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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*di:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"toothface="Times New Roman Star"зубface="Times New Roman Star"tis? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tys? (MK), tis? (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"tes?face="Times New Roman Star"tis? (MA, Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tis?face="Times New Roman Star"tis?, c?is?face="Times New Roman Star"dysface="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"di:s?face="Times New Roman Star"t@sface="Times New Roman Star"tis?face="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"ti:s?
face="Times New Roman Star"ti:sface="Times New Roman Star"ti:sface="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"tis?face="Times New Roman Star"tisface="Times New Roman Star"tisface="Times New Roman Star"tes?face="Times New Roman Star"tis?face="Times New Roman Star"dis?face="Times New Roman Star"tys?face="Times New Roman Star"tisface="Times New Roman Star"cis?face="Times New Roman Star"tis?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 481, EDT 557, 564-5, Ё—“я 3, 242-244, Ћексика 228, Stachowski 224. Cf. also PT *di:l/-le- 'to bite'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ty:tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"larch-treeface="Times New Roman Star"лиственницаface="Times New Roman Star"tyt (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyt (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"tet ag|ac (dial.,  —““ 200)





face="Times New Roman Star"tytface="Times New Roman Star"tytface="Times New Roman Star"tyt

face="Times New Roman Star"ti:tface="Times New Roman Star"ti:tface="Times New Roman Star"dytface="Times New Roman Star"tyt (–ас. ‘иЋ), dyt / tytface="Times New Roman Star"tyt 'mulberry tree'








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 479, EDT 449, Stachowski 224. The meaning in Kirgh. is influenced by tut < Iran., see —теблин- аменский 1982, 88-89.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mountainface="Times New Roman Star"гораface="Times New Roman Star"tag| (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tag| (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tag| (MA), tag|, t.ag| (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|g|face="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"da:Gface="Times New Roman Star"tag|face="Times New Roman Star"tag| (¬ерб.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu:face="Times New Roman Star"ta:g|face="Times New Roman Star"tuface="Times New Roman Star"tya 'taiga, wood'face="Times New Roman Star"tya 'land, tundra'face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"dag|, tag|face="Times New Roman Star"to:face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"tauface="Times New Roman Star"tauface="Times New Roman Star"da:face="Times New Roman Star"dag|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"da:g|face="Times New Roman Star"tawface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 454, TMN 2, 439-440, EDT 463, Ё—“я 3, 117-118, Ћексика 94, 111, Stachowski 236.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dabulface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"storm, strong windface="Times New Roman Star"бур€, сильный ветер

face="Times New Roman Star"(dial. ) dag|ylface="Times New Roman Star"dawylface="Times New Roman Star"dawul (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"dowul

face="Times New Roman Star"to:l (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|vъw|lface="Times New Roman Star"tyalface="Times New Roman Star"tyal

face="Times New Roman Star"dobul, do:lface="Times New Roman Star"dawylface="Times New Roman Star"dawylface="Times New Roman Star"dawyl

face="Times New Roman Star"tawulface="Times New Roman Star"dawyl

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 476, Ћексика 46-47, Stachowski 236-237.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dil/iface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 female 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 самка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"tis?i 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tis?i (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"dis?i 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tis?i (Abush., Sangl.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tese 1face="Times New Roman Star"dis?i 1
face="Times New Roman Star"t@z@ 1face="Times New Roman Star"tiz?i 1face="Times New Roman Star"tiz?i 1face="Times New Roman Star"tis?i 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tyhy 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyhy 2face="Times New Roman Star"diz?i 1




