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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be satisfiedface="Times New Roman Star"быть удовлетвореннымface="Times New Roman Star"qan- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qan- (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"(OKypch.) qan- (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|n-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gan-face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:n-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"xan-face="Times New Roman Star"kan-face="Times New Roman Star"xan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"qan-

face="Times New Roman Star"qan-
face="Times New Roman Star"qan-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 632, VEWT 230, Ё—“я 5, 251-252, Stachowski 136.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)a:(j)natface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"flap (of door), wall (of yurt)face="Times New Roman Star"створка (двери), стена (юрты)

face="Times New Roman Star"kanat
face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|no|t

face="Times New Roman Star"Ganatface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"xanat
face="Times New Roman Star"qanat
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 'карниз, застреха'



face="Times New Roman Star"qanatface="Times New Roman Star"qanat




face="Times New Roman Star"qanat

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 252-253, Ћексика 504, јшм. XII, 246. The root should be kept distinct from *Ka:jnat 'wing'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:jnatface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wing 2 finface="Times New Roman Star"1 крыло 2 плавникface="Times New Roman Star"qanat (OUygh.- YB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Abush., MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qano|t 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qejnat 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganad, ga"na"d (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:nat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2, qanar 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/onat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kynat, kyjyat 1face="Times New Roman Star"kynat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"xanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanat (Kakuk,——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qanat 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, TMN 3, 518, EDT 635, Ё—“я 5, 252-253, ‘едотов 2, 137, Ћексика 149-150, Stachowski 168. Initial s/- in Chuv. is unclear (effect of *-j-?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bed-bug 2 beetleface="Times New Roman Star"1 клоп 2 жук

face="Times New Roman Star"kandalaj 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qandala 1face="Times New Roman Star"qandala (Houts., Ѕуд.) 1, qandala (Qum.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qe|nde|lo| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"Gandala 1face="Times New Roman Star"xandala 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qandryjaq 'cochlea' (¬ерб.)
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|mtla, xъw|mdъw|la, xъw|mgъw|la ? xъw|ngъw|la 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qantala 1face="Times New Roman Star"qandala 1face="Times New Roman Star"qandalajface="Times New Roman Star"qandala 1face="Times New Roman Star"qandag|aj 1, qamaz?aq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qandala 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qandala 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 229, Ё—“я 5, 253-254, Ћексика 183.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAn|-c?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bitch 2 femaleface="Times New Roman Star"1 сука 2 самкаface="Times New Roman Star"qanc?yq (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanc?yq (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kanz?|yk 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qanc?yq (Pav. C., Houts., Qutb.), qanc?uq (AH) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qe|nz?|iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanc?uq, qanz?|iq (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Ganz?|yG 1face="Times New Roman Star"Ganz?|yq 1








face="Times New Roman Star"qanc?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qans?yq, qan|s?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qanz?|yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qansyq, qansaj 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qans?yq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qanc?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 230, Ё—“я 5, 255-256, Ћексика 190. The original *-n|- is probably preserved in Kaz. qan|s?y.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAmgakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"saltwort, Salsulaface="Times New Roman Star"сол€нка, поташник, Salsulaface="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aq (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aq (Qutb., Pav. C.), qamqaq (Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|mg|o|qface="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aq

face="Times New Roman Star"Gamaq








face="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aqface="Times New Roman Star"qan|baqface="Times New Roman Star"qambaqface="Times New Roman Star"qamg|aq


face="Times New Roman Star"qan|baq
face="Times New Roman Star"qammaqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 627, VEWT 229, Ё—“я 5, 244-245.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 мешок 2 окружать
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1, dial. qaba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gabface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:p 1, Ga:ba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xappar 1 (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap/b- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) Ё—“я 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Ka:puk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to snatch, take 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 брать, хватать 2 кусатьface="Times New Roman Star"qap- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"kap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- (AH, IM, Pav. C., Qutb) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"Gap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"Gap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"xap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"xyp- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"xap- 1,2

face="Times New Roman Star"qa'p- 'to grab with one's mouth; bite (of fish)'face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qab- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qap- 1,2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, EDT 580, Ё—“я 5, 264-265, TMN 3, 373-374.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kaptalface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sideface="Times New Roman Star"бок



