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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*bogur/, *bokur-dakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 throat 2 Adam's appleface="Times New Roman Star"1 горло 2 кадыкface="Times New Roman Star"bog|uz 1 (OUygh.), bog|zy / (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bog|oz (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"bog|az 1, bog|urdak, bog|urtlak (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bug|az 1 (k), pug|yrtaq (dial.), pu:rtaq (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bog|uz (Abush., Бор. Бад.) 1, boqurdaq, bog|ardaq (Sangl.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu.g|iz 1face="Times New Roman Star"bog|uz 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bog|az 1face="Times New Roman Star"boGaz 1, boqurdaq 1


face="Times New Roman Star"bog|az, bog|uz, bog|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"pyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"buosax 1
face="Times New Roman Star"boos (bosqu)face="Times New Roman Star"boos (boqsu)face="Times New Roman Star"bog|os 'place where two rivers meet' (South.)face="Times New Roman Star"bug|az, bug|yz 'shaft-bed in a shovel' (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bog|az 'double chin; channel, strait', bog|yrdaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"bog|ad| 1, bog|ard|aq 'trachea'face="Times New Roman Star"boqqur 2, bog|urdaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buwaz 1face="Times New Roman Star"bog|oz, bog|az 1face="Times New Roman Star"buwaz-aq 'glass for a kerosene lamp'face="Times New Roman Star"pog|tax|, pox|tax| 1face="Times New Roman Star"bog|az 'channel, strait'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 78, TMN 2, 344, ЭСТЯ 2, 167-168, 184, Лексика 230-231. The derivative *bokur-dak consistently displays reflexes of voiceless *-k-; it is present also in some reflexes of *bogur/ (Kirgh. bog|os, Kaz. bug|az, Nogh. bog|az, Bashk. bog|ad|, Kum. bog|az) - all probably under the influence of *bokak 'crop, craw' (v. sub *pu>/k`a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bol/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"free, emptyface="Times New Roman Star"свободный, пустойface="Times New Roman Star"bos? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bos? (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bus?face="Times New Roman Star"bos? (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.s?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos, posface="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"posface="Times New Roman Star"posface="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"poz?ъface="Times New Roman Star"bosxo (*bos?-ka)face="Times New Roman Star"bosko 'a little'face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bo's?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bosface="Times New Roman Star"bosface="Times New Roman Star"bus?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?, bosface="Times New Roman Star"bosface="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"bos?face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 376, VEWT 82, ЭСТЯ 2, 203-204, Мудрак Дисс. 126, Федотов 1, 457, Stachowski 63. The Chuv. form has a regular reflex, presupposing a final vowel. Turk. *bol/a-n- > bos?an- > Mong. busani- 'become empty, poor' (KW 63); *bol/-u-g 'permission' > Mong. bos?ug| (Clark 1980, 41).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo":rkface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hat, capface="Times New Roman Star"шапка, головная повязкаface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rk (OUygh. - Lig. VSOu)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rk (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rk, (dial.) bu"rk, po"rkface="Times New Roman Star"bu"rekface="Times New Roman Star"po"ru"k (MA), bo"rk (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.rkface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rkface="Times New Roman Star"po"ru"k, perikface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rk (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo":rikface="Times New Roman Star"po"r@kface="Times New Roman Star"po"ru"kface="Times New Roman Star"bo"ru"kface="Times New Roman Star"bo"^k (KhM), birga"k
face="Times New Roman Star"bergeheface="Times New Roman Star"bergeheface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rtface="Times New Roman Star"bo"'rtface="Times New Roman Star"bo"ru"kface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rikface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rkface="Times New Roman Star"bu"rkface="Times New Roman Star"bo"rk
face="Times New Roman Star"ba"rik (H), b'ork (T)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rik
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"rkface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 362, VEWT 84, TMN 2, 289, ЭСТЯ 2, 221-223, Лексика 482, Stachowski 58. In Tuva, Tof. *-rk > rt is regular. Reconstruction of length is not quite certain: Turkm. length is not confirmed by Khalaj and contradicts pharyngealization in Tofalar. Turk. > WMong. bu"rgu", Kalm. bu"rg@ (KW 67), Khalkha bu"rx (although theoretically this may as well be an indigenous derivative of bu"ru"-, cf. similar Turkic forms: Tur. dial. bu"r-me, bu"r-gu" 'headgear').
face="Times New Roman Star"*bul-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to findface="Times New Roman Star"находитьface="Times New Roman Star"bul- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bul- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bul-
face="Times New Roman Star"bula- (Pav. C. 174)







