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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Лексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство


face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.qin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation s?oq!' R 4, 1024)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), c?oqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation c?oq!' (R 3, 2009)
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk 5



face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqyn- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Ra"sa"nen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. c?oqur 'pit' and Taranchi c?oqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from c?ok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to c?o"ku"r- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. c?oq!, Shor s?oq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. c?ok!, Kaz. s?oq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *c?ok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. cso"k 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ba:la, *ba:l-dyr/, *ba:la-panface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 young animal, nestling, 2 child 3 a man's wife's younger sister 4 younger relativeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молодое животное, птенец, 2 ребенок 3 младшая сестра жены 4 младший родственникface="Times New Roman Star"baldyz (OUygh.) 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1 (MK), baldyz 3 (MK); baldyr 'step-son, step-daughter' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2, baldyz 3, balaban 'falcon' (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2, baldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2 (Abush., Бор. Бад.), baldyz 3 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo|la 1, 2, bo|ldiz 3, palapan 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"myla, mle 2face="Times New Roman Star"bala, balaG 1, 2, baldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"ba:la 1, 2, ba:ldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"pala 2, pasty 3face="Times New Roman Star"pala 2, pasty 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2, passy 3 (Tel., R)face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2face="Times New Roman Star"poldъr 3, 4 (As?. IX 282)face="Times New Roman Star"balys 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"balys 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2, baldyz 3, balapan 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2, baldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2, baldyd| 3; belekej 'small'face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2face="Times New Roman Star"baldysqa 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2, baldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 2, baldyz 3face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bala 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 332, 334, VEWT 59, 60, ЭСТЯ 2, 47-50, 53-54, Лексика 71, 306-307, 312, Stachowski 51, 52. Turk. > Kalm. baldr. (KW 30). Khak. pasty < *bazly < *balzy with metathesis.
face="Times New Roman Star"*si:kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 urine 2 to urinateface="Times New Roman Star"1 моча 2 мочитьсяface="Times New Roman Star"sid- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sid|- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"si- (AH, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"siz-, sez-, syz- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2face="Times New Roman Star"si:dik 1face="Times New Roman Star"side- 2face="Times New Roman Star"si- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2face="Times New Roman Star"si:d- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъk 1, s?ъr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:k 1face="Times New Roman Star"i:k 1face="Times New Roman Star"sidik 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sij- 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 799, VEWT 421, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 130. Only Yak. and Chuv. reflect the original *si:k; all other languages reflect a derivative *si:g-t- / *si:g-d- (present also outside Turkic) > *si:d-. Also widely reflected is the secondary derivative *si:d-dik 'urine' ( > Turkm. si:dik etc., see ЭСТЯ 7).
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAl/anface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 urine 2 to urinate (of a horse)face="Times New Roman Star"1 моча 2 мочиться (о лошади)
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"kas?an 1, kas?an- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yn- (Houts.)


face="Times New Roman Star"Gas?an- 2











face="Times New Roman Star"qasan- 2






face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 674, ЭСТЯ 5, 348.
face="Times New Roman Star"*si:pekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 infant's urinal in a cradle 2 pivot (of a hand-mill etc.) 3 corn-cobface="Times New Roman Star"1 мочеотводная трубочка в люльке 2 стержень, шкворень (ручной мельницы и т.п.) 3 початок кукурузы
face="Times New Roman Star"sibek 1, 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"su"bek 1, 2, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"su"ba"k 3 (dial.)






















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 788, ЭСТЯ 7. Modern languages reveal some very irregular reflexes like Kaz., KKalp. sobyq 3, Tur. su"mek, so"mek 1, 2, 3 (with -m- also in Kum. su"mek, Nogh. simek, Uzb. sumak 1, 2 etc.; some languages have variants with c?- or s?- like Kirgh. c?o"mo"k 3, s?imek 1, 2). These all can be either irregular expressive variants with secondary diffusion or reflect contaminations with some other (not quite clear) roots.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Abuc?-kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 husband, old man 2 foster-mother 3 elder sister 4 uncleface="Times New Roman Star"1 муж, старик 2 кормилица 3 старшая сестра 4 дядяface="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a, abuc?g|a 1, abuc?qa 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"avyc?g|a 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"abus? 3 dial.face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, awucqa 1 dial. (Sib.)face="Times New Roman Star"abus?qa, avus?qa 4 (Abush., Sangl.)




