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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*be:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to giveface="Times New Roman Star"даватьface="Times New Roman Star"ber- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ber- (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"ver-face="Times New Roman Star"bir-face="Times New Roman Star"ber- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ba"r-face="Times New Roman Star"per-face="Times New Roman Star"ver-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"pir-face="Times New Roman Star"per-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ver- (< Az.)face="Times New Roman Star"par-face="Times New Roman Star"bier-face="Times New Roman Star"bier-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"bir-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"ver-face="Times New Roman Star"ver-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"be(r)-,ve(r)-, ve:(r)-face="Times New Roman Star"ber-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 70, Ё—“я 2, 114-116, EDT 354-5, Stachowski 59.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lower side, below 2 (as adj.) being below , lowerface="Times New Roman Star"1 низ, нижн€€ сторона 2 нижнийface="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (Yen. ѕћ  90, OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"altyn 2 (MK, IM), alt 1 (\X<1.193>Tefs.\x)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (dial., яЅ“ 126)


face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1 (я∆” 14)face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1
face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"alty 1face="Times New Roman Star"ald 1, altyg|y 2; alty 1 {(Ѕаск. “уба)}face="Times New Roman Star"a[:]lt 1face="Times New Roman Star"old(ъ) 'gusset'face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"alyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"a'ldy 1face="Times New Roman Star"aldyn 'в низовье реки' (–ас. ‘иЋ 153)face="Times New Roman Star"ald(y) 1



face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1face="Times New Roman Star"alt 1 (K)


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 14, Ё—“я 1, 140-141, Stachowski 32. VEWT confuses (after Bang and Brockelmann) the roots *al- 'below' and *a:l 'front'. They are indeed mixed in Kirgh. and Oyr. lit., where we have ald 'front, below', but are distinguished in dialects (Tuba: ald 'front', with a voicing in the consonant cluster after an old long vowel, but alty 'below'). The Chuv. form probably goes back to the compound *koltuk alty 'axillary concavity, gusset' (attested in Tur., Gag., Az., see ƒыбо 154). Most languages reflect *al-ty- (the simple form al is not attested, see the discussion in EDT 121), but the reality of the root *a>l is proved by a different derivative in Yakut. Cf. also Sib.-Tat. alas?a 'low, low place' ( —““ 100). Another possible old derivative in -c?ak may be PT *al/(c?)ak (Karakh. as?aq, Turkm. as?a:q etc., see Ё—“я 1, 214-215) 'below, bottom part; low, humble': its traditional derivation from *a:l/- 'to cross (a mountain)' is unsatisfactory both phonetically and semantically. A certain problem is the attribution of the adjective *al-c?ak (see Ё—“я 1, 143-144, EDT 129). Older occurrences of alc?aq (MK, KB, Tefs., Rabg. etc.) present the meaning 'modest, humble'; cf. also Sib.-Tat. alcaq 'valetudinarian' ( —““ 101), Turkm. alc?ak 'affable' and perhaps Tur. alc?ak 'mean, vile', alc?a- 'to offend, humiliate'. This group of forms may in fact reflect a different root, otherwise represented by PT *Alyg, see under *a:\le 'weak, tired'. Another group of forms - Chag. alc?aq 'bas' (Pav. C.), Tur., Az., Crim.-Tat. (and Oghuz texts like Korkut) alc?aq 'low, low place' probably represents an Oghuz innovative derivation in -c?ak from the root al- (which is why -lc?- did not yield -s?- here), perhaps influenced by Mong. alc?a-gar, alc?a-n 'stunted, undersized', derived from Mong. alc?aji- 'to spread legs apart'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*A:ntface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"oathface="Times New Roman Star"кл€тваface="Times New Roman Star"ant (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"and (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ant (andy)face="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"o|ntface="Times New Roman Star"ant
face="Times New Roman Star"andface="Times New Roman Star"ant

face="Times New Roman Star"ant-yq- 'to take an oath'face="Times New Roman Star"a:nd




