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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*jan|y / *jen|iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"newface="Times New Roman Star"новыйface="Times New Roman Star"jan|y (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jan|y (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jeniface="Times New Roman Star"jan|aface="Times New Roman Star"jan|y (MA, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jangu.face="Times New Roman Star"jen|iface="Times New Roman Star"jan|yface="Times New Roman Star"jeniface="Times New Roman Star"jan|y 'just, recently'face="Times New Roman Star"na:face="Times New Roman Star"na (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"d/an|yface="Times New Roman Star"ja"n|giface="Times New Roman Star"s/@n@face="Times New Roman Star"san|aface="Times New Roman Star"han|a; hin|il 'young'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:face="Times New Roman Star"n/a:face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an|yface="Times New Roman Star"z?an|aface="Times New Roman Star"jan|yface="Times New Roman Star"jan|yface="Times New Roman Star"z?ang|yface="Times New Roman Star"jeniface="Times New Roman Star"jyn|gyface="Times New Roman Star"z?an|aface="Times New Roman Star"jan|yface="Times New Roman Star"jan|yface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 185 (Ra"sa"nen is deriving this word from *ja:n 'side' which is quite improbable), EDT 943-4, Ё—“я 4, 124-125, Ћексика 85, Stachowski 96, 104. Turk. > MMo, WMong. z?|an|gi, Kalm. za"n|g/@ 'news' (KW 470; doubts about this borrowing in TMN 1, 281, based on the early attestation of the meaning "discussion" in Mong., are hardly founded).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAn|ylface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mistake, fault 2 to err, make a mistakeface="Times New Roman Star"1 ошибка, вина 2 ошибатьс€face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl- 2, jan|luq 1(Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl- 2, jan|luq 1(MK)face="Times New Roman Star"janlys? 1, janyl- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jalg|ys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|yl- (Ѕор. Ѕад., Ettuhf., Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|lis?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jen|il-, jan|lis?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl 1face="Times New Roman Star"janlys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaln|ys? 1, jaln|ys?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"na:l- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, d/an|yl- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an|yl- 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?an|yl- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jan|ylys?- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jannys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, jan|g|yl- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yl-, jan|lys?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 186, EDT 950, 951, Ё—“я 4, 120-121. Suffixless *jan| is poorly attested and probably does not exist.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jan|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 echo 2 sound, resound 3 to sound, pronounceface="Times New Roman Star"1 эхо 2 подражание звукам, звучание 3 звучатьface="Times New Roman Star"jan|qu 1 (OUygh.), jan|ra- (Orkh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"jan|qu 1, jan|ra- 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"janky 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan|g|yra- 3face="Times New Roman Star"jan|qu 1 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"jan|gra- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"jan| 2, jan|ra- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"d/an|u 1, d/an|yr- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"san|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"han|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?an|g|y 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an|yr- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"jan|yra- 3face="Times New Roman Star"jan|g|yra- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"z?an|g|yr- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"jang|yr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 949, 952, Ё—“я 4, 119, 122, 124, Stachowski 96. Turk. > WMong. jan| 'melody' (ўербак 1997, 164).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jabl/anface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wormwoodface="Times New Roman Star"полынь
face="Times New Roman Star"japc?an, javc?an (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"jaws?an



face="Times New Roman Star"jovs?an






face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?pan










face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 4, 53-55, EDT 872.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to smooth, level 2 flatface="Times New Roman Star"1 выравнивать, сглаживать 2 плоский
face="Times New Roman Star"japur- (MK) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2 (R.)
face="Times New Roman Star"japilaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"japyG 2







face="Times New Roman Star"c?y`pyt 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|apalaq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"japalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 4, 16-17, 130, EDT 879.
face="Times New Roman Star"*japur-gakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"leafface="Times New Roman Star"листface="Times New Roman Star"japyrg|aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"japurg|aq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"japrakface="Times New Roman Star"jafraqface="Times New Roman Star"japyrg|an (Abush.), j[a]praq (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"japro|qface="Times New Roman Star"jopurmaq
face="Times New Roman Star"jarpaGface="Times New Roman Star"japraq

