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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ata / *Eteface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 father 2 uncle 3 ancestorface="Times New Roman Star"1 отец 2 дядя 3 предокface="Times New Roman Star"ata 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ata, ataqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3, dial. ede 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata, eti 1, etkej 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|ta 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"a'da 1face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 40, 48, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 200-201, TMN 2, 5-6, 9, Лексика 294, 304.
face="Times New Roman Star"*atanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a castrated camelface="Times New Roman Star"кастрированный верблюд
face="Times New Roman Star"atan (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"atan (IM)



face="Times New Roman Star"atan (dial.)






face="Times New Roman Star"adan
face="Times New Roman Star"atanface="Times New Roman Star"atanface="Times New Roman Star"atan



face="Times New Roman Star"atan

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 60, ЭСТЯ 1, 202-203. Turk. > WMong. atan 'castrated camel'. Cf. also Yak. at 'castrated', atta:- 'to castrate' - homonymous with at 'horse', which is probably a secondary merger (the two roots obviously are to be kept separate).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.t(ky-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 handful 2 pinch(ful) 3 barb of the fish-fork hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 горсть, пригоршня 2 щепотка 3 бородка, зазубрина крючка остроги

face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2, atky 'weft; wooden fork; strap on footwear, scarf'face="Times New Roman Star"atqyry (dial.) 'cross-beam'
face="Times New Roman Star"o|tim 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atGy 'cross-bar', atym 2face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atqaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ydam 'armful'

face="Times New Roman Star"adym 1, atqaq 3, atpaq 'hanger for horse harness', atpaq-ta-l- 'to hitch on to smth.', atpan|na- 'grasp (of a child)'
face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2








face="Times New Roman Star"Егоров 344, Мудрак Дисс. 85, VEWT 31. If we exclude obvious loans from Mong. adqu-, all the other forms clearly fall into two types. 1) PT *a.tym 'handful, pinchful' 2) PT *Atky- 'smth. hitched, clutching, clinging'. The latter (Tuva atkak) is linked in EDT 47 with OUygh. atqaq 'vikalpa'. There is a number of OUygh. Buddhist terms that can be derived from a stem meaning 'grasp, hitch': atqaq '1) vikalpa, attachment to the material world (whence borrowed in Mong. atqag| 'illusion, prejudice'), 2) vis.aya, 'idea, notion, subject', atqaq-lyg| 'appertaining to smth.', atqa-n- 'be connected, clinging to (the material world)', atqa-nc?-syz 'devoid of sense perceptions', atqang|u 'vis.aya', atqang|u-lug| 'correlated' (cf. (alquqa) atqang|ulug| tutz?|aqlyg| 'correlated (with everything) (and) grasping (everything)'), see ДТС 68, EDT 47. This all seems to indicate a primary root *a.t- meaning both 'to cling, hitch on to smth., grasp' and 'a grasp, handful' (also 'armful' if we take into account the Chuv. meaning). Note that in Siberian languages this root (*a.t-ka-k) is additionally confused with the local word for 'gills' - which has a quite separate Altaic origin (see under *p`a/ta\(kV) 'fish fin').
face="Times New Roman Star"*Atyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"watered field, boundaryface="Times New Roman Star"орошаемое поле, межа
face="Times New Roman Star"atyz 'any strip of land between two dikes' (MK)



face="Times New Roman Star"etiz

face="Times New Roman Star"atyz
face="Times New Roman Star"adys 'загон 1/18 десятины'






face="Times New Roman Star"adyr 'холмистая местность, увалы'face="Times New Roman Star"atyz







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, EDT 73. Turk. > Mong. atiz (Щербак 1997, 102). Cf. also *a:tag 'island'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ar/ygface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fangface="Times New Roman Star"клыкface="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"azyg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azawface="Times New Roman Star"azu (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|ziq
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyface="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyjface="Times New Roman Star"azu, azu:
face="Times New Roman Star"*ora > Mari ora-puj 'id.'face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:, dial. yhy:
face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azyg|face="Times New Roman Star"azu:face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"ad|awface="Times New Roman Star"azaw

face="Times New Roman Star"azuw
face="Times New Roman Star"azuwface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 33, ЭСТЯ 1, 96-98, Лексика 229. Turk. > Mong. *az?|ug| (ac?ug| in Uygh. script, see Clark 1980, 41).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:.c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hungerface="Times New Roman Star"голодface="Times New Roman Star"ac? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"az?| (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?face="Times New Roman Star"ac?
face="Times New Roman Star"az?|face="Times New Roman Star"a:c?face="Times New Roman Star"asface="Times New Roman Star"as?face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"a:c?, o|:c?u-face="Times New Roman Star"vyz/ъface="Times New Roman Star"a:sface="Times New Roman Star"ac?-c?yk 'hungry'face="Times New Roman Star"as?
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"as?face="Times New Roman Star"as?face="Times New Roman Star"asface="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"a:c?face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"as?
face="Times New Roman Star"ac?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 17, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 208-209, Stachowski 28.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:tag
face="Times New Roman Star"islandface="Times New Roman Star"остров