face="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"ant
face="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"ant
face="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 176, VEWT 20, TMN 2, 128, Ё—“я 1, 151. Original vowel length is proved by Turk., Az. -d.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bytface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"louseface="Times New Roman Star"вошьface="Times New Roman Star"bit (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bit (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"betface="Times New Roman Star"bit (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"pitface="Times New Roman Star"bys?tface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"p@tface="Times New Roman Star"pitface="Times New Roman Star"bijtface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"pyjdъface="Times New Roman Star"byt
face="Times New Roman Star"by'tface="Times New Roman Star"by'tface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"bi_tface="Times New Roman Star"bijtface="Times New Roman Star"betface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"bit/ face="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"bijtface="Times New Roman Star"bis?tface="Times New Roman Star"bitface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 76, EDT 296, Ё—“я 2, 151-152, Ћексика 182.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to end, accomplish 2 to be ended 3 to create, build 4 to heal 5 to grow, ripenface="Times New Roman Star"1 кончать, завершать 2 кончатьс€ 3 создавать, строить 4 заживать 5 вырастать, вызреватьface="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 2, 4, 5 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 2, 4, 5 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"bet- 2, bet-e|s?- 4face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 2, 4, 5 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 2face="Times New Roman Star"pyt-, put- 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"pu"t- 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"pu"d-u"r- 3face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 1, 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|t- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 1,2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"'t- 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"bu"'t- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"t- 1,2, 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"bo"t- 2, bo"t-o"s?- 4face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 5; 'to close'face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"pit- 2, 4, 5
face="Times New Roman Star"bit- 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, TMN 2, 267, EDT 298-9, 306, Ё—“я 2, 152-154, 302-303, Stachowski 68. Cf. also PT *bu"tu"n 'all, whole' - a derivative from *bu"t-. Turk. > Mong. *bu"te-, *bu"tu"- (KW 69-70, TMN 2, 268-269, ўербак 1997, 111).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bir (*bi:r)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"oneface="Times New Roman Star"одинface="Times New Roman Star"bir (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bir (MK, KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"berface="Times New Roman Star"bir (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"byrface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"p@rface="Times New Roman Star"pirface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"biface="Times New Roman Star"p@w|rface="Times New Roman Star"bi:rface="Times New Roman Star"bi:r, birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"berface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"bir/face="Times New Roman Star"bir/byrface="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"pyr, pir, pur (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"birface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 76, TMN 2, 383-4, EDT 353-4, Ё—“я 2, 146-151, ≈горов 157, ‘едотов I 421-422, Stachowski 61. Cf. also Khak. praj 'all', Tat. dial. p@ra"j 'any' ( —““ 179), Az. bira"-di 'one, all together'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu(-n)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thisface="Times New Roman Star"этотface="Times New Roman Star"bu, bun- (Orkh.), bu, mun- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"bu, mun- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu, mun- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"puface="Times New Roman Star"puface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bo
face="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu (mun-)face="Times New Roman Star"boface="Times New Roman Star"boface="Times New Roman Star"bu(l)face="Times New Roman Star"bu-lface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"by-lface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"bu, muface="Times New Roman Star"bu-lface="Times New Roman Star"bu, vuface="Times New Roman Star"buface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 85, EDT 291-292, Ё—“я 2, 225-228, Stachowski 63.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"n| / *on|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 front, East 2 exterior, color, faceface="Times New Roman Star"1 перед, восток 2 внешн€€ сторона, цвет, лицоface="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"un| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| (Abush.) 1, (Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"o.n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ejface="Times New Roman Star"um 'breast' (if different from om 'front', q. v. sub *a:l)face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 'inside of clothes', 2
face="Times New Roman Star"on| 'shape', o"n| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 2face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1, o"n| 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"un| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jo"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"n| 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"on| 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 167-168, VEWT 362, 372, Ё—“я 1, 532-535, Stachowski 199-200, јшм. III, 232. The words for 'front' and 'colour, face' are usually treated as different roots (e.g. in EDT, Ё—“я), but it is hardly possible to separate them phonetically (the variants *on| and *o"n| do not seem to be semantically distributed); the semantic shifts (*'front' > 'face' > 'colour') are quite natural.
face="Times New Roman Star"*as-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hangface="Times New Roman Star"висетьface="Times New Roman Star"as- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as- (Sangl., Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-


face="Times New Roman Star"has-face="Times New Roman Star"us-, os-

face="Times New Roman Star"a's-
face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"at|-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"as-
face="Times New Roman Star"as-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 28, EDT 240, Ё—“я 1, 192-193, ≈горов 277, ‘едотов 2, 289.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to throw, shootface="Times New Roman Star"бросать, стрел€тьface="Times New Roman Star"at- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"at- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at- (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|t-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"hat-face="Times New Roman Star"yvъt-, dial. ut-face="Times New Roman Star"yt-face="Times New Roman Star"yt-face="Times New Roman Star"at-
face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"at-
face="Times New Roman Star"at-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 36, VEWT 31, Ё—“я 1, 199-200, 203, 204, ≈горов 342, ‘едотов 2, 469, Stachowski 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"horseface="Times New Roman Star"лошадьface="Times New Roman Star"at (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"at (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"o|tface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"a'tface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"hatface="Times New Roman Star"utface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"a't
face="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"at, acface="Times New Roman Star"atface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 23, VEWT 30, Ё—“я 1, 197-198, TMN 2, 4-5, Ћексика 441, јшм. III, 316-320, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касатьс€ ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, Ё—“я 1, 99-100, 111-112, ≈горов 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ic?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 interior of smth. 2 intestines 3 bellyface="Times New Roman Star"1 внутренность 2 кишки 3 животface="Times New Roman Star"ic? (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, ic?egu" 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ec? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1 (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"hiz?|igy 3face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?ege 2face="Times New Roman Star"isker 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?ga"r 2face="Times New Roman Star"ъs? 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"i'z?in 3face="Times New Roman Star"i's?ti 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?egi 2face="Times New Roman Star"is? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?i 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 168, EDT 17, 25, Ё—“я 1, 388-391, 392-393, Stachowski 128-129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yt / *itface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dogface="Times New Roman Star"собакаface="Times New Roman Star"yt (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"yt (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"it (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"yt (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"ys?tface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"it


