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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*kEmu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bone 2 spongy bone 3 cartilageface="Times New Roman Star"1 кость 2 губчата€ кость 3 хр€щ

face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemu"k (MA) 3, ko"mu"k (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko|mik, ge|mik (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ke:mik 3





face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kimek 2face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 2face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"kemik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"gemik 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, EDT 722, Ё—“я 5, 36-38, Ћексика 261-262. Turk. > Mong. kemik 'cartilage' (see ўербак 1997, 126; but the derivation of the Turk. form from *gemu"r- 'to gnaw' (v. sub *ke>\ma) is a folk etymology, although some contaminations were possible: Yak. ko"mu"ru"o" 'spongy bone' semantically continues *kemu"k, but formally is derived from *gemu"r-. MK has kemdi- 'to cut meat from the bones' and kemdu"k 'bone with meat cut off' - forms that may be related both to *kemu"k and *gemu"r-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*me:me (*be:me)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 nipple 3(poet.) breastface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (ж.) 2 сосок 3 грудь (поэт.) 4 соска

face="Times New Roman Star"meme 1, Old Osm. memek (17th c.)face="Times New Roman Star"me|mi, me|me|j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma":me 3


face="Times New Roman Star"ma":ma"k
face="Times New Roman Star"me:me: 4




face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"mma" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"An onomatopoetic root. See VEWT 333, Ё—“я VII.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (tr.) 2 light, ray 3 to produce fireface="Times New Roman Star"1 жечь 2 свет, луч 3 высекать огонь
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jaqty 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|q- 1, jo|g|du 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jag|ty 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ja:q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/ot- 1, s/o-dъ 2face="Times New Roman Star"saq- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1, jaqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?aq- 1, z?aqty 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 180, TMN 4, 201-202, EDT 897, Ё—“я 4, 62, 81-82, ‘едотов 2, 146, Ћексика 362. This stem should be distinguished from *jan- 'to burn (intr.)'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"pek
face="Times New Roman Star"1 dog 2 hound 3 sheep-dog 4 yard dog 5 puppyface="Times New Roman Star"1 собака 2 охотничий пес 3 овчарка 4 дворова€ собака 5 щенок
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1, go"belek 5
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek (Pav. C., AH) 1, ko"belek 2 (OKypch.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.ppa"k 1; ko"pa"k 1 (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pa"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"bo"k 'ethnonym; name of a hero'






face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pe 1 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"belek 3, go"ben it 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 291, TMN 3, 646-647, Ё—“я 5, 111-112, Ћексика 189. Basically an Oghuz word, but cf. also Kum. go"ben, OKypch. ko"belek 'shepherd's dog' (Bulgat, ad-Durr., Houts., AH) = Tur. dial. go"belek 'puppy' (possibly < Kypch.), see Ё—“я ibid. Despite Ё—“я, Kirgh. qara ko"bo"lo"k 'evil spirit appearing as a girl dressed in black and with a black greyhound' is rather = ko"bo"lo"k 'butterfly' (cf. the archaic mythological motive of evil spirit appearing as a butterfly), but a contamination with the word for dog attested in Old Kypchak also cannot be excluded. However, Kalm. ko"wl@g 'greyhound' is not < Kirgh., but from Old Kypchak. The same source is probable for Russ. кобель, dimin. кобеле'к (a re-analysis?) - the word is absent in other Slavic languages, the list of absolutely hopeless etymological attempts can be found in ‘асмер II 267. It was attested for the first time in 1599 as a term for a hounting hound: у государевы царевы охоты у кобелей у медел€нскихъ; the form кобелек (attested in 1673) see in —–я XI-XVIII, 7, 208. Turk. > Hung. kopo/ 'bloodhound', see Gombocz 1912 (Doerfer in TMN 3, 647 objects, but the word has no Finno-Ugric etymology).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyl(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hairface="Times New Roman Star"волосface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyl (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qilface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"Gylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"x@l@xface="Times New Roman Star"kylface="Times New Roman Star"kyl 'sealine'face="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"xylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"qyl
face="Times New Roman Star"qylface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 262, TMN 3, 574-5, EDT 614, Ћексика 196, Ё—“я 6, 204-205, Stachowski 168.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?okface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowdface="Times New Roman Star"1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(с€), размножать(с€) 4 толпа, множество
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (ƒ“— - KB), c?o:q 2 (MK - Oghuz), c?og|-al- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ok (-g|u) 1, c?og|al- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), c?oq- 3 (Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1, c?oxal- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq (-qu) 4face="Times New Roman Star"sox 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?og| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|yr 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 'дружно'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oju 4, c?oq-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1, c?og|y 4 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as c?oq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of c?oq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with c?og|-la- 'to bind, pack' (ƒ“—) or c?oq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"rootface="Times New Roman Star"корень
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k (AH, Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"k



