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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 big vessel, barrel, pail 2 basinface="Times New Roman Star"1 большой сосуд, бочка, чан, кадка 2 бассейн, яма для стока водыface="Times New Roman Star"c?opun 1 (OUygh., late - Suv.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opul 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapc?aq (AH) (OKypch.)




face="Times New Roman Star"saban, sapc?ax 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/o"ps/e 1face="Times New Roman Star"sabaraj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?opulaq 'spoon'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sapsaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"capcaq, c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aps?aq 'wooden vessel for shaking up milk'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apc?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, ДТС 153, Егоров 223,Федотов 2, 148-149. Forms with -u- in the second syllable demonstrate vowel assimilation (c?opu- < *c?apu-). External parallels strongly suggest that the word is not derived from *c?ap- 'hit', but is an original noun.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-, *c?opurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pock-marked, variegated 2 badly bred, sloppy 3 to appear (of rash, furuncles)face="Times New Roman Star"1 пестрый, рябой 2 непородистый, неряшливый 3 высыпать (о сыпи, чирьях)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubar 'cheval gris de fer', c?ibar 'grey, mottled (horse)' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipo|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipa(r) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1







face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?obur 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'to appear (of rash on lips)', sybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar, cybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?opur 1, c?ubar 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403. An expressive and late attested root; appears, however, to be reconstructable for PT. The original shape is probably *c?ap- (preserved in c?ap-yr- 'to appear (of rash)', with further labial assimilation into *c?opur. The frequently attested variant c?upar > c?ubar is most probably a result of contamination *c?opur and *c?ubar (reflected in Tat. c?uwar, Kirgh. c?a:r that can only reflect *-b-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 plane tree 2 gooseberry 3 asp tree 4 a k. of poplarface="Times New Roman Star"1 платан 2 крыжовник 3 осина 4 вид тополя
face="Times New Roman Star"c?arun (MK) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?arc?aj 2 (?)









face="Times New Roman Star"s?arlan 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar terek 4








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, EDT 430, Дмитриева 1972, 186.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ar-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 snow dust 2 fogface="Times New Roman Star"1 пороша 2 туман
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?as 2face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ars 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?as 2 (dial.)







face="Times New Roman Star"dial. (Leb.) s?ars?a 1








face="Times New Roman Star"sar 'animal trace on snow'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ars 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ars 2face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 29, 35. The derivative *c?ar-s is somewhat peculiar morphologically and could be a loanword - from the (unattested) Mong. *c?ar-su(n) (?). {Oyr. c?arym was removed from this etymology, but probably unjustly: the Komi source c/are?m 'snow crust', as well as c/ars id. are much better explained as borrowed from Turkic than vice versa. The form is traced back to Ur. *s/arV in UEW 464, but the consonantism is quite irregular; other parallels proposed by Helimsky are Saam. c?arava - with irregular vocalism - and Selk. c?/o|:rpy, closely resembling Tofalar c?arpyn|. A complicated case, but explanation of the existing scattered Uralic forms from Turkic is at least not preferable to vice versa.}
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?arface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 whetstone 2 sickle 3 to whetface="Times New Roman Star"1 точильный камень 2 серп 3 точить


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'mill stone', c?ar-la- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-la- 3 (Pav. C.)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/orla 2face="Times New Roman Star"sardag|a, sarda:na 'short heavy arrow with a broad head' (Пек.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sar 1


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:r- 'to cut, stick in' (ССЯ: Udzh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'spool'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99-100, Егоров 221, Федотов 2, 143 (borrowing < FU *s/orva 'horn' is hardly credible). Bulg. > Hung. sarlo/ 'sickle', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 494-495. The root is certainly genuine, although some influence of the Iranian c?aryk, c?arx 'wheel' could have existed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:jface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1, c?eke 2


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:j 1, c?a":ge 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajyq 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj-r-am 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 2 (?)





face="Times New Roman Star"saj 'a river weed' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj (in the hydronym qarac?aj)




face="Times New Roman Star"The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *c?a:j-ka (Turkm. c?a":ge, Chag. c?eke) > Kalm. ceke|: (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) c?a:h 'well, spring' < *c?a:t|a > Av. c?a:ta, Kurd. c?a:l, Bel. c?a:t, Osset. c?ad 'lake', Wakhi c?ot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. c?a: 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. c?'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (c?.a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem c?a:j- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?a:rba- (*c?a:rma-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 squirrel 2 sable, martenface="Times New Roman Star"1 белка 2 соболь, куница









face="Times New Roman Star"sarbax 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?arbaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yrbyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:rba 2












face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 100, 403. A regional Siberian root.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ek- ( ? -i-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"silk bead embroideryface="Times New Roman Star"вышивка бисером по шелку
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin 'embroidered brocade' (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?igen 'golden embroidery' (R - Kas.); c?ig- 'to embroider'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin 'floral designs embroidered in silk' (Sangl.)
