face="Times New Roman Star"qaptal (R - ShS, Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pto|lface="Times New Roman Star"qaptal

face="Times New Roman Star"Gapdal

face="Times New Roman Star"qaptal

face="Times New Roman Star"xaptal


face="Times New Roman Star"qaptalface="Times New Roman Star"qaptal
face="Times New Roman Star"qaptal


face="Times New Roman Star"qaptal

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 267-268.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAkface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dryface="Times New Roman Star"сухой
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. kak, kahface="Times New Roman Star"qaqface="Times New Roman Star"qaq (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|qface="Times New Roman Star"qaq
face="Times New Roman Star"Gaxface="Times New Roman Star"qaq

face="Times New Roman Star"qaq





face="Times New Roman Star"qaqface="Times New Roman Star"qaqface="Times New Roman Star"qaqface="Times New Roman Star"qaq


face="Times New Roman Star"qaq
face="Times New Roman Star"qaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 223, Ё—“я 5, 218-220, EDT 608.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hit, knock, tearface="Times New Roman Star"бить, стучать, рвать
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kak-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq- (Houts., AH, Qutb, MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gax-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-, qaqyl-face="Times New Roman Star"xax-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-


face="Times New Roman Star"kakryj- 'break into small pieces'face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qa'q-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-
face="Times New Roman Star"qaq-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 223, Ё—“я 5, 221-222, Stachowski 135.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kek- / *Kak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 curved 2 stick with a hook 3 latch 4 to bend 5 to bend one's neckface="Times New Roman Star"1 кривой 2 палка с крюком 3 щеколда 4 гнутьс€ 5 выгибать шею

face="Times New Roman Star"keke, dial. gege 2face="Times New Roman Star"ke|kre, ke|jre 1, 2, ke|kre|j- 4, (Sib.) ke|ge| 3
face="Times New Roman Star"kekkaj-, qaqqaj- 5





face="Times New Roman Star"kekej- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"kagъr 2, 3, kagъr-t- 5face="Times New Roman Star"keg|ij-, kekej- 5


face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kekej- 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kekirej- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"ka"kere 1, ka"kera"j- 4, ka"ka"-n|-la"- 'извиватьс€ о змее', qaqaj- 5


face="Times New Roman Star"qaqaj-, kejkej- 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 248.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cover (n.) 2 gate, door 3 to closeface="Times New Roman Star"1 крышка 2 ворота, дверь 3 закрыватьface="Times New Roman Star"qapag|, qapyg| (Orkh., OUygh.) 2, qapg|y (Orkh.) 2, qapaq (OUygh.) 1, qap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapug| (MK, KB), qapg|aq (MK) 1, qapug| (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"kapak 1, kapy 2, kapa- 3, kap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qapqaq 1, qapqa 2, qapla- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabag| (Qutb.) 1, qapu (Houts., Pav. C.) 2, qabug| (Qutb.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|pe|qo|q 1, qo|pqe| 2, qo|ple|- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qap(q)aq 1, dial. qobug| 2, qapla- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"GapaG 1, Gapy 2, Gapa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gapaq 1, Gapy 2, dial. Gap- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xaxpax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xobъ 1, xop(la)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"xappax 1face="Times New Roman Star"kappakta:- 'to cover'face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qapqaq 1, qapqa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 1, qapy 2, qap(l)a- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qapqa 2, qapla- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaqpaq 1, qapy 2, qaqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"qa:vu 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"qapu 2, qabaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 203, TMN 3, 369, Ё—“я 5, 160, 263-264, 274-275, Ћексика 510, ‘едотов 2, 358-359, Stachowski 138 (there is also a variant *Ka:p- - due to merger with another root *Ka:p-, v. sub *k[a:]p`a/; the meaning 'cover' here is probably secondary). Turk. > Mong. qabqag| 'cover' (whence Evk. kapkak, see Doerfer MT 125), qabqa 'gate', see TMN 3, 371, 415, Hung. kapu 'gate', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kia:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"snowface="Times New Roman Star"снегface="Times New Roman Star"qar (Orkh., Yenis., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qar (Sangl., Qutb., Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|rface="Times New Roman Star"qar, qaa
face="Times New Roman Star"Garface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:rface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qar
face="Times New Roman Star"jorface="Times New Roman Star"xa:rface="Times New Roman Star"ka:rface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"xarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"qa:r
face="Times New Roman Star"qar
face="Times New Roman Star"qarface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 284-285, EDT 641, VEWT 235, ≈горов 350, ‘едотов 2, 490, Ћексика 27, Stachowski 142.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 arm 2 forearm 3 shin-bone of animal 4 various measures of lengthface="Times New Roman Star"1 рука (верхн€€ часть) 2 предплечье 3 голенна€ кость животного 4 различные меры длиныface="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qary (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"karu-z?|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1, qara 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1 (Vam.), qary 1 (Abush.), 2 (Houts.), 4 (in all sources)face="Times New Roman Star"qari 1,4, qara 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qeri 4, qaja 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2face="Times New Roman Star"gari 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"Gary 3,4
face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"xor 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"xary, xara 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyry 2face="Times New Roman Star"qar 1, qary 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4face="Times New Roman Star"qar 3face="Times New Roman Star"qary 4

