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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-, *c?opurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pock-marked, variegated 2 badly bred, sloppy 3 to appear (of rash, furuncles)face="Times New Roman Star"1 пестрый, рябой 2 непородистый, неряшливый 3 высыпать (о сыпи, чирьях)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubar 'cheval gris de fer', c?ibar 'grey, mottled (horse)' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipo|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipa(r) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1







face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?obur 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'to appear (of rash on lips)', sybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar, cybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?opur 1, c?ubar 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403. An expressive and late attested root; appears, however, to be reconstructable for PT. The original shape is probably *c?ap- (preserved in c?ap-yr- 'to appear (of rash)', with further labial assimilation into *c?opur. The frequently attested variant c?upar > c?ubar is most probably a result of contamination *c?opur and *c?ubar (reflected in Tat. c?uwar, Kirgh. c?a:r that can only reflect *-b-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sinc?o"k ( ? -e-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle-bone 2 shin-boneface="Times New Roman Star"1 лодыжка 2 голень

face="Times New Roman Star"sinz?|ik 1 (dial.)











face="Times New Roman Star"su"nju"o"x 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"nc?u"k 'hip joint'face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"n|z?|u"k 'hip joint'


face="Times New Roman Star"sensek (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"Дыбо 1989 (but not < Perm.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ta:t (/*to:t)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rust 2 rashface="Times New Roman Star"1 ржавчина 2 пятна на лице
face="Times New Roman Star"tat 1 (totyq- 'to get rusty') (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tatu 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"tut 1, 2, tat (КСТТ) 'spot'face="Times New Roman Star"tot (Pav. C.), (MKypch.) tat 1 (At-Tuhf.)

face="Times New Roman Star"dad 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tat 1face="Times New Roman Star"tat 1face="Times New Roman Star"tot 'sun-tan', tat 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tut, tudъ 2, todъx 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tata:r 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dat 1face="Times New Roman Star"tadaryq 1face="Times New Roman Star"dat 1face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1, 'suntan'face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1, 2, tat 'spot'face="Times New Roman Star"tut 1, 2, dial. tat 'scurf in a bucket'face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tot, tut 1face="Times New Roman Star"tat 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 466, EDT 449, Егоров 262, Федотов 2, 256, Лексика 411-412. Length may be reconstructed because of the lack of pharyngealization in Tuva-Tof.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ta:j-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to slideface="Times New Roman Star"скользитьface="Times New Roman Star"taj- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taj- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"taj- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|j-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-
face="Times New Roman Star"ta:j-face="Times New Roman Star"taj- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj- (dial. Kumd., Leb.)



face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-, tajy-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-
face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"taj-
face="Times New Roman Star"taj-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 455, EDT 567.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Aj-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to chew 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 жевать 2 кусать

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ne-, c?ejne- 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|jne|- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"dajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"jna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:ne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"cajna-, c?ajna-, c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene-, c?a"ina"- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Рас. ФиЛ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*damface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 drop 2 to dropface="Times New Roman Star"1 капля 2 капать
face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 1 (Abush.), tam- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|m-face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tom-la- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tammax 1
face="Times New Roman Star"dam-dy 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam-dy 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam-na 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 459, EDT 503, ЭСТЯ 3, 139-140, Федотов 2, 245. There is also a variant *dym 'wetness' (ЭСТЯ 3, 294).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ta.nu-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"know, get to knowface="Times New Roman Star"знать, узнавать
face="Times New Roman Star"tanu- 'сообщить, приказать' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany- (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"tani-face="Times New Roman Star"tonu-, tani-face="Times New Roman Star"tani-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-, (dial.) ta:ny-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 'witness'

face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"ta:ny-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-, ta:ny-face="Times New Roman Star"tany-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 461, EDT 516. Turk. > MMo, WMong. tani- (see Щербак 1997, 153).
face="Times New Roman Star"*tiakygu (/ -n|u)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hen, fowlface="Times New Roman Star" курицаface="Times New Roman Star"taqyg|u (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taqag|u (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tavukface="Times New Roman Star"tawyqface="Times New Roman Star"tag|uq, tawuq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|wuqface="Times New Roman Star"toxa, toxuface="Times New Roman Star"taqag|yface="Times New Roman Star"tojuGface="Times New Roman Star"towuqface="Times New Roman Star"tag|ax, tan|ax
face="Times New Roman Star"taqa:
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъxъ

face="Times New Roman Star"da'g|a:face="Times New Roman Star"taqqyn/aq (perhaps < Mong.)face="Times New Roman Star"to:kface="Times New Roman Star"tawyqface="Times New Roman Star"tawyqface="Times New Roman Star"tawyqface="Times New Roman Star"tawuqface="Times New Roman Star"tauqface="Times New Roman Star"tawuqface="Times New Roman Star"tawyqface="Times New Roman Star"tox (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"tawuqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 457, EDT 468, TMN 2, 441-442, Егоров 321. Turk. > Hung. tyu/k, see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tArakajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 snipe 2 hawk 3 a k. of lark 4 a k. of duck (кречетка) 5 corncrake 6 merganserface="Times New Roman Star"1 бекас 2 ястреб 3 вид жаворонка 4 утка-кречетка 5 коростель 6 крохаль
face="Times New Roman Star"tartar 'a bird like the turtle dove, a water-fowl' (MK)'face="Times New Roman Star"tarag|aj 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tarag|aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"to|rg|o|q 4



face="Times New Roman Star"tarag|aj 1, ta:rt 5
face="Times New Roman Star"tarqat 6




face="Times New Roman Star"tarhat 6 (ФиЛ 233)face="Times New Roman Star"tartar 5face="Times New Roman Star"targ|aq 'steppe bird', tartar 5







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 463, EDT 536. There are two distinctive formations: *tara-kaj (a k. of steppe bird, but not quite clear - which), and *tartar (basically corncrake, but attested in MK with the meaning 'a bird like turtle dove, water-fowl'). They may be related, but the latter may also represent a borrowing < Sak. tatara 'partridge' (cf. also Armen. tatrak 'turtle-dove'), see Bailey 122.
face="Times New Roman Star"*TAry-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to cultivate (ground)face="Times New Roman Star"возделывать (землю)face="Times New Roman Star"tary- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tary- (MK, KB)

face="Times New Roman Star"tary- (Abush., Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"teri- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"tary-

face="Times New Roman Star"tary-
face="Times New Roman Star"tary-



face="Times New Roman Star"tary-face="Times New Roman Star"tary-









face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 532, ЭСТЯ 3, 157-159 (confused with *da.ry-g 'millet' q. v. sub *ta>ra).
face="Times New Roman Star"*dar/ (?-a:-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"baldface="Times New Roman Star"лысыйface="Times New Roman Star"taz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taz (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dazface="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"taz (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|zface="Times New Roman Star"taz
face="Times New Roman Star"daz
face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas



face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"tad|

face="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"tazface="Times New Roman Star"taz (ССЯ)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 467, EDT 570, ЭСТЯ 3, 124. Turk. > Hung. tar 'bald', see MNyTESz 3, 847.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dia:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"stoneface="Times New Roman Star"каменьface="Times New Roman Star"tas? (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas? (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"to|s?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"dasface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"da:s?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"ta:%s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?olface="Times New Roman Star"ta:sface="Times New Roman Star"ta:sface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?, das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"tasface="Times New Roman Star"das?face="Times New Roman Star"tas?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 466, TMN 2, 437-8, EDT 557, ЭСТЯ 3, 167-168, Егоров 326, Федотов 2, 421-422, Stachowski 219.
face="Times New Roman Star"*debeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"camelface="Times New Roman Star"верблюдface="Times New Roman Star"tebe (Orkh.), teve (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"teve (tevej) (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"deveface="Times New Roman Star"du">ja"face="Times New Roman Star"deve (Pav. C.), teve (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tujaface="Times New Roman Star"to"ga"face="Times New Roman Star"te, tiface="Times New Roman Star"deva"face="Times New Roman Star"du"jeface="Times New Roman Star"tibe
face="Times New Roman Star"to":, tebe
face="Times New Roman Star"t@w|veface="Times New Roman Star"taba 'deer'face="Times New Roman Star"taba 'deer'face="Times New Roman Star"teveface="Times New Roman Star"tebe (Рас. ФиЛ)face="Times New Roman Star"to":face="Times New Roman Star"tu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"tu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"du">ja"face="Times New Roman Star"tu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"deva"face="Times New Roman Star"tu"je, deveface="Times New Roman Star"tu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"to"je, to"u"va", tu"viface="Times New Roman Star"tu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 447-448, VEWT 468, ЭСТЯ 3, 313-315, Лексика 445, Stachowski 214. Turk. > Hung. teve, see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tekeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"he-goatface="Times New Roman Star"козелface="Times New Roman Star"teke (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"teke (MK, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"ta"ka" 'козел, баран'face="Times New Roman Star"teke (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"takaface="Times New Roman Star"teka"face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"ta"ka"face="Times New Roman Star"teke