face="Times New Roman Star"bul-
face="Times New Roman Star"bul-face="Times New Roman Star"bul-






face="Times New Roman Star"bul-face="Times New Roman Star"bul-


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 332, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 252-253, Stachowski 65.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bulakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"spring, wellface="Times New Roman Star"источник, колодецface="Times New Roman Star"bulaq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bulaq (KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"bulakface="Times New Roman Star"bolaqface="Times New Roman Star"bulag| (Abush.), bulaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bulo|qface="Times New Roman Star"bulaq (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bulaqface="Times New Roman Star"bulaGface="Times New Roman Star"bulaqface="Times New Roman Star"pulux (R - Sag.)face="Times New Roman Star"puluq (R)
face="Times New Roman Star"bula:G 'well; tear'


face="Times New Roman Star"bylaqface="Times New Roman Star"bylaq (Рас. ФиЛ)
face="Times New Roman Star"bulaqface="Times New Roman Star"bulaq
face="Times New Roman Star"bulaq

face="Times New Roman Star"bulaq
face="Times New Roman Star"bulaqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 336, VEWT 87, ЭСТЯ 2, 257-258, TMN 2, 355. Cf. Kaz. bula- `to flow, gush forth'. Turk. > WMong. bulag|, Kalm. bul@g (KW 59; TMN ibid., Щербак 1997, 110), whence Evk. bulak (Doerfer MT 125).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bulga-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to stir, stir upface="Times New Roman Star"помешивать, перемешиватьface="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bula-face="Times New Roman Star"bolg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-; bula- (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"bula-, bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|u-face="Times New Roman Star"polg|a-, pula-face="Times New Roman Star"bula-face="Times New Roman Star"bula-face="Times New Roman Star"pulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"pulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"pъlxa-n- 'to become turbid'face="Times New Roman Star"bula:-, bulkuj-, byla:-face="Times New Roman Star"bulkuj-face="Times New Roman Star"bylg|a-, (dial.) bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulha-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bylg|a-, bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bylg|a-, bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bolg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bula-face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-, bolg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"bylg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"bulg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 337, VEWT 88, ЭСТЯ 2, 253-256, Ашм. X, 112, Stachowski 65. The Turk. root is the probable source of Mong. bulg|a- 'to confuse, uprise' (see TMN 2, 322-323, Щербак 1997, 110).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bulut (*bulyt)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"cloudface="Times New Roman Star"облако
face="Times New Roman Star"bulut (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bolytface="Times New Roman Star"bulut (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"pylytface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"pulutface="Times New Roman Star"pulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulytface="Times New Roman Star"p@w|l@w|t 'sky, cloud'face="Times New Roman Star"bylytface="Times New Roman Star"bylytface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bu_ltface="Times New Roman Star"bulytface="Times New Roman Star"bolotface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"bultface="Times New Roman Star"bu(:)lytface="Times New Roman Star"bulutface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 88 (the connection with PT *bulga- 'to mix' is not obvious at all); TMN 2, 323; EDT 333, ЭСТЯ 2, 262-264, Лексика 24, Stachowski 71. Turk. > MMong. (ИМ) bulut, see Щербак 1997, 163. Derived are Kypch. forms like Kaz., KKalp. buldyr 'foggy, cloudy', Kirgh. buldur 'fuzzy, cloudy', Nogh. buldyr 'id.'
face="Times New Roman Star"*burun (*buryn)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nose 2 front part 3 beforeface="Times New Roman Star"1 нос 2 передняя часть 3 перед, впередиface="Times New Roman Star"burun 1, 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1, 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"boryn 1face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1, 3 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"p'uryn 3face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"purun 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"purnu, (Верб.) purun 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"burun 3face="Times New Roman Star"buryn 1
face="Times New Roman Star"murun 1face="Times New Roman Star"munnu 1face="Times New Roman Star"murnu 2face="Times New Roman Star"murnu 2face="Times New Roman Star"murun 1face="Times New Roman Star"muryn 1face="Times New Roman Star"buryn 1face="Times New Roman Star"moron 1, boron 3face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"burnu 1face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"muryn 1face="Times New Roman Star"purny 1face="Times New Roman Star"burun 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 90, EDT 366-367, ЭСТЯ 2, 269-273, Лексика 214-215, Stachowski 182. Cf. *bur- 'to smell' (VEWT 89).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bur(a)-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to twist, wind roundface="Times New Roman Star"крутить, вертеть, поворачивать