face="Times New Roman Star"adaface="Times New Roman Star"atawface="Times New Roman Star"(CCum.) atov



face="Times New Roman Star"a:da



face="Times New Roman Star"odъ













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 87-88, TMN 2, 19, Федотов 2, 295.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:tagface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sacrifice 2 price, sale 3 engagement, votive 4 giftface="Times New Roman Star"1 жертвоприношение 2 цена, продажа 3 помолвка, обет 4 подарок

face="Times New Roman Star"adag| 1, 3, 4




face="Times New Roman Star"adax 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:daG 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1


face="Times New Roman Star"aty: 2












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5. All the listed forms may be derived from *a:ta- `to name' ( < *a:t `name'), but the specific meanings rather suggest a secondary contamination.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:t-al/c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be mistaken, to errface="Times New Roman Star"ошибаться, заблуждаться


face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-
face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-

face="Times New Roman Star"a:das?- (А-Б)








face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-face="Times New Roman Star"ad|as?-

face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"adas-
face="Times New Roman Star"adas?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 5. Strange reflexes of the medial consonant (voicing in Kypchak, d| in Bashk.) may somehow reflect the original cluster "resonant + stop".
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elderface="Times New Roman Star"1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старшийface="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), ag|a 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1,2, qyz ag|a 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:Ga 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father's father')face="Times New Roman Star"aqqa 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1 ('father'), 3face="Times New Roman Star"aga 'father'face="Times New Roman Star"aqy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|aj 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"aqa 2 (K), ag|a 2, 3 (K, T)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|a 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:g-, *ia:g-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to roll over, fall over 2 to climb over 3 to tumble 4 to turn over, capsize, let fallface="Times New Roman Star"1 падать, опрокидываться, свешиваться 2 перелезать 3 валяться, перекатываться 4 ронять, опрокидыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- 1, ag|dyr- 2, ag|yn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|- 1, o|g|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yna- 3 (ЯЖУ 11)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|- 1, 2, a:g|-dar- 4, a:g|yna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"an|-dar- 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|-dar- 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|-tar- 4, an|-da- (<*an|-na-) 3face="Times New Roman Star"ha:g|a, ho|:g|a 'back, in the back'face="Times New Roman Star"jъw|van- 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"a:n|-na- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"an|da-r- 4, an|da-s?- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"o:- 1, o:na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw-dar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"av- 1, av-dar- 4, avna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, 2, aw-la- 'to skim', awdar- 4, awna- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"avdar- 4, av-g|a-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, 2, awdar- 4, awna- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"av- 1, avdar- 4, av-la-n- 'to turn over, incline', avna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 86-87, VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 69-70, 73-76. Forms like an|-dar- are not quite clear - caus. from the refl. *ia:g-yn- ? (but the refl. form is here not *ia:g-yn- but rather *ia:g-na-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to riseface="Times New Roman Star"подниматьсяface="Times New Roman Star"ag|- (Yen., OUygh.), ag|-tur- (сaus.) (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- (MK, KB)

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|-



face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|- 'to overflow'











face="Times New Roman Star"awa-la- (of the sun)
face="Times New Roman Star"a:- 'to vaporize'



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 77, ЭСТЯ 1, 68-70. ЭСТЯ is probably right in distinguishing the roots *(i)a:g- (а:g|- I) 'to rise' and *ia:g- (а:g| II) 'to turn over, fall', although the former is only sparsely represented in modern languages, having for the most part dissolved within the reflexes of the latter. In OT the stems ag|- 'to rise' and ag|na- 'to tumble, roll on one's back' are quite clearly distinct.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jy:g-(la-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to weep, cryface="Times New Roman Star"плакатьface="Times New Roman Star"yg|-la- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"yg|la-, jyg|la- (MK), jyg|la- (KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"jyla-face="Times New Roman Star"jyg|la- (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|la-face="Times New Roman Star"jig|la-
face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|-la-face="Times New Roman Star"y:face="Times New Roman Star"ylg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"yjla-