face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"ta"ka"face="Times New Roman Star"taga 'he-goat, ram'

face="Times New Roman Star"de`ge, te ([dhe])face="Times New Roman Star"te'heface="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"teka"face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"ta"ka" 'he-goat, ram'face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"teke, tegeface="Times New Roman Star"teke
face="Times New Roman Star"tekeface="Times New Roman Star"See VEWT 470, EDT 477, Лексика 154, 428. Turk. > Mong. teke 'he-goat' (KW 390; TMN 2, 529, Щербак 1997, 154) ( > Man., Sol. texe id., see Doerfer MT 100; Oyr. teke - instead of the expected *tege - may be also borrowed back < Mong.). The Tur. dialectal form deke, despite Doerfer, can hardly justify a reconstruction of PT *d-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*de:.l(b)u"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mad, stupidface="Times New Roman Star"сумасшедший, глупыйface="Times New Roman Star"telve (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"telve (MK, KB); telu" (MK-Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"deliface="Times New Roman Star"tile, (КСТТ) tilba"face="Times New Roman Star"telve (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"telbaface="Times New Roman Star"ta"lva" 'sporty'
face="Times New Roman Star"da"liface="Times New Roman Star"da":li, telbe



face="Times New Roman Star"tiler- 'to become mad, enraged'


face="Times New Roman Star"telemir, telen|face="Times New Roman Star"teli; delbe 'stagger'face="Times New Roman Star"delbe 'stagger'face="Times New Roman Star"teli; delbe 'stagger'face="Times New Roman Star"tile, tilba" 'stagger'face="Times New Roman Star"teliface="Times New Roman Star"deliface="Times New Roman Star"deli, teliface="Times New Roman Star"delbe 'stagger'
face="Times New Roman Star"deliface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 493, VEWT 472, ЭСТЯ 3, 214-216, TMN 3, 660-662. The forms meaning 'stagger' reveal some irregularities (notably, voiced d- in some Kypchak forms), perhaps due to interdialectal borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*de.riface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"skinface="Times New Roman Star"кожаface="Times New Roman Star"teri (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"teri (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"deriface="Times New Roman Star"tireface="Times New Roman Star"teri (MA, Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"tera"face="Times New Roman Star"teryface="Times New Roman Star"da"riface="Times New Roman Star"deriface="Times New Roman Star"te:rface="Times New Roman Star"tereface="Times New Roman Star"tereface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"tir@face="Times New Roman Star"tiri:face="Times New Roman Star"tiri:
face="Times New Roman Star"tere (Рас. ФиЛ)face="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"tireface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"deriface="Times New Roman Star"teryface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"ci:ryface="Times New Roman Star"teriface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 475, EDT 530, ЭСТЯ 3, 207-208, Лексика 383, Stachowski 223.
face="Times New Roman Star"*di:r/ (*du":r/)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"kneeface="Times New Roman Star"коленоface="Times New Roman Star"tiz (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tizle- (MK) 'to press with one's knees'face="Times New Roman Star"dizface="Times New Roman Star"tezface="Times New Roman Star"diz (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"tizface="Times New Roman Star"tizface="Times New Roman Star"dyzface="Times New Roman Star"dizface="Times New Roman Star"dy:zface="Times New Roman Star"t@zekface="Times New Roman Star"tize (R., Верб.)face="Times New Roman Star"tizeface="Times New Roman Star"ti:zface="Times New Roman Star"c?@r-pus/s/iface="Times New Roman Star"tu"hex
face="Times New Roman Star"diskekface="Times New Roman Star"tiskekface="Times New Roman Star"tizeface="Times New Roman Star"tizeface="Times New Roman Star"tizface="Times New Roman Star"ted|face="Times New Roman Star"tizface="Times New Roman Star"dis/face="Times New Roman Star"tyzface="Times New Roman Star"dizeface="Times New Roman Star"tu"zy, tizyface="Times New Roman Star"tizface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 482, EDT 570, ЭСТЯ 3, 336-337, Егоров 323, Лексика 284.
face="Times New Roman Star"*det-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strive, exert 2 bold, hero 3 clever, reasonable 4 cheerful, vigorousface="Times New Roman Star"1 стараться, напрягать силы, сопротивляться 2 смелый, герой 3 умный, разумный, ловкий 4 бодрыйface="Times New Roman Star"tetik (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"tet-, tetin- (MK) 1, tetik, teti-l- 'to become clever' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"didin- 1, tetik 3face="Times New Roman Star"ta"ti 'good' (nursery word)face="Times New Roman Star"tetik (Abush., Sangl.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"tetik 4face="Times New Roman Star"tetik 4

