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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:c?y-gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bitter, acidface="Times New Roman Star"горький, кислыйface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?y (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?i, o|c?c?i (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|y, a:z?|yg|

face="Times New Roman Star"ac?uface="Times New Roman Star"ha:c?ug|, ha:c?uqface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z/@face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"ahy:face="Times New Roman Star"az?yg|face="Times New Roman Star"az?|yg|
face="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?yface="Times New Roman Star"asyface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"az?|iface="Times New Roman Star"az?|y, ac?yface="Times New Roman Star"as?s?yface="Times New Roman Star"a:z?|yface="Times New Roman Star"ac?c?yface="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 89-93, Егоров 82, Мудрак 115, Stachowski 30. In most languages also attested as a verbal stem *ia:c?y- 'to become bitter, sour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to cross (a mountain) 2 to surpassface="Times New Roman Star"1 переходить (через гору) 2 превосходитьface="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"o|s?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"a:s- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s- 'to go by'face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 'to go beyond the range of vision'face="Times New Roman Star"as?- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 212-214, EDT 255, Stachowski 41. The OT gerund as?ru 'having crossed over, exceeded > very' > Mong. asuru (Clark 1980, 42, Щербак 1997, 102-103).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/, *(i)al/-a-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 meal, food 2 to eat 3 porridge 4 to feedface="Times New Roman Star"1 еда, пища 2 есть 3 каша 4 кормитьface="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 3face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?, o|:s? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1, as- 2face="Times New Roman Star"a's? 1, az?a:- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 29-30, ЭСТЯ 1, 210-212, TMN 2, 61-62, EDT 253, 256, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/(c?)ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle joint, knucklebone 2 dieface="Times New Roman Star"1 лодыжка, бабка 2 альчик
face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 2 (Osmanli), as?yk 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1, 'bone of the elbow' (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s?iq 2face="Times New Roman Star"os?uq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yG 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"az?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 259, VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 216-217, TMN 2, 64-65, Лексика 288.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a>l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 seed, cereals, crops; 2 graft, 3 vaccine, 4 pus (primarily - as a material for vaccinacion?) 5 tanning matter, 6 starchface="Times New Roman Star"1 семя, злаки, зерновые 2 привой 3 вакцина 4 гной (первоначально - как прививка?) 5 дубильное вещество 6 крахмал
face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1 (as?lyq taryg| o"nar 'crops spring') (MK; IM)face="Times New Roman Star"as?y 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as? 1, 4 dial. (Sib., КСТТ 107), as?-la- 'to starch'face="Times New Roman Star"as?i 2 (Pav. C.), 'pollen' (Zenker I 56)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s? 5, o|s?-liq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-la- 'to tan'
face="Times New Roman Star"as?, as?y 3, 5face="Times New Roman Star"as?-Gar 5face="Times New Roman Star"as 1, as-ta-n- 'to beware of a disease' ('to vaccinate oneself'?)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 4, as, ahylyk 'fruit of some wild plants, berry'face="Times New Roman Star"ahylyk 'berry'

face="Times New Roman Star"as? 'fruit of some wild plants, berry', as?tyq 1, as?a- 'to tan'face="Times New Roman Star"astyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 'a grain, a seed', aslyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?lyq 1, as?la- 'to graft', dial. as? 'pus' (Бhh III 26)face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-u"gu" 'one of cereal cultures'face="Times New Roman Star"has?-la- 'to plant out seedlings; to graft; to vaccinate'face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1, as?-la- 'to graft'
face="Times New Roman Star"as?-lyq 1 (ССЯ 296)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1 (Cатыб. 73), as?-la- 'to pollinate; to tan'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 211-212, 216, Stachowski 29. A lot of etymological confusion here. Forms meaning 'to tan, tanning matter; starch' may be either borrowed from Persian or, rather, derived from *(i)al/ 'meal' (v. sub *i_ol/e), see Лексика 378. The latter root, due to its phonetic similarity (or even identity) has in general influenced the present one: 'cereals' are influenced by 'porridge' and *(i)al/-la- 'to graft, to pollinate' by *(i)al/-la- 'to fertilize' ( = 'to feed'). It seems nevertheless impossible to unite them completely.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ata / *Eteface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 father 2 uncle 3 ancestorface="Times New Roman Star"1 отец 2 дядя 3 предокface="Times New Roman Star"ata 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ata, ataqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3, dial. ede 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata, eti 1, etkej 2face="Times New Roman Star"ata (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|ta 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 'father's father'face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3



face="Times New Roman Star"a'da 1face="Times New Roman Star"ada 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1, 'male'face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3face="Times New Roman Star"ata 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ata 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 40, 48, VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 200-201, TMN 2, 5-6, 9, Лексика 294, 304.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a:t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to step 2 to walk 3 step (n.)face="Times New Roman Star"1 шагать 2 ходить 3 шаг