face="Times New Roman Star"z?yla-

face="Times New Roman Star"zyla-

face="Times New Roman Star"z?yla-
face="Times New Roman Star"jila-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 8, ЭСТЯ 1, 79-81.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:n/(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"moon, monthface="Times New Roman Star"луна, месяцface="Times New Roman Star"aj (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"aj; an/ (CCum.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|jface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"a:jface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ha:jface="Times New Roman Star"ojъxface="Times New Roman Star"yjface="Times New Roman Star"yj 'month'face="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"ajface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, TMN 2, 169, EDT 265, ЭСТЯ 1, 98-99 (see there on the reasons of reconstructing *-n/), Мудрак Дисс. 178, Федотов 2, 271, Лексика 55, 76-77, Stachowski 258.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:ja ( < *a:n|/a)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"palm (of hand)face="Times New Roman Star"ладоньface="Times New Roman Star"aja (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aja
face="Times New Roman Star"aja (Sangl.; MKypch.- Houts., AH)

face="Times New Roman Star"x|aja, x|ajan
face="Times New Roman Star"a:jaface="Times New Roman Star"aja








face="Times New Roman Star"aja 'center of a palm'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaface="Times New Roman Star"aja 'мера длины - пальма; гребень для чесания пуха'face="Times New Roman Star"ajaz (< формы 3 л.)



face="Times New Roman Star"ajaface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, ЭСТЯ 1, 100-101, Дыбо 179-181, Лексика 252.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:d-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sober up 2 sober, consciousface="Times New Roman Star"1 трезветь 2 трезвый, сознательныйface="Times New Roman Star"adyn- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ad|yl- (MK,KB), ad|yn- (MK, KB) 1, ad|yg| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl-, dial. aj(yh)-, Osm. ajyn- 1, ajyk 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ajyl- 1, ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl- (Sangl.) 1, ajyq (Houts., Pav. C., IM) 2, ajyg| (IM, Qutb) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. ajyq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ajyl- 1, ajyG 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:jyl- 1, dial. ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyg| 2


face="Times New Roman Star"orъl- 1, orъ 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ajyq- 1, ajyq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 113-114, EDT 46, 61, Федотов 2, 285.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"red, scarletface="Times New Roman Star"красный, алыйface="Times New Roman Star"al (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"al (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"al (Pav. C., Houts.), al 'bright red' (CCum.)
face="Times New Roman Star"al
face="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"a:l










face="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"al
face="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"al

face="Times New Roman Star"alface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 94-95, ЭСТЯ 1, 125-126. A loanword in Russ. алый.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 device, trick, deceit 2 to deceiveface="Times New Roman Star"1 обман, хитрость 2 обманыватьface="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.), al-ta- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1 (MK, KB), alda- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"a^l 1, aldat- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aldi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), al-da-n- 'to be deceived, to err'face="Times New Roman Star"a:l 1, a:lda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2






face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"alda- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alda- 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 120-121, TMN 2, 93, ЭСТЯ 1, 126-127. A discussion of albasty ( = Mong. albin) see in TMN 2, 109-110. Turk. *a:l-da- > Mong. alda- 'to deceive' (MA, cf. also TMN 2, 116, Щербак 1997, 97) > Evk. alda- etc. (Doerfer MT 109). On Mong. alda- 'to lose' see *a:\le 'weak, tired'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:laface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"variegatedface="Times New Roman Star"пестрыйface="Times New Roman Star"ala (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ala (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"o|laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"a:laface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"hala-bulaface="Times New Roman Star"olaface="Times New Roman Star"ala
face="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"ala-z?|aface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"alaface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 126, VEWT 15, ЭСТЯ 1, 129-130, TMN 2, 95-97, Федотов 2, 274, Лексика 607.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 front 2 forehead 3 in front of 4 towards the front offace="Times New Roman Star"1 перед 2 лоб 3 впереди, спереди 4 впередface="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"al 1 (dial.), alyn 1, 2; 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"aly 1 (Abush.), alny-da 'in the presence of' (Abush.), aldy (Babur) 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|l-d-i 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajl, aldi 1, al-dyn 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, alym, alyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:lyn 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1face="Times New Roman Star"alny 1, alyn-da 3face="Times New Roman Star"aldy, alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"ha:nl(y), ha:ll 2face="Times New Roman Star"om 1

face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 'face, mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-da 3, al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, aldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"al, ally 1, al-da 3, al-g|a 4face="Times New Roman Star"anny 2face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1 (K), alyn 1 (T, H)face="Times New Roman Star"al-d-y 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"al 1, al-dan 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 121, 147; VEWT 14 (should be distinguished from *al- 'below'), TMN 2, 120, ЭСТЯ 1, 124-125, 146, Федотов 2, 280, Лексика 198-199. See EDT 121 commenting on the absence of early attestation of the suffixless form.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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