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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*japyl/gakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small louse 2 nit 3 a k. of gad-fly 4 leechface="Times New Roman Star"1 маленькая вошь 2 гнида 3 вид овода 4 пиявка


face="Times New Roman Star"jabys?qaq 2, 3




face="Times New Roman Star"japys?aq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"japs?yq, d/aps?yq 3








face="Times New Roman Star"ja"bes?ke|k 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"japys?qan 4



face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 4, 134.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"g (*o"k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mother 2 sisterface="Times New Roman Star"1 мать 2 сестраface="Times New Roman Star"o"g (Orkh., OUygh.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"o"ke, o"ge (dial.) 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"ke (R.) 2
face="Times New Roman Star"uka, hu"ka" 2





















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 99, ЭСТЯ 1, 519-520, Лексика 300.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ban/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to wave 2 to sway 3 club-footed 4 curved 5 to bend 6 to be bent, curvedface="Times New Roman Star"1 махать 2 качаться 3 косолапый, кривоногий 4 кривой 5 гнуть 6 гнуться, быть согнутым
face="Times New Roman Star"maj-g|uq 3 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"majruq 3, 4 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"majriq 3, dial. bajmaq 3 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"majmaq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"majyr- 5, majryq 'overstrained', maj-tyq 3, majmyq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"majryq 3, majryl- 6face="Times New Roman Star"majryq 4, 3

face="Times New Roman Star"baja:tyn|- 2, baja:ttan|na:- 1 (Пек. - without nasalization), dial. majg|ax 'convolution'
face="Times New Roman Star"majys?-qaq 4, majyryq, maj-ta-q 3
face="Times New Roman Star"majryj-, majys?- 6, maj-tar- 5, majryq 3, majmaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"majys- 6, majyr- 5, majryq 3, majmaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"majys- 6, majyr- 5


face="Times New Roman Star"majys?- 6face="Times New Roman Star"majys- 6, majmaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"majyr- 'to wrench', majs?aj- 'to mis-step', majmaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"See ОСHЯ 3, 45-46. Turk. *ban/y-guk > WMong. majig|ag|, Kalm. ma":g|@g| (KW 259) 'club-footed'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jelpi- / *jalpy-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to flap, winnow 2 to shake, sway 3 fanface="Times New Roman Star"1 махать, веять 2 трясти, качать 3 веер, опахало
face="Times New Roman Star"jelpit- 1 (caus.) (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jelpaze 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ilpe- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jelpi- (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"jelpi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja"lpu"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jelpik 3face="Times New Roman Star"jelpe- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?elbe-, c?albra- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jelbi-, d/elbi- 1, jalbra- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"salbyra:- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elbi-, c?elwi- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|elpi-, z?|elbire- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?elpi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jelpi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jelpe- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jelpi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?elpi- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jelpi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 920, VEWT 182, 196, ЭСТЯ 4, 182. Derivation from *jel 'wind' is highly improbable (at the most we can speak of a secondary contamination of roots).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kula-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to wave; jump over 2 to stretch 3 fathomface="Times New Roman Star"1 махать; перепрыгивать 2 тянуться 3 сажень
face="Times New Roman Star"qulac? 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qolac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 2 (Буд.), qulac? 3 (AH, Бор. Бад.), qulaz?| 3 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"g|ulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qulas?, Golas? 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gulac?, Golaz?| 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"xulas 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qula- 1, qulas? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|las/ 3face="Times New Roman Star"kula:-, kulas-ta- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qulas? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qulas? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qulas? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qolas 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qolac? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"qulas? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qulas? 3face="Times New Roman Star"qulac? 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 618, VEWT 298, TMN 3, 487, ЭСТЯ 6, 122, 129-131.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bakyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 copper 2 patinaface="Times New Roman Star"1 медь 2 налет, патинаface="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1 (Yen., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"bakyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr (MA, Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqir, paqir 1face="Times New Roman Star"paqir 1face="Times New Roman Star"paqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"paxyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"pa:g|@r (Kyz., Joki) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"baqras 'brass kettle'
face="Times New Roman Star"pъw|gъw|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"bag|arax| 'pot for boiling milk'


face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr 1face="Times New Roman Star"baqyr 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bag|yr 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 317, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 45-46, Лексика 405-406. Turk. > WMong. baqar, baqur (Kalm. bax|r), see KW 29, Щербак 1997, 104. Turk. > Russ. Siber. baki/rka (Аникин 111-112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bo:rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 chalk 2 earth 3 clayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мел 2 земля 3 глина

face="Times New Roman Star"bor 2face="Times New Roman Star"bur 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo.r 1face="Times New Roman Star"bo(r) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"dial. bo:r 1face="Times New Roman Star"por 1


face="Times New Roman Star"purъ, por 1face="Times New Roman Star"buor 2face="Times New Roman Star"buor 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"por 3face="Times New Roman Star"bor 'солонцы'face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bur 1