face="Times New Roman Star"tis?i 1face="Times New Roman Star"dis?i 1face="Times New Roman Star"dis?i, tis?i 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tis?i 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 482, EDT 560-561, Ё—“я 3, 244-245, Ћексика 315, Stachowski 237.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dyl / *dilface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tongue; languageface="Times New Roman Star"€зыкface="Times New Roman Star"tyl (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dilface="Times New Roman Star"telface="Times New Roman Star"til (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"dylface="Times New Roman Star"dilface="Times New Roman Star"dilface="Times New Roman Star"t@lface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"c?@lg|e; c?@l@x 'пищик в гармошке'face="Times New Roman Star"tylface="Times New Roman Star"tylface="Times New Roman Star"dylface="Times New Roman Star"dyl, tylface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"telface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"dil/face="Times New Roman Star"tyl, tilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"cilface="Times New Roman Star"tilface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 478, EDT 489-90, Ё—“я 3, 228-229, ≈горов 323, Ћексика 227, Stachowski 237.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da.morface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 vein, artery 2 rootface="Times New Roman Star"1 жила, сосуд 2 кореньface="Times New Roman Star"tamar, tamyr 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tamur (MK, KB), tamar (MK-Oghuz) 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2 (Sangl., Abush., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"to|mir 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tomur, temir 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tymar 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tymyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"damyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"damar 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"tamur 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 460, EDT 508, Ё—“я 3, 143-144, Ћексика 107-108, 264-265, Stachowski 238. There are also some forms with -o-: Oyr. tomur- 'to uproot', Kirgh. tomor 'name of a plant, from the root of which dye is produced', Kaz. tomar id., KKalp. tomar 'root' - possibly contaminations with *Tomar 'block, log' (v. sub *t`ome).
face="Times New Roman Star"*dumface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cold 2 cold, fluface="Times New Roman Star"1 холодный 2 простудаface="Times New Roman Star"tumlyg| 1 (OUygh.), tumag|u 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tum, tumlyg| 1 (MK), tumag|u (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"dumag|, duma 2, (Osm.) tumlu 1face="Times New Roman Star"tomaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"tumaq 2 (MA)
face="Times New Roman Star"tumu 2

face="Times New Roman Star"du"mev 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymo 2



face="Times New Roman Star"tymny: 1, tumu: 2face="Times New Roman Star"tymny: 1face="Times New Roman Star"duma: 2face="Times New Roman Star"tuma: 2









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 498, EDT 503, 505, 506, Ё—“я 3, 326, Ћексика 14-15, Stachowski 238. Turk. > WMong. tomug|u, Khalkha tomu: 'influenza'. A probable derivative is Turk. *duman 'fog' (Ё—“я 3, 295-296, Ћексика 33, Stachowski 230), see TMN 2, 568.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dyn|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 very, strongly 2 strong, powerful 3 healthy 4 power 5 compact, dense (of earth) 6 to become strong 7 virgin soilface="Times New Roman Star"1 очень, сильно, чрезвычайно 2 крепкий, сильный, мощный 3 здоровый 4 сила, мочь 5 залежный, плотный (о земле) 6 окрепнуть 7 целинаface="Times New Roman Star"tin| u"rki 'recent' (OUygh. - ƒ“—)
face="Times New Roman Star"din 1, dinc? 2, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"tin-ka 4, tin| 5face="Times New Roman Star"tin| 5

face="Times New Roman Star"din| 1, din|e 'only'face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tъnk 'crammed, stuffed'face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2face="Times New Roman Star"dyn| 1, dyn|zyg| 2face="Times New Roman Star"dyn|zy- 6face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2, tyn|- 6face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 2, 7, tyn|-aj- 6