face="Times New Roman Star"d/albyraq

face="Times New Roman Star"sebirdexface="Times New Roman Star"hebirdekface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"ree 'bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"'pra"a" 'bark'face="Times New Roman Star"z?|albyraqface="Times New Roman Star"z?apyraqface="Times New Roman Star"japyraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"c?apraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"japraxface="Times New Roman Star"z?apyraqface="Times New Roman Star"ja"rfyx|face="Times New Roman Star"japraqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 188, EDT 879-80, Ё—“я 4, 130-132, Ћексика 111-112, Stachowski 100. Clauson derives *japur-gak from *japur- 'to smoothe, level', which is an obvious contamination - just as the contamination with *jalpy- 'flat' (v. sub *de>\lp`a\) in some languages.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.p-yl/c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to glue, stick toface="Times New Roman Star"приклеиватьс€, прилипатьface="Times New Roman Star"japys?- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"japus?-, japys?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"jabys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?- (AH, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|pis?-face="Times New Roman Star"jepis?-, jopus?-
face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-


face="Times New Roman Star"japus?-face="Times New Roman Star"s/ybъs/-face="Times New Roman Star"sysyn- s?yba: - 'to plaster, smear'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y'ps?yn-
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|abys?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys-face="Times New Roman Star"jabys-face="Times New Roman Star"ja"bes?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-face="Times New Roman Star"japys?-, japus?-, jabus?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?abys-
face="Times New Roman Star"jabus?-, jabys?-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 187, Ё—“я 4, 132-133, EDT 880-881. The deriving stem *ja.p- is probably preserved in Karakh. (MK) jap- 'stick to', Az. jap- 'to model dung for drying' and *jap-ma 'modelled dung' (see Ё—“я 4, 130, 133); thus the analysis of *ja.p-yl/c?- as reciprocal from *jap- 'make, create' or 'cover' (EDT ibid.) is certainly incorrect.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (tr.) 2 light, ray 3 to produce fireface="Times New Roman Star"1 жечь 2 свет, луч 3 высекать огонь
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jaqty 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|q- 1, jo|g|du 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jag|ty 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ja:q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/ot- 1, s/o-dъ 2face="Times New Roman Star"saq- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jaqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1, z?aqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 180, TMN 4, 201-202, EDT 897, Ё—“я 4, 62, 81-82, ‘едотов 2, 146, Ћексика 362. This stem should be distinguished from *jan- 'to burn (intr.)'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to come near 2 near 3 to come near to each other, pass 3 goodface="Times New Roman Star"1 приближатьс€ 2 близкий 3 приближатьс€, подходить 4 хорошийface="Times New Roman Star"jaq- (OUygh.) 1, jaqyn (OUygh.) 2, jaqys?- (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- (MK, KB) 1, jaqyn (MK) 2, jaqys?- (MK) 3, jax|s?y (MK) 4face="Times New Roman Star"jakyn 2, jakys?- 3, jaks?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn (MA) 2, jax|s?y 4 (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"jaqin 2, jaxs?i 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jeqin 2, jaqs?i 4face="Times New Roman Star"jahGyn 2, jaxs?(i) 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaxyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jaqy:n 2, jaGs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yn 2, c?axsy 4





face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|y: 'close to'face="Times New Roman Star"c?y'xa- 'to press to'face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aqyn 2, z?|aqs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"z?aqyn 2, z?aqsy 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaxs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqs?y 4
face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqys?- 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaqyn 2, jaqs?y 4face="Times New Roman Star"z?aqyn 2, z?aqsy 4face="Times New Roman Star"jax|yn 2, jax|s?y 4
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 178, 180, EDT 896-9, 901, 904, 908-9, Ё—“я 4, 63-64, 81, 84, TMN 4, 179.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jakaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"collar; edgeface="Times New Roman Star"воротник; крайface="Times New Roman Star"jaqa (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaqa (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jakaface="Times New Roman Star"jaqaface="Times New Roman Star"jaqa (Pav. C., Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|qaface="Times New Roman Star"jaqa
face="Times New Roman Star"jaxaface="Times New Roman Star"jaqaface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"d/aqaface="Times New Roman Star"jaqaface="Times New Roman Star"s/og|aface="Times New Roman Star"sag|a