face="Times New Roman Star"adym 3, adym at-, Osm. ad- 1face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3, aty 'step'face="Times New Roman Star"adym (Pav. C.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|dim, dial. adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atli- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"adym at- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. a:t-, a":t-, a":t-le- 1, a":dim, dial. a:dym 3face="Times New Roman Star"alta- 1, atyx- 'to jump'
face="Times New Roman Star"alta- 1 (< atla-)
face="Times New Roman Star"odъm 3, ot- 2face="Times New Roman Star"atylla:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"atylla:- 'to jump, hop'

face="Times New Roman Star"atta- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, ad|ym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"atla- 1, adym 3face="Times New Roman Star"a'tla- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, ЭСТЯ 1, 88-89, 322, Федотов 2, 293-294, Stachowski 39.
face="Times New Roman Star"*as-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hangface="Times New Roman Star"висетьface="Times New Roman Star"as- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as- (Sangl., Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-


face="Times New Roman Star"has-face="Times New Roman Star"us-, os-

face="Times New Roman Star"a's-
face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"at|-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 28, EDT 240, ЭСТЯ 1, 192-193, Егоров 277, Федотов 2, 289.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Argun ? *a:r/
face="Times New Roman Star"1 ermine 2 a k. of weaselface="Times New Roman Star"1 горностай 2 вид ласкиface="Times New Roman Star"as (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"as, az (MK) 1, arg|un (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"a(r)s, Osm. asface="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as (Sangl.) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"a(g|a)s, a:s 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jos 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1
face="Times New Roman Star"arys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"at| 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 216, ЭСТЯ 191, **AD Федотов 2 493.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ia:g-, *ia:g-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to roll over, fall over 2 to climb over 3 to tumble 4 to turn over, capsize, let fallface="Times New Roman Star"1 падать, опрокидываться, свешиваться 2 перелезать 3 валяться, перекатываться 4 ронять, опрокидыватьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- 1, ag|dyr- 2, ag|yn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|- 1, o|g|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yna- 3 (ЯЖУ 11)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|- 1, 2, a:g|-dar- 4, a:g|yna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"an|-dar- 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|-dar- 4face="Times New Roman Star"an|-tar- 4, an|-da- (<*an|-na-) 3face="Times New Roman Star"ha:g|a, ho|:g|a 'back, in the back'face="Times New Roman Star"jъw|van- 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"a:n|-na- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"an|da-r- 4, an|da-s?- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"o:- 1, o:na- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw-dar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"av- 1, av-dar- 4, avna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awdar- 4, awna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, 2, aw-la- 'to skim', awdar- 4, awna- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"avdar- 4, av-g|a-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, 2, awdar- 4, awna- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"av- 1, avdar- 4, av-la-n- 'to turn over, incline', avna- 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 86-87, VEWT 7, ЭСТЯ 1, 69-70, 73-76. Forms like an|-dar- are not quite clear - caus. from the refl. *ia:g-yn- ? (but the refl. form is here not *ia:g-yn- but rather *ia:g-na-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)aby-
face="Times New Roman Star"1 to bend, fall 2 to roll, sway, swingface="Times New Roman Star"1 сгибаться, сваливаться, опрокидываться 2 валяться, переворачиваться с боку на бок


face="Times New Roman Star"avu- 1







face="Times New Roman Star"aby- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"a:-t-tyn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o:- 1, 2, o:-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"awu- 1, awyn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"avy- 1, avna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aw- 1, awan- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"avd- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"avun- 2face="Times New Roman Star"The root should be distinguished from *(i)aby- `to enjoy oneself, be happy' q. v.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)a:g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to riseface="Times New Roman Star"подниматьсяface="Times New Roman Star"ag|- (Yen., OUygh.), ag|-tur- (сaus.) (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|- (MK, KB)

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|-



face="Times New Roman Star"a:g|- 'to overflow'











face="Times New Roman Star"awa-la- (of the sun)
face="Times New Roman Star"a:- 'to vaporize'



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 77, ЭСТЯ 1, 68-70. ЭСТЯ is probably right in distinguishing the roots *(i)a:g- (а:g|- I) 'to rise' and *ia:g- (а:g| II) 'to turn over, fall', although the former is only sparsely represented in modern languages, having for the most part dissolved within the reflexes of the latter. In OT the stems ag|- 'to rise' and ag|na- 'to tumble, roll on one's back' are quite clearly distinct.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Agyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mouth 2 lip, lips 3 mouth of a river, of a cleftface="Times New Roman Star"1 рот 2 губа, губы 3 устье реки, ущельяface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz (Orkh.) 3, ag|yz, ag|az (OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"eg|iz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ys 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, axsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"aqsy 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"o:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw|, urъ-lъ 3face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"uos 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s, aqsy (3 P.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ooz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyd| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awud| 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"a:s 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"awyz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yz 1face="Times New Roman Star"awuz 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 8, EDT 98, ЭСТЯ 1, 81-83, Мудрак Дисс. 115, Лексика 224-225, Stachowski 245.
face="Times New Roman Star"*iagyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"heavyface="Times New Roman Star"тяжелыйface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yr (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yr (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yrface="Times New Roman Star"awyrface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yr (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|g|irface="Times New Roman Star"eg|ir
face="Times New Roman Star"ag|yrface="Times New Roman Star"aGyrface="Times New Roman Star"a:r

