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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.jyn-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to boil (Intr.)face="Times New Roman Star"варитьс€face="Times New Roman Star"qajyn- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna- (Qutb., IM)face="Times New Roman Star"qe|jne|-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"Gajna-face="Times New Roman Star"xajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"ky:j- (kyn/n/y-)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjnar-, ky:jnar- (trans.)face="Times New Roman Star"xajyn-face="Times New Roman Star"xe:in-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-
face="Times New Roman Star"qajna-

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 222, Ё—“я 5, 203-205, Stachowski 168, 171.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sheath, scabbardface="Times New Roman Star"ножны, чехол
face="Times New Roman Star"qyn (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qin, (Khorazm dial.) qyjnface="Times New Roman Star"qinface="Times New Roman Star"qyn (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"Gynface="Times New Roman Star"Gy:nface="Times New Roman Star"xynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"j@n@, dial. @n@face="Times New Roman Star"ky:n
face="Times New Roman Star"xyn
face="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"qynface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264, EDT 630-631, ≈горов 79, Ћексика 571, Ё—“я 6, 217-218.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:jnface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 punishment, fine, guilt 2 to punish 3 cruelty, tyranny 4 to condemn 5 hard, difficult 6 to torture 7 insult, offence 8 to offend 9 harm, torture 10 sin 11 to annoy, anger 12 to beatface="Times New Roman Star"1 наказание, штраф, вина 2 наказывать 3 жестокость, тирани€ 4 осуждать, порицать 5 трудный, т€желый 6 мучить 7 обида 8 обижать 9 беда, мучение 10 грех 11 сердить, раздражать 12 битьface="Times New Roman Star"qyjnyg| (acc.) (Orkh.), qyjn, qyn (OUygh.) 1, qyna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyn, qyjyn (KB) 1, qyna- 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyjyn, kyjync? 3, kyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 5, qyjyna- 'to make difficult, hard'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn (Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад., MA), qyn (Pav. C.), qyna- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qijin 5, qijna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyna- 4face="Times New Roman Star"qy:n 5, qy:na- 'to make difficult, torture'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjyx 7, xyjal 9face="Times New Roman Star"qyjal 9, 10, qyjyq-ta- 8, qyjnag| 9 (*qyn/-lag|)face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qyjna- 6, qyjal 10, dial. (Ѕаск. “уба) qyj- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"x@n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:nn/a:-, kyjaxa:- 11, kyj- 'to pain, ache'face="Times New Roman Star"kyjn|a- 11, kyj- 'to kill'face="Times New Roman Star"xyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjyt- 'to make difficult, troublesome', qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6, qynz?-yl- 'to be distressed'face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 12
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn, qejin 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyn 1, qyjna- 6face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 264. EDT 631, Ё—“я 6, 218-219, Stachowski 168. Turk. *Ky:jna- > MMong. qina- 'to torture' (ўербак 1997, 165). Nasalless forms (like Yak. kyjaxa:- etc.) may result from a reanalysis of the form *Ky:jn as *Kyjyn, interpreted as a deverbative noun. Turk. > Hung. ki/n 'torture, suffering' (Gombocz 1912).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:.rt-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"falcon, hawkface="Times New Roman Star"сокол, €стреб

face="Times New Roman Star"kartal
face="Times New Roman Star"qartal (Houts., AH, Sangl.)



face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Gartalface="Times New Roman Star"xartyg|aface="Times New Roman Star"qartag|a


face="Times New Roman Star"ky:rt, ky:rdajface="Times New Roman Star"ky:rtface="Times New Roman Star"xartyg|a
face="Times New Roman Star"qartyg|a







face="Times New Roman Star"qartaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 239, Ё—“я 5, 316-318, Ћексика 169, Stachowski 172. Turk. *kartygaj > MMong. qarc?igaj (SH qarc?iqai), WMong. qarc?ig|ai (see TMN 1, 404), whence again late MTurk. qarc?yg|aj (see TMN 1, 404-405, ўербак 1997, 208). Loans from Mong. are Man. qarc?in 'kite' and MKor. karc?ik@i 'yellow falcon' (see Lee 1958, 119, 1964, 191).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyc?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"foot, shinface="Times New Roman Star"нога, голень

face="Times New Roman Star"kyc? 'foot, shin; coccyx, behind'
face="Times New Roman Star"qyc? (AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"Gyc?face="Times New Roman Star"Gyc? (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"qys 'камус'

face="Times New Roman Star"xys/ 'back, behind'face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s berbe:kej 'щиколотка, лодыжка' (?)







face="Times New Roman Star"qyc?