face="Times New Roman Star"sige- 'to embroider'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij tigis? 'вышивание гладью'




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415-416, ДТС 143. Despite Clauson, cannot be < Chin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.keface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 temple 2 cheekboneface="Times New Roman Star"1 висок 2 скула
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?eke 1 (At-Tuhf.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ige| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 'back of head' (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akka 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?eka" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekge 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig@ 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"sika" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, TMN 3, 87f, Егоров 326, Лексика 203. Despite the lack of ancient attestation, the root is evidently archaic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ekinface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"different weed kindsface="Times New Roman Star"различные виды сорных трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin / c?ekin 'a plant growing among the vines and eaten by cattle' (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|ke|n 'corn cob' (< Chuv.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin 'greens, grass; a weed on rice fields, with black seeds and sharp awns' (Pav. C., Sangl.), c?ekil-dam 'tulip bulb; a root similar to wild garlic' (Pav. C., for dam cf. Uzb. dam 'pungency, bitterness' < Pers.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akalak 'bush thicket' (or perhaps to PT *c?eke-t?)



face="Times New Roman Star"s@gen 'dry grass'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?akan 'reedmace'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?eken 'рогоз широколистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"se|ke|n 'corn cob' ( < Chuv.?)


face="Times New Roman Star"s?igin 'weed growing on rice fields, куриное просо', s?igildik 'reed'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 111, EDT 415, Рас. ФиЛ 277, Егоров 316. Chuv. c?akan, despite Дмитриева 1997, 52-53 and Ro/na-Tas, is not connected with *jeken 'reed' (v. sub *de/k`a\). Cf. other grass names: Chuv. c?iken kurъk@ 'geranium' (according to Ашм., grass helping from colics - Дмитриева 1997, 56); s/ikka kurъk@ 'camomile' (according to Ашм. it hosts a plantlouse, to summon which the children say "s/ikka!" - Дмитриева 1988, 51); Uygh. c?iga" 'plant fibre, wild hemp (VEWT), Yak. sige 'тальниковые стружки, лыко'. Tuva sigen 'hay' (Tuva), (Tof. 'grass') has an irregular s-, so perhaps should be regarded as borrowed from Khak.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eknface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"part of shoulder between the neck and shoulderbladeface="Times New Roman Star"часть плеча между шеей и лопаткойface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin, dial. c?eg|in, c?eg|n
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (Abush., Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijinface="Times New Roman Star"c?igin


face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:nface="Times New Roman Star"s/an 'body'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415, VEWT 103, Дыбо 129-130, Лексика 238-239 (see there about details of phonetic reconstruction).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eku"-rtkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"locust, grasshopperface="Times New Roman Star"саранча, кузнечик
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"rge (MK Oghuz; Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikertke|face="Times New Roman Star"c?egu"rtke, c?ewu"rtke (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?igirtkaface="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"tka"
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"sag|yrtxy



face="Times New Roman Star"saxsyrg|a 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"haksyrga 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ergi
face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egertkiface="Times New Roman Star"sin|ertka"

face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtke

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416-417, Лексика 187, Stachowski 94. Forms like Tat. dial. sikertke are a result of contamination with *se:k- 'jump' (v. sub *sa:/ki).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Emirc?ikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"cartilage, gristleface="Times New Roman Star"хрящ


face="Times New Roman Star"c?@m@j 'knucklebone'







face="Times New Roman Star"c?amaj 'cheekbone'





face="Times New Roman Star"c?emirc?ek 'хрящ на лопатке и мечевидном отростке'face="Times New Roman Star"s?emirs?ekface="Times New Roman Star"s?emirs?ek



face="Times New Roman Star"s?emirs?ek

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251. Widely spread forms like Chag. ka"mirc?a"k are probably due to contamination with *kEmu"k 'bone' (v. sub *k`i_ome).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?en|eface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"челюсть



face="Times New Roman Star"c?an|a, c?en|e (Pav. C., AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"
face="Times New Roman Star"sen|ie







face="Times New Roman Star"c?ena"face="Times New Roman Star"cen|ge

face="Times New Roman Star"c?eneface="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. c?a:nah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
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