face="Times New Roman Star"qar 2, qary 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"TMN 3, 461-2, Ё—“я 5, 278-283, ƒыбо 160-164, ƒыбо 1989, ‘едотов 2, 361, Ћексика 246-247. The usage of *Kary as a measure ('cubit') may seem natural, but in fact reflects a merger with a different root, see under *K(i)aryl/. Turk. > Hung. kar 'arm', see Ligeti 1933, MNyTESz 2, 369.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"blackface="Times New Roman Star"черныйface="Times New Roman Star"qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qara (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|face="Times New Roman Star"qara, dial. qareface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"xoraface="Times New Roman Star"xaraface="Times New Roman Star"karaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"Garaface="Times New Roman Star"qaraface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, Ё—“я 5, 286-289, 299-100, Ћексика 592-593, Stachowski 138, ‘едотов 2, 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAramukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"cockleface="Times New Roman Star"куколь
face="Times New Roman Star"qaramuq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. karamukface="Times New Roman Star"qaramyq (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaramuq (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|mug|face="Times New Roman Star"qarimuq











face="Times New Roman Star"qaramyqface="Times New Roman Star"qaramyq




face="Times New Roman Star"qaramyq
face="Times New Roman Star"qaramc?yqface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 296-297.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 opposite 2 be opposite, meet 3 banditface="Times New Roman Star"1 противоположный 2 встречатьс€ 3 разбойникface="Times New Roman Star"qars?y (OUygh.) 1; qaraqc?y (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qars?u (MK, KB), qars?y (KB) 1, qaraqc?y (KB) 3, qaraqla- (MK) 'to rob'
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Abush.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"qe|re|qc?i 3


face="Times New Roman Star"Gars?y- 2; Garaq 3



face="Times New Roman Star"xir@s/- 2; xorax 3face="Times New Roman Star"xar, xa:r 1 (ѕек.); xar-da 'retaliation'; xarys- 'to fight (with each other)'face="Times New Roman Star"kar-da 'retaliation', karys- 'to fight'

face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqc?y 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3


face="Times New Roman Star"qaraqs?y 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235, Ё—“я 5, 294-295, 326-327, јшм. XVI, 219-220, ‘едотов 2, 365-366, Stachowski 139, 140. Chuv. xir@s/- may actually reflect a different root (see *geru"l/-), or a contamination. Turk. qars?y > Mong. qarsi (Clark 1980, 41). Cf. also *Karma 'robbery'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.rga-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to swear, curseface="Times New Roman Star"ругать, проклинатьface="Times New Roman Star"qarg|an- (recipr.) (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-, qyrg|a- (MK, KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a- (Qutb, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|rg|e|-face="Times New Roman Star"qa(r)g|a-

face="Times New Roman Star"GarGa-face="Times New Roman Star"xarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"xъrrъn (Adv.) 'angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"kyra:-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-


face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-
face="Times New Roman Star"qarg|a-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 655, VEWT 237, Ё—“я 5, 304-305, Stachowski 169.
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