face="Times New Roman Star"teta":rik 'support, help' (?)face="Times New Roman Star"t@t@n- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tidim 2, tedu" 'satisfied, sorrowless'

face="Times New Roman Star"tetia"nex 4
face="Times New Roman Star"didin- 1, didim 2face="Times New Roman Star"titim 2face="Times New Roman Star"tetik 3

face="Times New Roman Star"ta"ta"j 'good thing' (nursery word)
face="Times New Roman Star"didin- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"tetek 'pleasure'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 476, EDT 450, 455, 456, ЭСТЯ 3, 218. Cf. perhaps also Kaz. etc. tetik "device, mechanism", Tat., Bashk. ta"te '(gun's) cock', Gag. tetik 'id.; virgin's hymen', KKalp. tetik 'mechanism, essence', Az. ta"tig 'trigger'. Some forms reveal secondary assimilatory devoicing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tyky-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to stuff in, press inface="Times New Roman Star"набивать, вдавливать, втыкатьface="Times New Roman Star"tyq- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyq- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tyka-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tiq-face="Times New Roman Star"tiq-
face="Times New Roman Star"tyx-face="Times New Roman Star"dyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyx-face="Times New Roman Star"tyqta-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-

face="Times New Roman Star"dyg|y-face="Times New Roman Star"tyg|y-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-
face="Times New Roman Star"tyqa-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-
face="Times New Roman Star"tyq-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 477-478, EDT 465, ЭСТЯ 3, 337-340, Мудрак 75. The Turkm. form with a voiced d- is quite irregular and probably reflects a merger with *dik- `to insert, plant vertically'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dy:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spirit, breath 2 rest 3 to rest 4 to pant 5 to breathe 6 quiet 7 sultrinessface="Times New Roman Star"1 дыхание, дух 2 отдых 3 отдыхать 4 задыхаться 5 дышать 6 спокойный 7 духотаface="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (MK, KB), tyn 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, din-le- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 3 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tync?-yx- 4, dinc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"dy:nc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, 2, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tinc? 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?@m 1face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3, 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, tyn-s?-yq- 4, tyn-s?-a-j- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn-s-yw 7face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tyn-c?-y- 'to rot, addle', tyn-c?-aj- 3, tyn-ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"din-ne-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 5, tync 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys? 1, tyn-c?-aj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 478, EDT 512, ЭСТЯ 3, 341-345, Мудрак Дисс. 38-39, Stachowski 238, 239. Some Oghuz reflexes have voiceless t-, probably because of Kypchak influence; still the reconstruction of *d- seems preferable.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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