face="Times New Roman Star"Ћексика 281, Ё—“я 6, 252-253.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 girl 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 девушка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"xys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r 1, x@r-(arъm) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, TMN 3, 569-70, EDT 679-80, Ћексика 295, 318, Ё—“я 6, 190-191, Stachowski 172. For PT one should reconstruct variants *ky:r//*ky:r (they are reflected in several derivatives, e.g. *Ky:r-kyn, see Ћексика 317-318, Ё—“я 6, 237, *Kyr-nak, see TMN 3, 456, Ё—“я 6, 240).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:l/-gunface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"eatable grassface="Times New Roman Star"кормова€ трава
face="Times New Roman Star"qys?g|un (MK) 'свежий тростник, который ест скот'









face="Times New Roman Star"qys?qyn 'пырей'
face="Times New Roman Star"x@lg|en 'кипрей'face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s ot 'конский щавель'












face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 672.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"k, *ko"kenface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hinge, nail, peg, clasp 2 tetherface="Times New Roman Star"1 застежка, петл€, запор 2 прив€зь дл€ животных
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 'belt for fixing the saddle', ko"gen 'rope for tethering calves, foals during milking' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 'peg of a musical instrument', (dial.) ko"ken 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ge|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"k 'nail' (R, Ѕуд. - Babur.)face="Times New Roman Star"kukan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ken 2 (я∆”)
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ken 2



face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|gan 'loop', (alъk) kъk@ 'prop of the door hinge'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"go"n 2 (ѕек.)


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"go"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gen 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ge|n 1


face="Times New Roman Star"gu"wen 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 287, EDT 712, Ё—“я 5, 91, 93-94.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"ku"r/ (/*go"gu"r/), *Ko"krekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast 2 middle of the back 3 reason, sense, emotion 4 female breastface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь 2 по€сница, середина спины 3 женска€ грудьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1, 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"go"g|u"s 1, ko"krek 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1 (dial.,  —““), ku"kre|k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gs, ko"gu"s (Sangl.), ko"ku"s (MA) 1, ko"krek (Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku.ks 1, 3, ko|kra"k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s, go":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ks, ko"ku"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"s 1, ku"krek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gis 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|gъw|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"g|u"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ksu" 'back'

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"ro"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kis 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"frix 4?face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 714, VEWT 288, Ё—“я 3, 54-55, 5, 136-137, Ћексика 272-274, Stachowski 155. The Oghuz forms with k- (Turkm. ku"krek, Tur. dial. ko"krek) may be < Kypchak, cf. -u"- instead of -o"- in Turkm.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ko"l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to freezeface="Times New Roman Star"замерзать


face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?ek-










face="Times New Roman Star"ko"hu"j-
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z?u"-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?u"-
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?u"-
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?ek-





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 294, Ё—“я 5, 127.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"ju"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 capers 2 ferment for milk 3 a k. of fermented milk drinkface="Times New Roman Star"1 каперсы 2 закваска дл€ молока 3 вид квашенного молочного напитка








face="Times New Roman Star"go"ju"l 1



face="Times New Roman Star"k@w|velek 2, k@w|ve- 'to ferment'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jo"rgo" 2, ku"o"rc?ex 3; ko"ju"n- 'to ferment' (der. ko":nn/o"r-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ko":rc?o"k 3








face="Times New Roman Star"≈горов 103. Kirgh. > Kalm. ko":rc@g (see differently in KW 244, Ћексика 451).
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"n/e / *gun/aface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"mothface="Times New Roman Star"моль
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ja" (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"veface="Times New Roman Star"ko"je|
face="Times New Roman Star"kuja

face="Times New Roman Star"gu"va"face="Times New Roman Star"gu"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ku":face="Times New Roman Star"quja 'Kellerwurm'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je, quja
face="Times New Roman Star"k@w|veface="Times New Roman Star"ko"ju"r, ku"ju"r



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ku"jeface="Times New Roman Star"ko"ja"face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"je

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 297, Ё—“я 3, 94, Ћексика 186. Kirgh. ku"bo" is rather < Mong. kibe id.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wooden board 2 woodblock 3 cross-bar (over fire)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерев€нна€ доска 2 дерев€нный брусок 3 распорка (над огнем)








face="Times New Roman Star"gu"le 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lbe 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lzo"k 'снегозащитные щиты' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"k@le 'задвижка'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo" 3












face="Times New Roman Star"Different etymologies in ‘едотов 1, 271 (Chuv. k@le - hardly to kilit); VEWT 289 (Yak. ko"lo" - not to 'harness' ko"l-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go":l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to harness 2 harnessed animalface="Times New Roman Star"1 запр€гать 2 упр€жное животноеface="Times New Roman Star"ko"l- 1 (OUygh. - YB), ko"lu"k 2(Orkh., OUygh.), 'a vehicle' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"go"lu"k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"k 2 (Sangl.)