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|a (–ас. ‘иЋ)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aqa
face="Times New Roman Star"jag|aface="Times New Roman Star"jag|aface="Times New Roman Star"z?|ag|a, z?ag|a


face="Times New Roman Star"jaxaface="Times New Roman Star"jag|aface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 180, 82-83, EDT 898, Ё—“я 4, 82-84, ‘едотов 2, 146-147. Turk. > WMong. z?|aqa, z?|iqa, Kalm. zax@ (KW 463-464; TMN 4, 103-104, ўербак 1997, 122), whence Evk. z?|aka (Doerfer MT 125).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jakuface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"coatface="Times New Roman Star"плащ, шуба
face="Times New Roman Star"jaqu (MK)









face="Times New Roman Star"jaqqy, d/aqqy, jaqa, d/aqa

face="Times New Roman Star"sag|ynn/ax
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|y
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aqy (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?aqy (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jaqy





face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 4, 60-61, Ћексика 476. The form jag|qu is not really attested: it is a folk etymology related by MK. Turk. > Russ. jega/, see јникин 195, 721.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jara-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be beneficial, useful, successfulface="Times New Roman Star"годитьс€, быть годным, полезнымface="Times New Roman Star"jara- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jara- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara- (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"c?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-, d/ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"s/oras/- 'to reconcile'



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ara-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"zaras-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"jara-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 956, VEWT 189, Ё—“я 4, 137-139, TMN 4, 56-57, 144, ‘едотов 2, 141. Turk. caus. *jarat- > Hung. gya/rt- 'to produce' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.r-ynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 morning 2 tomorrow 3 next yearface="Times New Roman Star"1 утро 2 завтра 3 следующий годface="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 1 (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 1, 2 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3





face="Times New Roman Star"yran 2face="Times New Roman Star"sarsyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"harsyn 1




face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn 3 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ja:ryn 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryn 3

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 970, VEWT 190, Ё—“я 4, 147-148, ≈горов 343, Ћексика 80, Stachowski 97. Ra"sa"nen derives the stem from *jar- 'to shine, glitter', but this is dubious both for phonetic reasons (OT has jaru- 'to shine', but jaryn 'morning') and because of external evidence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jarynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"shoulder, shoulderbladeface="Times New Roman Star"плечо, лопаткаface="Times New Roman Star"jaryn (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn (MK)




face="Times New Roman Star"jaryn

face="Times New Roman Star"c?arynface="Times New Roman Star"c?arynface="Times New Roman Star"jaryn, d/aryn
face="Times New Roman Star"s/orъmface="Times New Roman Star"sarynface="Times New Roman Star"saryn, sannyface="Times New Roman Star"c?aryn










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 970, Ё—“я 4, 66, Ћексика 242, ƒыбо 139-141, ‘едотов 2, 142, Stachowski 209. Forms going back to *jagryn are due to a merger with *jagyr (v. sub *dagV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"armourface="Times New Roman Star"панцирь, доспехиface="Times New Roman Star"jaryq (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq (AH)