face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"bor-face="Times New Roman Star"bur- (Sangl., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bur-, bura-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-
face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"pur-face="Times New Roman Star"pur-face="Times New Roman Star"buru-face="Times New Roman Star"burq- 'вывернуть руку'face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|r-



face="Times New Roman Star"bur-, bura-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-, bura-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-, bura-face="Times New Roman Star"bor-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"bur-, bura-
face="Times New Roman Star"bur-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 89, EDT 355, ЭСТЯ 2, 264-267. Turk. *bur(g)agu > Kalm. burg|u:, see KW 62.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bus-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hide, lay an ambushface="Times New Roman Star"прятаться, устраивать засадуface="Times New Roman Star"bus- (OUygh.- Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"bus- (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"pus-face="Times New Roman Star"pos-face="Times New Roman Star"bus- (Pav. C., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"pis-; pus- (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"pus- 'to eavesdrop'face="Times New Roman Star"bus-


face="Times New Roman Star"bus-xo 'Hinterhalt, Lauer'







face="Times New Roman Star"but|-





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 371, ЭСТЯ 2, 278-279, TMN 2, 291-292.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu:ta-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to cut branches 2 branch 3 nailface="Times New Roman Star"1 срезать ветви 2 ветвь 3 гвоздьface="Times New Roman Star"butyq 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"butyq, butaq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"buda- 1, budak 2face="Times New Roman Star"bota- 1, botaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buda- 1 (Pav. C.), (MKypch.) buda- 1 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, buto|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"puta- 1, putaq
face="Times New Roman Star"buda- 1, budaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu:da- 1, pu:daq 2face="Times New Roman Star"pydyra- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"buda- 1, budaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"(buta 'bush' - a backloan from Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|da 3face="Times New Roman Star"byta:- 1, butuk 2 (Пек.); muta:- 1, mutuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"mutuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu'duq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, butaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, butanaq 2 (buta 'bush' < Iran.)face="Times New Roman Star"byta- 1, butaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"bota- 1, botaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, butaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buda- 1, budaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, butaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"puta- 1, putaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"pu/u:tax 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"buta- 1, butaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 301, 302, VEWT 90, TMN 2, 330, Лексика 103, Stachowski 183. Turk. > WMong. butaq 'branch' (see Щербак 1997, 111) (but Mong. buta can be hardly explained as a loan).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu:(n)r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"iceface="Times New Roman Star"лед
face="Times New Roman Star"buz (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"bozface="Times New Roman Star"buz, muz (Abush., MA, Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"pyzface="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"bu:zface="Times New Roman Star"pusface="Times New Roman Star"mus
face="Times New Roman Star"buza"kface="Times New Roman Star"pъw|rface="Times New Roman Star"mu:s, bu:sface="Times New Roman Star"bu:s