face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|k (Anatri)

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'k

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"k

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 287, EDT 708, TMN 3, 598, Ё—“я 5, 91-92, Ћексика 109.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jumurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"bowels, intestinesface="Times New Roman Star"кишки, внутренности
face="Times New Roman Star"jumur (MK)














face="Times New Roman Star"c?umur 'maw'face="Times New Roman Star"n/umur 'maw'









face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 937-8. Historically the root should be probably kept distinct from *jum- 'round' and *jumurtka 'egg' - although internal contaminations were of course inevitable.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ju"r/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to swim, floatface="Times New Roman Star"плаватьface="Times New Roman Star"ju"z- (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z-face="Times New Roman Star"jo"z-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z- (AH, Ettuhf.), u"z- (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"juz-face="Times New Roman Star"u"z-
face="Times New Roman Star"u"z-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z-face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"s-face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"s-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"s-, d/u"s-

face="Times New Roman Star"so"tu"o" 'bathing', so"tu"o"le:- 'to bathe'face="Times New Roman Star"ho"tu"o"le:-, hu"to"l- 'to bathe'

face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"z-face="Times New Roman Star"z?uz-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z-face="Times New Roman Star"jo"d|-face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"z-, z?u"z-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z-face="Times New Roman Star"ju"z-, u"z-face="Times New Roman Star"z?u"z-
face="Times New Roman Star"juz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 214, EDT 984, Ё—“я 4, 261.
face="Times New Roman Star"*s[e]go"l ( / *so"gil)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wartface="Times New Roman Star"бородавкаface="Times New Roman Star"so"go"l (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sigil (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sigilface="Times New Roman Star"so"ja"lface="Times New Roman Star"sigil, su"ku"l, su"ja"l (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"suga"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"ga"l
face="Times New Roman Star"zijilface="Times New Roman Star"sin|n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"so":l
face="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"sijilface="Times New Roman Star"s?ъw|klъw|, s?@w|g@w|l (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"so":lface="Times New Roman Star"su"jelface="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jelface="Times New Roman Star"hu">ja"l

face="Times New Roman Star"su"velface="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jel
face="Times New Roman Star"su"jelface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 429, EDT 820, Ё—“я 7. Some irregularities are due to the root's expressive nature.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku:rtface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"wormface="Times New Roman Star"червьface="Times New Roman Star"qurt (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qurt (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kurtface="Times New Roman Star"qortface="Times New Roman Star"qurt (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qurtface="Times New Roman Star"qurut
face="Times New Roman Star"Gurdface="Times New Roman Star"Gu:rtface="Times New Roman Star"xurt


face="Times New Roman Star"xortface="Times New Roman Star"kurz?|ag|a 'small parasites'face="Times New Roman Star"kurz?|agaface="Times New Roman Star"qu'rtface="Times New Roman Star"qu'rtface="Times New Roman Star"qurtface="Times New Roman Star"qu_rt

face="Times New Roman Star"qurtface="Times New Roman Star"qurtface="Times New Roman Star"qurtface="Times New Roman Star"qurt