face="Times New Roman Star"ag|i:.rface="Times New Roman Star"jyvъrface="Times New Roman Star"yarface="Times New Roman Star"yara-kanface="Times New Roman Star"a:rface="Times New Roman Star"a:rface="Times New Roman Star"o:rface="Times New Roman Star"awyr
face="Times New Roman Star"awyrface="Times New Roman Star"awur

face="Times New Roman Star"awyrface="Times New Roman Star"ag|yr
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 8, EDT 88-9, ЭСТЯ 1, 85-87, Егоров 82-83, Лексика 338-339, Stachowski 258.
face="Times New Roman Star"*aglakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lonely, uninhabited (place) 2 unemployed, out of work 3 fieldface="Times New Roman Star"1 незаселенное место 2 безработный, лишенный службы 3 поле, степьface="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (OUygh. - Buddh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|laq 1 (MK), ag|la-ju 1 (MK; deverb. from *ag|la- 'to be deserted' (unattested)), ag|la-t- (MK) 'to send away (people)'face="Times New Roman Star"aylak 2; ag|lak (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ag|lax 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ulax 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o:laq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajlaq, hajlaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"awlaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 84, 85, VEWT 8, ЭСТЯ 1, 64. Turk. > WMong. ag|laq, ag|lag|a id. (KW 3, Щербак 1997, 95). Tends to contaminate with *a:b-lag 'hunting lands'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касаться ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, ЭСТЯ 1, 99-100, 111-112, Егоров 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Epejface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"baked breadface="Times New Roman Star"печеный хлеб


face="Times New Roman Star"ipi

















face="Times New Roman Star"a"pa"j





face="Times New Roman Star"Forms like epmek may belong here but contaminated with *etmek (v. sub *ite).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>c?aj / *e>c?ejface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 old man or woman 2 mother 3 grandmother 4 sister (of woman) 5 mother (if the grandmother is still alive) 5 mother (addr. to an elder woman) 6 aunt, sister of father 7 elder brother 8 uncle 9 ancestor 10 Father! (to the God) 11 old man, elder man 12 husband 13 younger brother of father's father 14 grandfather 15 fatherface="Times New Roman Star"1 старый мужчина или женщина 2 мать 3 бабушка 4 сестра (женщины) 5 мать (при живой бабушке) 5 мать (обр. к пожилой женщине) 6 тетя, сестра отца 7 старший брат 8 дядя 9 предок 10 Отче! (обр. к Богу) 11 старик, пожилой человек 12 муж 13 младший брат деда 14 дед 15 отецface="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 7, 8 (Orkh.), ec?u" 9 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ec?i 1 (MK), ec?u" 10 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"az?|u (dial.), ez?|e 11face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a, az?|i, e|z?|i 5 (dial., ТТДС 22, 551), azyj, e|zi 11, 15 (dial., ТТДС 23, 540)
face="Times New Roman Star"o|c?a, ac?a 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 6face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y 4, ac?a 12, 15

face="Times New Roman Star"az?|a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 7, 8face="Times New Roman Star"Leb. az?|y, az?|a 7, ac?a 13
face="Times New Roman Star"az/a 15face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ehe 14face="Times New Roman Star"ac?a 15face="Times New Roman Star"as?'a, az?|a 7, 15face="Times New Roman Star"ac?aj 5, az?|a 11

face="Times New Roman Star"a"sa" 2




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|aj 5, ec?iw 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 35, ЭСТЯ 1, 231-235, TMN 2, 15, Егоров 35, Лексика 299, Clark 1977, 128, Stachowski 43. Shortness is suggested by pharyngealization in Tofalar, so the variants with -z?|- are probably due to expressive gemination (*ac?c?V / *ec?c?V).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to turnface="Times New Roman Star"поворачиватьface="Times New Roman Star"ebir- (Orkh.), evir- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"evu"r- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"evir-
face="Times New Roman Star"evir-, iber- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"wu"r- (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"o"wu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"ibi>r-face="Times New Roman Star"ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"ebir-
face="Times New Roman Star"avъr-




face="Times New Roman Star"u"ji>r-
face="Times New Roman Star"a"wir-





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 14, VEWT 34, ЭСТЯ 1, 498-500, Егоров 20.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"peaceface="Times New Roman Star"мирface="Times New Roman Star"baz (Orkh.)


face="Times New Roman Star"baz (Qutb, AH)
















face="Times New Roman Star"bad|-a- 'to be shy'face="Times New Roman Star"baz-a-ma 'shelter, secure place'
face="Times New Roman Star"baz; baz-la- 'to comfort, console'


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 388 (together with baz 'an alien'), VEWT 62, 66.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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