face="Times New Roman Star"dinc? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn| 7
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 7face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 478, Stachowski 238. Turk. > WMong. c?in|, c?in|g|a (KW 437, 441), whence Nan. c?i.n|qi. et al. (“ћ— 2, 397). Derivatives with the meaning 'healthy' in Ё—“я 3, 344-345 are erroneously attributed to dyn- 'rest'; Yak. tyn|, dyn| 'strained, tense' belongs not here (despite VEWT, but to tyn|- 'pull, stretch').
face="Times New Roman Star"*dyrn|a-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"finger-nail, clawface="Times New Roman Star"ноготь, коготьface="Times New Roman Star"tyrn|aq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyrn|aq (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tyrnakface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrn|aq/tyrn|ag| (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tirno|qface="Times New Roman Star"tirnaqface="Times New Roman Star"d@rmaqface="Times New Roman Star"dyrnaGface="Times New Roman Star"dyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrg|axface="Times New Roman Star"tyrg|aqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrGaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?@rneface="Times New Roman Star"tyn|yraxface="Times New Roman Star"tyn|yrakface="Times New Roman Star"dyrg|aqface="Times New Roman Star"dyrg|aq 'comb'face="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaxface="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"z|yrna(:)x|face="Times New Roman Star"tyrnaqface="Times New Roman Star"Derived from PT *dyrn|a- 'to scratch, scrape'. See VEWT 465, 479, TMN 3, 200 (there are no reasons to postulate different roots here: we have obviously a case of a complicated behaviour of the medial -n|-); EDT 551, 549-50, Ё—“я III 345-349, ≈горов 324, ƒыбо 312, 323-325, Ћексика 258, Stachowski 238.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dy:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spirit, breath 2 rest 3 to rest 4 to pant 5 to breathe 6 quiet 7 sultrinessface="Times New Roman Star"1 дыхание, дух 2 отдых 3 отдыхать 4 задыхатьс€ 5 дышать 6 спокойный 7 духотаface="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (MK, KB), tyn 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, din-le- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 3 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tync?-yx- 4, dinc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"dy:nc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, 2, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tinc? 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?@m 1face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3, 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, tyn-s?-yq- 4, tyn-s?-a-j- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn-s-yw 7face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tyn-c?-y- 'to rot, addle', tyn-c?-aj- 3, tyn-ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"din-ne-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 5, tync 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys? 1, tyn-c?-aj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 478, EDT 512, Ё—“я 3, 341-345, ћудрак ƒисс. 38-39, Stachowski 238, 239. Some Oghuz reflexes have voiceless t-, probably because of Kypchak influence; still the reconstruction of *d- seems preferable.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dy:d-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to hinder, obstructface="Times New Roman Star"преп€тствовать, задерживатьface="Times New Roman Star"tyd- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyd|- (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj- (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"tij-


face="Times New Roman Star"dyj-, dy:-g|y 'stop'face="Times New Roman Star"tys-
face="Times New Roman Star"tijin- 'to restrain (oneself)'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-face="Times New Roman Star"ty:t- 'touch'face="Times New Roman Star"ty:t- 'touch'

face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-
face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-face="Times New Roman Star"tyj-

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 477, EDT 450, ћудрак ƒисс. 36, ‘едотов 2, 391, Stachowski 239.
face="Times New Roman Star"*topykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 knee cap 2 knee 3 ankle-boneface="Times New Roman Star"1 коленна€ чашечка 2 колено 3 лодыжкаface="Times New Roman Star"topyq 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"topyq 3 (MK), 1 (KB, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"topuk 3face="Times New Roman Star"tubyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) topuq (Houts., AH) 3face="Times New Roman Star"to.piq 3face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"to:q 1face="Times New Roman Star"topuG 3face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tomyx 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"topuq, tomuq 1, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"tobuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"tobuk 2face="Times New Roman Star"dowuq 1face="Times New Roman Star"to'puq 1face="Times New Roman Star"topuq, tomuq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tubyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 2face="Times New Roman Star"topuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 3face="Times New Roman Star"tobyq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tobuq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 489, EDT 437-8, Ћексика 286, Stachowski 224. Both Ra"sa"nen and Clauson derive this word from PT *top 'pellet, round thing', but this is not likely because of external evidence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Top-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go throughface="Times New Roman Star"проходить сквозьface="Times New Roman Star"topul- 'to pierce' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"topul- 'to pierce' (MK, KB)







face="Times New Roman Star"tobyr-



face="Times New Roman Star"tobul- 'прорубить, пробить'face="Times New Roman Star"tobul-








face="Times New Roman Star"topyl- 'нападать, набрасыватьс€, вторгатьс€'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 489, EDT 440, Stachowski 224.
face="Times New Roman Star"*do"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to pour outface="Times New Roman Star"лить, сыпатьface="Times New Roman Star"to"k- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"to"k- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"do"k-face="Times New Roman Star"tu"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to.k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"do"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-, tek-face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|k-face="Times New Roman Star"tox-face="Times New Roman Star"tok-face="Times New Roman Star"to"'k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"'k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"tu"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"do"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"tu"'- (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"to"k-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 492-493, EDT 477, Ё—“я 3, 273-274, Stachowski 225.
face="Times New Roman Star"*doluface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hailface="Times New Roman Star"градface="Times New Roman Star"toly (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"toly (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dolu
face="Times New Roman Star"toly (MA), tolu (Sangl., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"du.liface="Times New Roman Star"toly (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"doluface="Times New Roman Star"doly, (ј-Ѕ) do:lyface="Times New Roman Star"ton|-dol (ton|- 'frozen')

face="Times New Roman Star"to^ly
face="Times New Roman Star"tolonface="Times New Roman Star"tolotface="Times New Roman Star"dolu

face="Times New Roman Star"doly (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"tolu



