 165-166, Stachowski 195, 243. also adds the verb on|- 'to prosper'; but, according to EDT, in OT this verb has the shape on-, while the form on|- appears later (in Middle Kypchak and Old Osman texts, as well as in a number of modern languages), probably as a result of contamination.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o:tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fireface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"ot (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ot (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ot 'flame, fire' (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"utface="Times New Roman Star"ot (Pav. C., Abush., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"u.tface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"odface="Times New Roman Star"o:tface="Times New Roman Star"ot
face="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"hu:.tface="Times New Roman Star"votface="Times New Roman Star"uotface="Times New Roman Star"uotface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"utface="Times New Roman Star"ot

face="Times New Roman Star"otface="Times New Roman Star"oht
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 366, EDT 34, 1, 483-484, 356, 361, 1, 133, Stachowski 245. OT ot-c?uq was borrowed in MMong. as oc?aq 'hearth' (see 1997, 196).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sal-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to put, throw 2 to drop, lower 3 tax 4 heavyface="Times New Roman Star"1 , 2 3 4 face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1,2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salgyn 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, sal-ym 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa(l)- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salyg| 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salym 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sol- 1, solm 'heaviness'

face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"hal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 397, EDT 824, 2, 57, 7. Several derivatives with a velar suffix are used in Turk. for denoting downward motion or hanging: cf. OT salyg| 'taxes', Kirgh. salyq 'taxes; hanging down, limp'; SUygh. salyg| 'heavy'; Tur. salky 'weak, lax', Kirgh. salqy, Uzb. so|lqi- 'be loose, hang down' (see TMN 3, 265-266, 7).
face="Times New Roman Star"*semir/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fat (adj.) 2 fat (n.) 3 fattenface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 3 , face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"semiz (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"simyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"miz- 3face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"simis 1
face="Times New Roman Star"semis 1
face="Times New Roman Star"samr 1face="Times New Roman Star"emis 1face="Times New Roman Star"emis 1face="Times New Roman Star"semis 1face="Times New Roman Star"semis 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semizface="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"himiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"semu"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"semiz 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 830, VEWT 409, 7, Stachowski 45. A common Turkic derivative is *semri- / *semir- 'to become fat', see EDT ibid., 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*se.-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thouface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"sen (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sen (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sinface="Times New Roman Star"sen (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sa"nface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sa"nface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sinface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sen
face="Times New Roman Star"ez@face="Times New Roman Star"enface="Times New Roman Star"enface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"hinface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"sa"nface="Times New Roman Star"synface="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"se:(n)face="Times New Roman Star"senface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 409, EDT 831-832, Stachowski 45, 7. See ibid the reflexes of PT *sir/ 'you' (pl.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*suguface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"water bucketface="Times New Roman Star"



face="Times New Roman Star"sug|ur (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"sug|a



face="Times New Roman Star"so: (.)




face="Times New Roman Star"so: 'bucket made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"so: 'bucket made of birch bark'









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 431.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ti-(ku")face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thatface="Times New Roman Star"


face="Times New Roman Star"tegeface="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) tigi (Bulgat), tik (Ettuhf.)



face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) s?u"-tki,s?u"tu"ki, bitiki ' ' (Akhaltek.)face="Times New Roman Star"tege; i>-di 'so, thus'



face="Times New Roman Star"i-ti 'this'face="Times New Roman Star"i-ti 'this'face="Times New Roman Star"do":face="Times New Roman Star"te:face="Times New Roman Star"tigiface="Times New Roman Star"tigi (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"tege
face="Times New Roman Star"te bu 'this here', te o 'that there'

face="Times New Roman Star"du"g|u", tu":
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 479, Ra"sa"nen 1957, 36, 1962, 142, Stachowski 129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"n/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (itr.) 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to get burnt 5 soot 6 strong smell of burnt 7 unpleasant smellface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 3 4 5 6 7 face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n- (Argu MK), ko"j- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) ko"j-, ku"j- 1; ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1 (Abush., MA, . ., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kuj- 1, kuja 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j-, ku"j- 1, ko"jdu"r- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1, ku"jo" (dial.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1, ko"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ko": 5face="Times New Roman Star"kie_n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku", k@w|v 6 (.), k@w|s/ek 7; kw|vajt 5

face="Times New Roman Star"xo": 5face="Times New Roman Star"xo": 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ko": 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5
face="Times New Roman Star"gu"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 309, EDT 726, 730, 5, 88-89, 133, 362, . 75. The Az. form is somewhat dubious, both semantically ("itch") and phonetically (irregular voiced g-). See also *ko"n/- 'to grieve, suffer'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-syface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"possess. suffix (3d person)face="Times New Roman Star" 3- face="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-sy
face="Times New Roman Star"-s?@face="Times New Roman Star"-ta
face="Times New Roman Star"-zyface="Times New Roman Star"-zyface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-hyface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-syface="Times New Roman Star"-sy
face="Times New Roman Star"*do":rtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fourface="Times New Roman Star"face="Times New Roman Star"to"rt (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"to"rt (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"du"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rt (. ., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"to.rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"(r)tface="Times New Roman Star"du"rt, tu"rtface="Times New Roman Star"do"rdface="Times New Roman Star"do":rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rt
face="Times New Roman Star"tw|vadface="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"rtface="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"rtface="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"{do"rt}face="Times New Roman Star"to"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rtface="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"du"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rtface="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"to"rt
face="Times New Roman Star"do"rtface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 534, VEWT 495, 3, 284-286, Stachowski 235.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark (n.) 2 shellface="Times New Roman Star"1 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq (Tefs.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kabuk 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qapuq 1 (MA, AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|biq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qobuq (R, o-t) 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"GabyG 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:byG 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"xabyx (Kach.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xob 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"xavyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabuq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap, qaby 1, 2 'external cover, covering'face="Times New Roman Star"qabux 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qabyq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qabuq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 234, TMN 3, 368-9, 5, 168, 107, 2, 358.
face="Times New Roman Star"*kEmu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bone 2 spongy bone 3 cartilageface="Times New Roman Star"1 2 3

face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemu"k (MA) 3, ko"mu"k (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko|mik, ge|mik (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ke:mik 3





face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, EDT 722, 5, 36-38, 261-262. Turk. > Mong. kemik 'cartilage' (see 1997, 126; but the derivation of the Turk. form from *gemu"r- 'to gnaw' (v. sub *ke>\ma) is a folk etymology, although some contaminations were possible: Yak. ko"mu"ru"o" 'spongy bone' semantically continues *kemu"k, but formally is derived from *gemu"r-. MK has kemdi- 'to cut meat from the bones' and kemdu"k 'bone with meat cut off' - forms that may be related both to *kemu"k and *gemu"r-.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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