face="Times New Roman Star"it face="Times New Roman Star"jydъface="Times New Roman Star"ytface="Times New Roman Star"ytface="Times New Roman Star"y'tface="Times New Roman Star"y'tface="Times New Roman Star"itface="Times New Roman Star"i_tface="Times New Roman Star"ijtface="Times New Roman Star"etface="Times New Roman Star"it

face="Times New Roman Star"ijtface="Times New Roman Star"is?t
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 174, TMN 2, 173-4, EDT 34, Ё—“я 1, 385, ≈горов 83, Ћексика 188, Stachowski 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"n(el/) / *gun/al/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sun 2 day 3 sunny place 4 sun-heatface="Times New Roman Star"1 солнце 2 день 3 солнечное место 4 солнечный жарface="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2 (Orkh., OUygh.), ku"nes? 3 (YB), isig qujas? 4 (OUygh. - Br.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 4 (MK), ku"nes? 3 (Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 2, gu"nes? 1, (dial.) gujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n 1, 2, qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"qujas? 1 (Sangl., Abush., Pav. C.), ku"nes? 1 (Pav. C., Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад.), ku"n 1, 2 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"kun 1, 2, qujo|s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, (dial.) qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"kun 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"na"s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"nes? 1, 4, quja:s? 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, dial. qujas? 1 (Kumd., Leb.)face="Times New Roman Star"kin, ku"n 1, 2, kina"s? 'sonnig'face="Times New Roman Star"kon 2, x@w|vel 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, kuja:s 'heat'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, kun/a:s 'heat'face="Times New Roman Star"xu"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"xu"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qyjas 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n 1, 2, ko"na"s 4, qojas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2, gu"nes? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, ku"nes? 1, qujas?, qujas 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n 1, 2, qujas? 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu":n 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"gu"n 1, 2 gu"nes? 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 301, 309 (Ra"sa"nen separates *gu"n and *gun'al', which is hardly justified); EDT 679, 725, 734, Ё—“я 3, 100-104, 6, 112-113, Ћексика 20-21, 64-65, 77-78, ‘едотов 1 306-307, Stachowski 161, 164. The forms *gu"n/el/ and *gun/al/ must be old dialectal variants.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"notface="Times New Roman Star"неface="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-face="Times New Roman Star"-my-face="Times New Roman Star"-ma-
face="Times New Roman Star"*-miface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"interrogative particleface="Times New Roman Star"вопросительна€ частицаface="Times New Roman Star"-muface="Times New Roman Star"-muface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-muface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-mu
face="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-ma/-meface="Times New Roman Star"-ma/meface="Times New Roman Star"-ba/beface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-im

face="Times New Roman Star"-be
face="Times New Roman Star"-byface="Times New Roman Star"-ma/meface="Times New Roman Star"-ma/meface="Times New Roman Star"-myface="Times New Roman Star"-mu/myface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-moface="Times New Roman Star"-ma/meface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"-miface="Times New Roman Star"ћорфологи€ 2.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ne:-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whatface="Times New Roman Star"чтоface="Times New Roman Star"ne (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ne (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"ni, ne|rse|face="Times New Roman Star"ne (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"na"face="Times New Roman Star"niface="Times New Roman Star"na"face="Times New Roman Star"na":, na":ma"face="Times New Roman Star"nime, ni; no: `which' (*ne-gu)face="Times New Roman Star"nebe `thing', no: `what' (*ne-gu)face="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"m@w|n (metathesis < *ne-me)face="Times New Roman Star"tuox (*suox < *c?e-gu+ok?)face="Times New Roman Star"tuokface="Times New Roman Star"c?u": (*c?e-gu"), c?u"ve (*c?egu"-me)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u":, c?u"meface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ni, na"ma"face="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"neface="Times New Roman Star"ne, nemeface="Times New Roman Star"The earliest PT form must have contained a unique initial nasal (generally nasals were not allowed word-initially), having yielded specific reflexes in modern languages. See VEWT 352, EDT 774-5, Stachowski 230-231, Ё—“я 7, ‘едотов 1, 356.
face="Times New Roman Star"*-n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"an ending of the 2d personface="Times New Roman Star"окончание 2-го л.face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (Orkh., OUygh.), -g| (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"-n| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|
face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-nface="Times New Roman Star"-n, -jface="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"-n|face="Times New Roman Star"ћорфологи€ 23-26, 28, 32.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sal-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to put, throw 2 to drop, lower 3 tax 4 heavyface="Times New Roman Star"1 класть, кидать 2 опускать 3 налог 4 т€желыйface="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1,2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salgyn 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, sal-ym 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa(l)- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salyg| 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salym 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sol- 1, solъm 'heaviness'

face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"hal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 397, EDT 824, ‘едотов 2, 57, Ё—“я 7. Several derivatives with a velar suffix are used in Turk. for denoting downward motion or hanging: cf. OT salyg| 'taxes', Kirgh. salyq 'taxes; hanging down, limp'; SUygh. salyg| 'heavy'; Tur. salky 'weak, lax', Kirgh. salqy, Uzb. so|lqi- 'be loose, hang down' (see TMN 3, 265-266, Ё—“я 7).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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