face="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"bod|face="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"muzface="Times New Roman Star"buzface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 91, EDT 389, ЭСТЯ 2, 238-239, Лексика 17-18, TMN 2, 336, Stachowski 67.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu:tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thigh 2 leg, footface="Times New Roman Star"1 бедро 2 ногаface="Times New Roman Star"but (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"but (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 1face="Times New Roman Star"bot 1face="Times New Roman Star"but (Abush., Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 'groin'face="Times New Roman Star"put 2face="Times New Roman Star"put 2face="Times New Roman Star"bud 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu:t 1face="Times New Roman Star"put 1
face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu:t 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu:t 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu:t 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"but 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 1face="Times New Roman Star"bot 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"but 1face="Times New Roman Star"but 1face="Times New Roman Star"put 1
face="Times New Roman Star"but 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 90, EDT 297, ЭСТЯ 2, 280-281, Лексика 282, Stachowski 67.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo:jnface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"neckface="Times New Roman Star"шеяface="Times New Roman Star"bojyn (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bojun, bojyn (MK), bojun (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"mujynface="Times New Roman Star"bojn, bojun (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"bu.jinface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"mojinface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"mojynface="Times New Roman Star"mojunface="Times New Roman Star"mojunface="Times New Roman Star"bu:unface="Times New Roman Star"mъjface="Times New Roman Star"mo:jface="Times New Roman Star"muojface="Times New Roman Star"mojunface="Times New Roman Star"mo"a"n (mojnu)face="Times New Roman Star"mojunface="Times New Roman Star"mojynface="Times New Roman Star"mojynface="Times New Roman Star"mujynface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"bojnuface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"mojynface="Times New Roman Star"bojnyface="Times New Roman Star"bojunface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 80, EDT 386, ЭСТЯ 2, 180-182, Лексика 233-234, Stachowski 183. Turk. forms like Kirgh. mojnoq > Mong. Kh. moinog 'Wamme' (see Щербак 1997, 108).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a k. of cloak 2 lap, skirt 3 used clothing 4 bedding under the saddle 5 woman's gown 6 gown 7 gusset (in clothes)face="Times New Roman Star"1 род плаща 2 подол, фалда 3 старая, потертая одежда 4 подстилка под седло, чепрак 5 женский халат 6 халат 7 клин (в одежде)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apg|ut 'a padded garment' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aput 3, c?aprak 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1, c?apraq 4, c?abu 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1 (R; Pav. C. jamag|lyg| c?apan 'mended cloak'), c?abuq 2 (Pav. C.), (OKypch.) c?apg|ut 3 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|po|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyt 5, c?apan 6, c?apy 'ornamental trimming for clothes' lap'face="Times New Roman Star"sabyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyr 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abug| 'trimmed section on a woman's tunic'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?avyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu: 7; c?apan 6, c?apan-c?apqyt 'upper clothes', c?opqut 'quilted coat under armour; expensive costume'face="Times New Roman Star"s?abu 2, s?apan 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 'gusset-like front part of gown's laps'face="Times New Roman Star"sapan 6, sabyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apraq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 7, s?apan 6, s?obyt 'used things', s?opqyt 'rags'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyw 7, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 396, TMN 3, 47, Аникин 643. Several derivations are clearly distinguishable: a) *c?ap-gut 'upper clothes, garment' (with later development > 'used clothes'); b) *c?ap-rak 'bedding under the saddle'; c) *c?ap-an 'cloak, gown'; d) *c?ap-gu 'lap, gusset' - all clearly related to each other.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?al-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 bladeface="Times New Roman Star"1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвиеface="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?algy 9, c?algy orag|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|i u.ro|q 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, c?alg|a 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al(y)- 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6, 7, c?alg|y 9face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 10, 7, 6, c?alGy 5, 11face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 6face="Times New Roman Star"s/ol- 4, s/olъk 9face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyn- 'to fall abruptly'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aly- 10
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 3, c?alg|y 5, c?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 4, s?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"saly- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 4, c?alqy 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?alym 14face="Times New Roman Star"cal- 1, 4, calqy, calg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?al- 1, 3, 13, s?alg|y 5, s?alg|yn 12
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al- 1, 4, c?alg|y 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *c?a:l- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *c?al- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jalan|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"field, steppeface="Times New Roman Star"поле, степь


face="Times New Roman Star"jalan, dial. jalan|
face="Times New Roman Star"jalan|



face="Times New Roman Star"jalan|face="Times New Roman Star"c?alan|face="Times New Roman Star"d/alan|face="Times New Roman Star"c?alan|




face="Times New Roman Star"z?|alan| (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"jalan





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 181, ЭСТЯ 4, 91. Turk. > Russ. jela/n/ , see Аникин 197.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)aly-(gan)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thornface="Times New Roman Star"1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alag|an 2 (R - Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alo|w 'ковыль волосистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'солянка кустарниковая'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|yn, (R) s?alg|anaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqanc?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqan 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'blackthorn; thorn'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) c?alqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic c?al-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Amface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a backbiting man 2 to exact a fine 3 claim 4 reproach 5 to be offended 6 to be angryface="Times New Roman Star"1 клеветник 2 штрафовать 3 претензия, рекламация (юрид.) 4 упрек 5 обижаться 6 сердитьсяface="Times New Roman Star"c?am 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?amg|uq 1 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-la- 'to speak with disgust' (R, Pav. C.)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?`imig 'badly'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?am (dial., R) 4, c?am-da-l- (dial., R) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ammal-tur- 'to look nervous, angry'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am 'that which causes offence', s?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?am 'joke, mockery', c?am-la-n- 6

face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 5, s?am-s?yl 'resentful, sensitive'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 421-422, 423, VEWT 98, D-T 97. At least part of the forms may ultimately have a Chinese source (MC z|.a".m 'slander'). Cf. also c?aman 'lazy horse, dog'; Tur. c?amura jat- 'to decline from paying a debt' (slang; lit. 'to lie down in dirt' - perhaps a reanalysis based on the analogy with c?amur 'dirt', cf. also c?amur (metaph.) 'low, humble').
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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