face="Times New Roman Star"apsax, apc?ax, Koib. abysqa 1face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yj 1, aps?aq 'bear'face="Times New Roman Star"aps?yjaq 1; 'bear'
face="Times New Roman Star"obas?ka

face="Times New Roman Star"as?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"as?yn/aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1 dial.
face="Times New Roman Star"abys?qa 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 60-61, EDT 6, Егоров 274-275, Федотов II 282, Аникин 72. Chuv. is not quite regular and may be an early loanword from Tat. Formally the Turk. word may be derived from *aba 'elder in the mother's line' (+ dimin. -c?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*e.r-kekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 man 2 husband 3 maleface="Times New Roman Star"1 мужчина 2 муж 3 самец
face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"irke|k 3
face="Times New Roman Star"erkak 1

face="Times New Roman Star"erka"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"hi.rka"k 1
face="Times New Roman Star"irgex 3face="Times New Roman Star"irgek 3face="Times New Roman Star"irgek 3face="Times New Roman Star"i'rxek 3face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"irka"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"rkex 1face="Times New Roman Star"erkek 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 46, TMN 2, 178-9, EDT 192, ЭСТЯ 1, 297-298, 321-322, Лексика 303, 561, Егоров 30, Stachowski 46, 128. We follow Clauson (EDT 223-4) in separating *e:r from *e.r-kek.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)arync?-g|aface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ant 2 tickface="Times New Roman Star"1 муравей 2 клещ
face="Times New Roman Star"qarync?aq (MK: Oghuz) 1face="Times New Roman Star"karynz?|a 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qarync?g|a (Sangl., Qutb.), qarync?a (Houts.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"Garys?g|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garynz?|a 2face="Times New Roman Star"xarc?yx 2












face="Times New Roman Star"qarymz?|e| 1



face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 662, VEWT 238, ЭСТЯ 5, 323, Лексика 184. Turk. > Kalm. xac?ig (KW 173) 'irgendeine Made in der Nase des Kamels' (or is it rather < Turk. qatqyc??).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fly 2 gad-fly 3 mosquito 4 beeface="Times New Roman Star"1 муха 2 овод 3 комар 4 пчела, шершень
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyn 1, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?eben 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivin 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byn 3

face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ymyn 4





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymyn 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyn 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"seben-le- 'to be annoyed by fly-bites (of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, EDT 838, TMN 3, 53, Лексика 186.
face="Times New Roman Star"*geb-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 soft, mild, gentle 2 to become weak 3 emptyface="Times New Roman Star"1 мягкий, нежный 2 слабеть 3 пустойface="Times New Roman Star"kevs?ek (OUygh.) 1, kevil- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kevs?ek (MK) 1, kevil- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gevs?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kews?ek 1 (Pav. C.), (MKypch.) kewil- 2 (AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"vs?ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"vs?u"l 'dilapidated'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"psek 1


face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|bъw|s? 1, kavz?a- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gz?u"r-gej 'рыхлый, хрупкий (снег, лед)'
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ps?o"- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"kevs?e- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 244, 291, EDT 689, 691, ЭСТЯ 3, 9-10 (the root tends to contaminate either with *geb- 'chew' or with *ko"p 'foam').
face="Times New Roman Star"*so"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 juice in meat, lymph 2 soup, bouillonface="Times New Roman Star"1 мясной сок, лимфа 2 суп, бульонface="Times New Roman Star"so"l (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"l (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"l (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"l, su"l-ge|n 1


face="Times New Roman Star"so"l 'ram's blood'





face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъl (dial.), шыл (XIX c., Bible) 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"l 2


face="Times New Roman Star"so"l 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"l 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"l 1face="Times New Roman Star"hu"l 1


face="Times New Roman Star"so"l 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 430, EDT 824, ЭСТЯ 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sy:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 observation, test 2 to testface="Times New Roman Star"1 наблюдение, опыт 2 испытыватьface="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2, syns?y 'explorer'face="Times New Roman Star"sin 1 (R.), syna- 2 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"sin 1, sina- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sini- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sy:n 1, sy:na- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"si:na"- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"syn 1, syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn 1, syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hyn 1, hyna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sync?y 'explorer'face="Times New Roman Star"syn 1
face="Times New Roman Star"syna- 2, sync?y 'prophet'face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 835, VEWT 417, ЭСТЯ 7 (the root should be distinguished from *syjn 'body, idol' q. v. sub *si_u\nu, although they tend to contaminate). Turk. > Mong. sina-, see Щербак 1997, 145.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"p-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to swell 2 foamface="Times New Roman Star"1 набухать 2 пенаface="Times New Roman Star"ko"pik, ko"pu"k (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pu"r- (MK) 1, ko"pu"k (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku.p- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"pik 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|bъw|k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"bu"j- 'pop up, float on the surface'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'vu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'pu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"b@k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"p- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"go"p- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 689, 691, VEWT 291, ЭСТЯ 5, 108-111, Stachowski 154.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"n|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 excrements, faeces 2 hard soil, swampface="Times New Roman Star"1 навоз, помет 2 твердая почва, болото
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"z (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n, ku"n (dial.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"gu.n| 1





face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n| 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n| 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n| 1