face="Times New Roman Star"go":lu"k (dial.) 'vehicle'; go"le 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"l- 1, ko"l@g Nom. Act.
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lko" 2 (possibly < Mong.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ku"l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"l-u"j- 1, ko"lo", ko"lgo" 2 (the latter may be < Mong.).face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"xo"l, xo"lge 2 (the latter is rather < Mong.)face="Times New Roman Star"ho"lle- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 288, EDT 715, 717, Ё—“я 3, 69-70, ‘едотов 1, 320-321, Stachowski 155 (following Kal/. MEJ 18 and deriving Yak., Dolg. < Mong.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to buryface="Times New Roman Star"закапывать, хоронитьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (MA), go"m- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-
face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"xo"m-face="Times New Roman Star"xo"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m- (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"go"m-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 289, EDT 721, Ё—“я 3, 70-71, Stachowski 155.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"mekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"helpface="Times New Roman Star"помощь

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"me|k 'collective, many people'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mek (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku.me|kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"me|k
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ma"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mek


face="Times New Roman Star"ko"me|k, keme|k
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mo"face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mo"

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mo"k
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"me|k 'collective, many people'




face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mekface="Times New Roman Star"Ё—“я 5, 98-99, Stachowski 156.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"coalface="Times New Roman Star"угольface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"ku"merface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH), kimu"r (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku.mirface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"(r)
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"m@r
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|mrъw|kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mo"rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mo"rface="Times New Roman Star"xo"mu"r
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"m@rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"m@rface="Times New Roman Star"ku"merface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"m@r
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"rface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 289 (relating the stem to ko"m- 'to bury, dig' seems rather dubious), Ё—“я 5, 102-103, Ћексика 365, Stachowski 156.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gEmu"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to gnawface="Times New Roman Star"грызть, глодать
face="Times New Roman Star"kemu"r- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-, kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kimer-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"r- (Sangl., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemi(r)-
face="Times New Roman Star"ga"mir-face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kim@r-
face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"mu"ru"o" 'spongy bone'
face="Times New Roman Star"xemir-face="Times New Roman Star"xemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kimer-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-face="Times New Roman Star"kemir-
face="Times New Roman Star"gemir-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 251, EDT 723, Ё—“я 3, 18-19, Ћексика 262.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"jn|e-lekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"shirtface="Times New Roman Star"рубашка
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|lek (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jna"k, dial. go"n|lekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"lma"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|lek (Sangl., MA, Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад.), ko"jnek (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.jnak, ko.jlakface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|la"k, ko"n|nek
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jnekface="Times New Roman Star"ko"jnek, dial. go"mlekface="Times New Roman Star"ko"genekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"nekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"nek

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"nju"ga"s 'старинное название дохи'
face="Times New Roman Star"xo"jlen|
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jnek
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jlekface="Times New Roman Star"ku"lda"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lekface="Times New Roman Star"go"lma"kface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lmekface="Times New Roman Star"ko"jlek
face="Times New Roman Star"go"lekface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 290-291, EDT 732, Ё—“я 5, 89-90, Ћексика 384, 476-477. Turk. > WMong. ku"jileg, Kalm. ki:l@g (KW 234), MMong. ko"n|lek (TMN 3, 615, ўербак 1997, 128).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"jn|-ilface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"heart, moodface="Times New Roman Star"сердце, духface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"n-u"l; go"ju"n, go"jn (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"n, ko"n|-u"l (arch. - borrowed from Tu"rki)face="Times New Roman Star"ko":l, ko"n|n-@face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|n-u"face="Times New Roman Star"ku":nface="Times New Roman Star"ki:ilface="Times New Roman Star"k@w|m@w|lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'will, freedom'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"l 'permission'
face="Times New Roman Star"xo":lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|ilface="Times New Roman Star"ku"n|@lface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lface="Times New Roman Star"go"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"nu"l, ko"lu"nface="Times New Roman Star"ko"n|il, kewilface="Times New Roman Star"go"jn|yface="Times New Roman Star"go"n|u"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 291, EDT 731, Ё—“я 3, 75-77, Ћексика 274, Stachowski 156. Almost all languages reflect a suffixed form (a substantivized adjective in -il, see Gabain AG 75). Khak., Shor reflect a nominalized attributive form of ko"n|u"l.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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