face="Times New Roman Star"See VEWT 303-4 (although we prefer to separate *Ku:rt 'worm' and *Ku:rt 'wolf'), EDT 648, Ћексика 181, Ё—“я 6, 167-168, ‘едотов 2, 367-368, Stachowski 162.
face="Times New Roman Star"*em-ig, *em-c?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 to suck 3 nippleface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (жен.) 2 сосать 3 сосокface="Times New Roman Star"emig 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (MK), e.mig 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ik 1face="Times New Roman Star"im- 2, imc?e|k 1face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (Pav. C.), emc?ek 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ak 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2, a"mc?a"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"emyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"mz?|a"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, imz?|ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"@w|m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emi:j 1face="Times New Roman Star"emij 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emig 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emij 'udder'face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"imsa"k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 41-2, EDT 158-9, Ё—“я 1, 271-272, ≈горов 63, Ћексика 273-274, Stachowski 45. PT *em-ig and *em-c?ek (the latter form is first attested in the 13th c.) are derived from *em- 'to suck'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/, *(i)al/-a-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 meal, food 2 to eat 3 porridge 4 to feedface="Times New Roman Star"1 еда, пища 2 есть 3 каша 4 кормитьface="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1, as?a- 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as? 3face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a:s?, o|:s? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as 1face="Times New Roman Star"as 1, as- 2face="Times New Roman Star"a's? 1, az?a:- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 4face="Times New Roman Star"as? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?a- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 29-30, Ё—“я 1, 210-212, TMN 2, 61-62, EDT 253, 256, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kar/, *Kar/-dyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 scales 3 dandruff 4 to peel bark 5 to husk nutsface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 чешу€ 3 перхоть 4 сдирать кору 5 лущить орехиface="Times New Roman Star"qadyz 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaz, qad|yz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qajry 1, dial. qajyz 1; qajyzla- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"qazg|o|q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qazdyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xastyryx 1


face="Times New Roman Star"xujъr 1face="Times New Roman Star"qatyryk 1; xasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"kasta:- 'to skin'face="Times New Roman Star"qazyryq 2, qazy- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qa's- 5
face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qajry, dial. qajyd| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qajyzg|aq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 218, 243, EDT 608, 665, Ё—“я 5, 211-212, 328, ‘едотов 2, 352, Ћексика 107. The original form here is *Kar/; a suffixed form was *Kar/dy(r/), later simplified to *Kadyr/. This can be clearly seen from forms like SUygh. and Khak. Another possible explanation could be an early dissimilation (*Kar/-yr/ > *Kadyr/ = *Kad|yr/, or already after the zetacism, *Kazyz > *Kad|yz). There is some confusion between *Kar/ and *Kas, *Kasuk in Old Turkic, but MK definitely spells the word as qaz.
face="Times New Roman Star"*deg- / *do"g- / *dog-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"roundface="Times New Roman Star"круглыйface="Times New Roman Star"tegirmi (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tegirme (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"degirmi 'circle'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"ge|re|kface="Times New Roman Star"tekirme, tekirmi (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu.garakface="Times New Roman Star"du"gla"kface="Times New Roman Star"doGyrface="Times New Roman Star"da"jirmiface="Times New Roman Star"tegelek, toGalaqface="Times New Roman Star"tog|ylaxface="Times New Roman Star"tog|alaqface="Times New Roman Star"tog|oloq
face="Times New Roman Star"t@w|g@w|r 'mirror'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"rem (poet.) 'round', tier- 'to turn round'face="Times New Roman Star"tier- 'to turn round'face="Times New Roman Star"to"gerikface="Times New Roman Star"to":rejface="Times New Roman Star"tegerek
face="Times New Roman Star"to"gerekface="Times New Roman Star"tu"n|a"ra"kface="Times New Roman Star"to"gerek
face="Times New Roman Star"togerekface="Times New Roman Star"do"n|gelek