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 486, EDT 491, Ё—“я 3, 260-261, Ћексика 31-32, Stachowski 226. Cf. also *Tol/ 'ice' (Tuva dos?, Tof. do"s?, Oyr. tos? Ћексика 18, VEWT 491, Ё—“я 3, 267).
face="Times New Roman Star"*don|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cold 2 frost 3 frozen 4 freeze, be frozenface="Times New Roman Star"1 холодный 2 мороз 3 замерзший 4 замерзатьface="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"don 2face="Times New Roman Star"tun| 2face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1face="Times New Roman Star"don 2, don- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"to:-r- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|m 2 'frost'face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, ton|- 4








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 488, EDT 513, 515, Ё—“я 3, 265-267, Ћексика 17, Stachowski 226.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tepo" (-u")face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hill, top; top of headface="Times New Roman Star"холм, вершинаface="Times New Roman Star"to"pu"face="Times New Roman Star"tepe (Tefs.), to"pu" (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tepe, dial. depeface="Times New Roman Star"tu"be|face="Times New Roman Star"tepe, to"pe (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tepaface="Times New Roman Star"to"pa"
face="Times New Roman Star"ta"pa"face="Times New Roman Star"depe

face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"
face="Times New Roman Star"tu"b@, to"be (NW)face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"t`ej
face="Times New Roman Star"to"bo"face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"tu"be|face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"tepeface="Times New Roman Star"tebeface="Times New Roman Star"to"be
face="Times New Roman Star"to"beface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 494, 505, TMN 2, 450-452, EDT 436, Ё—“я 3, 197-199, Ћексика 201, Stachowski 227. The original meaning was probably 'crest, top of head': cf. Kirgh. tu"po"k 'бунчук', Chuv. t@w|bek 'crest, top of head'. Forms with d- in Oghuz may be a trace of a different root (see below); but Kirgh. do"bo" and Uygh. do"wa" are most probably < Mong. do"be.
face="Times New Roman Star"*To"mgekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"stumpface="Times New Roman Star"пень


face="Times New Roman Star"tu"mge|k
face="Times New Roman Star"to.ngak


face="Times New Roman Star"to"n|n|eface="Times New Roman Star"dial. to"kbes? (Joki - Kyz.)
face="Times New Roman Star"to"n|o"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"t@m,t@mekeface="Times New Roman Star"to"n|u"rga"s, to"gu"rga"sface="Times New Roman Star"to"n|u"rges
face="Times New Roman Star"do"ho"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"din|gek
face="Times New Roman Star"t/du"n|ga"k, tu"mka"kface="Times New Roman Star"to"n|gek
face="Times New Roman Star"tu"ngekface="Times New Roman Star"din|gek
face="Times New Roman Star"to"ngekface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 493, Ё—“я 3, 279-281, ‘едотов 215, Stachowski 228.
face="Times New Roman Star"*to"re-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to be born, originateface="Times New Roman Star"рождатьс€, происходитьface="Times New Roman Star"to"ru"- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"to"ru"- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"re-face="Times New Roman Star"tu"ra"- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"to"ru"-, to"re- (Sangl., Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"to"ra"-face="Times New Roman Star"do"re-face="Times New Roman Star"to"r@-
face="Times New Roman Star"to"ro"-

face="Times New Roman Star"to"ro":-face="Times New Roman Star"to"ro":-face="Times New Roman Star"to"ru"-face="Times New Roman Star"do"ru"-face="Times New Roman Star"to"ro"-




face="Times New Roman Star"to"re-face="Times New Roman Star"do"re-

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 495, EDT 533, Ё—“я 3, 283-284, Stachowski 228. The Turkm. voicedness is unclear.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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