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 962, VEWT 190, Ё—“я 4, 147. Modern languages widely reflect *jarak 'weapon, armour' (Kirgh. z?|araq, Uygh. jaraq etc., see Ё—“я 4, 139). This seems to be a contamination of the earlier attested *jarag 'readiness, opportunity' (derived from *jara- 'to be fit, suitable' q. v. sub *z?|a>/ra; see EDT ibid.) and *jaryk 'armour'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 order 2 announcement, call 3 judge 4 law, justiceface="Times New Roman Star"1 приказ 2 объ€вление, клич 3 судь€ 4 закон, правосудиеface="Times New Roman Star"jar-lyg| 1,2 (OUygh.), jarg|an 3face="Times New Roman Star"jar-lyg| 1,2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jar, z?|ar 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jar 2, jarlyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar 2 (Abush.), jar-lyg| 1,2 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarg|u 4, dial. z?|ar 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarlyq 1, dial. z?|ar 2

face="Times New Roman Star"d/ar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/yrlъx 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ar 2




face="Times New Roman Star"z?ar 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 188-9, EDT 966-7, Ё—“я 4, 18-20 (one can hardly agree with Clauson that jarlyg| is a loan from an unknown source). Mong. loans from Turk. are widely spread: Mong. z?|ar 'announcement', z?|arqu, z?|arg|u 'judgement, court', z?|arliq 'order', z?|arg|uc?i 'judge' (see TMN 1, 278, 4, 58-66, 157, ўербак 1997, 123).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 thin, lean 2 poor 3 flatface="Times New Roman Star"1 тонкий, тощий 2 бедный 3 плоскийface="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarlyg| 2 (R., Ѕуд.)



face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2 (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"jartyc?aq 3



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aryg|-da- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aro: 1, z?|ardy, z?|arly, z?|aryly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ara- 1, z?ar(y)ly 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarly- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?arly, zarly 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?arly 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jarly 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 967, VEWT 189, 190, Ё—“я 4, 143, Ћексика 334-335. The most widely spread form, attested since Old Uyghur, is *jar-ly(g) 'poor'; the evidence of Oyr., Tuva, Kirgh. and Kaz., however, suggests the existence of a primary stem *jar(y)- 'thin, lean'. Turk. > Hung. gyarlo/ 'sinful' (< *jarlyg|), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAr-man-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to climb upface="Times New Roman Star"залезатьface="Times New Roman Star"jarma-, jarman- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarman- (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jarpa- 'to put on airs'face="Times New Roman Star"jarman- (Sangl.)



face="Times New Roman Star"jarmas?-face="Times New Roman Star"c?arban-face="Times New Roman Star"c?arban-face="Times New Roman Star"jarman- (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"jarmalaq 'seesaw for children'




face="Times New Roman Star"jarmas?-face="Times New Roman Star"z?armas- 'to cling to'




face="Times New Roman Star"z?armas- 'to cling to'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 190, EDT 969.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to shine 2 to dawn 3 light 4 candleface="Times New Roman Star"1 светить 2 рассветать 3 свет 4 свечаface="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryk 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jary- (AH), jaru- (Abush.) 1, jaruq 3 (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|ri- 1, jo|rug| 3face="Times New Roman Star"joru- 1, joruq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ary- 1, c?aryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-, c?ary- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jar-, d/ary- 1, d/aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s/or-da 4face="Times New Roman Star"sara:- 2 (but also syrda:-)face="Times New Roman Star"hyrda:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yry- 1, c?aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ar-, z?|ary- 1, z?|aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aryq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"jary- 1, jaryq, jaryx 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?aryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"jarux 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaryq 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 956, 962, 963, Ё—“я 4, 134-135, VEWT 189 (there are hardly reasons to consider the Chuv. word a borrowing), ‘едотов 2, 145, Stachowski 119. Turk. (Bulg.?) > Hung. gyertya 'candle', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:sface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 loss, damage 2 shameface="Times New Roman Star"1 потер€, вред 2 стыдface="Times New Roman Star"jas 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas 1 (MK)











face="Times New Roman Star"*s/os ( > Mari so"s "Geda"chtnisfeier", Hung. gya/sz, see Gombocz 1912)face="Times New Roman Star"sa:t 2, sa:s-ta:x (folkl.) 'enemy'face="Times New Roman Star"ha:tynnar- 'to shame smb.'











face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 191, Ё—“я 4, 150, EDT 973 (in modern languages hard to distinguish from the borrowed Arab. ya's 'despair, grief' - but in Old Turkic no doubt genuine), Stachowski 100.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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