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 735, ЭСТЯ 5, 103.
face="Times New Roman Star"*um-, *um-sa-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to hope for 2 to envy 3 an object of hope, desire; hopeface="Times New Roman Star"1 надеяться 2 завидовать 3 объект надежды, желания; надеждаface="Times New Roman Star"umug| 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1, umdu 3 (MK, KB), umdu-c?y 'beggar' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1, umsan- 1, umu 3face="Times New Roman Star"omty-l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"um-unc? 3 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1 (dial. Khorazm.), umsun- 'to experience a flow of milk in one's breast and a desire to feed a baby'

face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1, umsun- 'to be disappointed', umaz?|aG 3face="Times New Roman Star"ymtyl- 'to wait for food'face="Times New Roman Star"umzan- 1 (Верб.)
face="Times New Roman Star"umzan- 'to go in a direction', umza- 'to make smb. to go in a direction'
face="Times New Roman Star"ъw|mza- 2face="Times New Roman Star"umsu-gu-j- 'to become keen on, addicted', umnahyt (*umdac?yt) 'beggar'


face="Times New Roman Star"umu- 1, umsun- 1, umtul- 'to strive'face="Times New Roman Star"umty- 'to dart, lunge'face="Times New Roman Star"ymty- 'to dart, lunge'

face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1,face="Times New Roman Star"um- 1, umsun- 1face="Times New Roman Star"umyt-, ymtyl- 'to strive'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 155-156, 157, 158; VEWT 513, ЭСТЯ 1, 595-596. Some derivatives tend to merge with Pers. umi:d 'hope' (whence certainly Turkm. umy:t, Gag., Karaim, Kum. umut id.) Not quite clear is the relation of this root to the verb ynty- 'to yearn', Chuv. ъnDъ- (ЭСТЯ I 653-654).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:jnface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 punishment, fine, guilt 2 to punish 3 cruelty, tyranny 4 to condemn 5 hard, difficult 6 to torture 7 insult, offence 8 to offend 9 harm, torture 10 sin 11 to annoy, anger 12 to beatface="Times New Roman Star"1 наказание, штраф, вина 2 наказывать 3 жестокость, тирания 4 осуждать, порицать 5 трудный, тяжелый 6 мучить 7 обида 8 обижать 9 беда, мучение 10 грех 11 сердить, раздражать 12 битьface="Times New Roman Star"qyjnyg| (acc.) (Orkh.), qyjn, qyn (OUygh.) 1, qyna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyn, qyjyn (KB) 1, qyna- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjyn, kyjync? 3, kyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 5, qyjyna- 'to make difficult, hard'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn (Abush., Бор. Бад., MA), qyn (Pav. C.), qyna- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qy:n 5, qy:na- 'to make difficult, torture'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjyx 7, xyjal 9face="Times New Roman Star"qyjal 9, 10, qyjyq-ta- 8, qyjnag| 9 (*qyn/-lag|)face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qyjna- 6, qyjal 10, dial. (Баск. Туба) qyj- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"x@n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:nn/a:-, kyjaxa:- 11, kyj- 'to pain, ache'face="Times New Roman Star"kyjn|a- 11, kyj- 'to kill'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjyt- 'to make difficult, troublesome', qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6, qynz?-yl- 'to be distressed'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qejin 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264. EDT 631, ЭСТЯ 6, 218-219, Stachowski 168. Turk. *Ky:jna- > MMong. qina- 'to torture' (Щербак 1997, 165). Nasalless forms (like Yak. kyjaxa:- etc.) may result from a reanalysis of the form *Ky:jn as *Kyjyn, interpreted as a deverbative noun. Turk. > Hung. ki/n 'torture, suffering' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*o":k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to heap up 2 many (*o":ku"l/)face="Times New Roman Star"1 накладывать, нагромождать 2 много (*o":ku"l/)face="Times New Roman Star"u"k- 1, u"ku"s? 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"u"k- 1, u"ku"s? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"gu"s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"u">j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"k- 1 (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"uj- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"u"g- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ug|a 'heap'face="Times New Roman Star"u":- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"u"gu"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"gu"s 2

face="Times New Roman Star"u"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u">j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"u"j- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 100, 118, ЭСТЯ 1, 620-621, Stachowski 249. Modern forms point rather to *-g-; reasons for this voicing are not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"n|er/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 slime (on dishes) 2 mildewface="Times New Roman Star"1 налет, слизь (на стенках посуды) 2 плесень














face="Times New Roman Star"o"n|u"s 1



face="Times New Roman Star"o"n|ez 1
face="Times New Roman Star"u"n|a"d| 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 538.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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