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 3, 176-179, 281-282, Stachowski 222, 227. One of several expressive common Turkic roots meaning 'round' and displaying phonetic irregularities. Some modern Turkic forms (not listed above) are probably borrowed from Mongolian: cf., in particular, Yak. to"gu":r, to"gu"ru"k, Dolg. to"gu"ru"k ( > Evk. tug|uruk). Cf. also Ћексика 400 (with forms reflecting PT *teker). Bulg. > Hung. tu"ko"r 'mirror', see MNyTESz 3, 1010.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tu"nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 night 2 yesterdayface="Times New Roman Star"1 ночь 2 вчераface="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (MK, KB), du"n, tu"n 'night, dark' (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"to"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1 (Abush.), 'dark' (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tun 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tune, tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"na"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, du":n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1, 'dark'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tu":n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu":nface="Times New Roman Star"du"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tun 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"to"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"tu"n 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tun, tu"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 505, EDT 513, Ё—“я 3, 315-316, Ћексика 81, Stachowski 236. Cf. also Yak. tu"n| 'dark, darkness' (< *tu"n-Vk). The variant *du":n, reflected in some languages, is obviously due to a secondary influence of *du":l/ 'dream' (v. sub *t`u:l/ke), as well as the archaic compound *tu"-gu"n 'yesterday' (*'that day'), preserved in: Tur. dial. du"hu"n, SUygh. tugyn, Tuva, Tof. du":n.
face="Times New Roman Star"*urug ( ? *or-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 seed 2 child, girl 3 kin, kind 4 relativesface="Times New Roman Star"1 сем€ 2 ребенок, девочка 3 род, плем€ 4 родственникиface="Times New Roman Star"urug| (OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"urug| (MK, KB) 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"orlyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urug| (Sangl.) 4face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uruq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"uruG 3



face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uru: 4face="Times New Roman Star"uru: 4face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 2face="Times New Roman Star"urug| 2face="Times New Roman Star"uruq 3face="Times New Roman Star"u_ryq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urlyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"orloq 1face="Times New Roman Star"urluq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"uryq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 516, TMN 2, 47, EDT 214-5, Ё—“я 1, 604-606, Ћексика 115-116, 307, 323-324, Stachowski 246. Deriving the word from *ur- 'beat, hit' (VEWT) is of course incorrect. Some forms reflect a variant form *uru-lyk. Turk. > Mong. urug| (see TMN 2, 51, ўербак 1997, 162).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.j-yt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to say 2 to prescribe, tell 3 to ask, demand 4 to concernface="Times New Roman Star"1 говорить 2 указывать, предписывать 3 просить 4 касатьс€ ч.-л.face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 3 (OUygh.), ajy- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aj-, ajyt- 1 (MK), ajyt- 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ait- 4face="Times New Roman Star"e|jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"aj(y)t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ejt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1 (dial.), ajyt- 'sing'

face="Times New Roman Star"ha:j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yj- 2, yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"yjyt- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajyt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"jt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ajt- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10, Ё—“я 1, 99-100, 111-112, ≈горов 342, EDT 268-9, Stachowski 259. PT *a.jyt- is derived from *a.j- 'to point out, prescribe'. Before the 11th c. it had only a causative meaning; the meaning 'say, tell' developed later.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yjsface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 smoke 2 soot, dirty smoke 3 scent, odour 4 fumesface="Times New Roman Star"1 дым 2 копоть, сажа 3 запах, аромат 4 испарени€

face="Times New Roman Star"is 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 3

face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"his 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 3



face="Times New Roman Star"jъs 3face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"is 4
face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3



face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3

face="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 1, 379, ≈горов 76, Stachowski 263. The original meaning must have been 'smell, odour', see notes to *y:l/(c?) (cf. the opposition ys 'soot' - ijis 'smell' in Nogai etc.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ban/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fatface="Times New Roman Star"жир


face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"mo|jface="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"sar-maj 'butter' (Sag.)
face="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"as-majax (ѕек.)


face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj

face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"maj
face="Times New Roman Star"majface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 322, Ћексика 453-454.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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