face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"bor, por 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bor 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 80, ЭСТЯ 2, 192-193, Лексика 100, 376, Федотов 1, 444, Stachowski 66-67. Turk. > Kalm. bor@, Bur. bor.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jAl-ky-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shallow 2 waveface="Times New Roman Star"1 мелкий 2 волна








face="Times New Roman Star"jalpaq 1






face="Times New Roman Star"c?alg|yg| 1, c?alg|yjaq 2










face="Times New Roman Star"(?) Cf. also Chag. jalg|in 'Salzsteppe' etc. ( < 'shallow place'?), see VEWT 183.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ul/a-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small, minute 2 to become crushed, pulverized, smaller 3 to crush, pulverizeface="Times New Roman Star"1 мелкий, маленький 2 дробиться, становиться меньше 3 растирать, дробить
face="Times New Roman Star"us?a-l- 2, us?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"us?ak 1
face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq 1, us?al- 2 (Бор. Бад.), us?at- 3 (Бор. Бад., Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"us?al- 2, us?o|q 1face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq (dial.), us?s?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"us?aG 1face="Times New Roman Star"us?a- 2, us?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzax 1
face="Times New Roman Star"uz?a- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"us?at- 3, us?aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"u>saq 1, u>sat- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"usaq 1, usat- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 16, 262 (deriving the forms from uvs?a- which is hardly the case), ЭСТЯ 1, 617-618.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ku"ri-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a measure of capacity 2 a k. of basket for vegetablesface="Times New Roman Star"1 мера объема 2 вид корзины для овощейface="Times New Roman Star"ku"ri 1 (OUygh.) 'peck (2 and 1/2 bushels)'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rin 2 (MK)



face="Times New Roman Star"ku"re| 1face="Times New Roman Star"k`o.r (10,35 l) 1




















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 737, 746.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u"l-, *o"l-c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to measure 2 measure, measuringface="Times New Roman Star"1 мерить 2 мера, измерениеface="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"lc?a"- 1, u">lgi> 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" (o"lgu") 2 (Pav. C.); o"lc?- (IM) 1face="Times New Roman Star"o.lc?a"- 1, ulgi 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?i- 1, u"lga" 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?- 1, u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?e- 1, u"ln|n|i 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lga" 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"elc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"vis/- 1, @lg@ 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"llehin- 'divide, distribute'face="Times New Roman Star"u"llehin- 'divide, distribute'

face="Times New Roman Star"o"lc?o"- 1, u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi> 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lsa"- 1, u">lgu"> 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"jo"lc?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ol/c?-, o"lc?e- 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"ls?e- 1, u"lgi 2
face="Times New Roman Star"u"lgu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 142, VEWT 371, ЭСТЯ 1, 529, 632, Stachowski 250.
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to knead, press 2 porridge, liquid soup (*'smth. pressed')face="Times New Roman Star"1 месить, мять 2 кашица, похлебка (*'давленая')
face="Times New Roman Star"o"gre ( ? u"-) 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"j-, o"v- (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"u">jra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"gre 2 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"uwra, ugra 2face="Times New Roman Star"u"gra", o"gra" 2

face="Times New Roman Star"o"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"gre 2
face="Times New Roman Star"u"re 2

face="Times New Roman Star"u"o"re 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"u"jre 2face="Times New Roman Star"u">jra" 2

face="Times New Roman Star"iwre 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 112, VEWT 369, ЭСТЯ 1, 324-325 (*o"gu"-re 'porridge'), 515, 618-620. The root clearly has a *-g- and should be distinguished from *u":k- 'grind' q. v. sub *p`u:/k`n|i (although contaminations were possible).
face="Times New Roman Star"*or-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 place 2 palace 3 lair, den 4 middle 5 place of staying (of the army, ruler etc.) 6 armyface="Times New Roman Star"1 место 2 дворец 3 берлога, логово 4 середина 5 место стоянки (армии, правителя) 6 армияface="Times New Roman Star"orun 1 (OUygh.), ordu 2, 5, ortu 4 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ordu 2, 3, otra ? ortu (MK) 5face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ordu 6, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"uryn 1, urda 5, urta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ordu, orda 5, orta 4 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"o.rin 1, o.rda 5, o.rta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, o(r)da 5, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, orta, orto, otra 4face="Times New Roman Star"ordu 6, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, orta 4, orda 6face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, orda 5, orty 4
face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, ordo 5, orto 4
face="Times New Roman Star"vyrъn 1, vъda 4face="Times New Roman Star"ordu: 1, 3, 5, oron 1, orto 4face="Times New Roman Star"onnu 1face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ortu 4face="Times New Roman Star"oron 1face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ordo 5, orto 4face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, orda 4, 5, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, orda 5, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"uryn 1, urda 5, urta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, ordu 6, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"oryn 1, orda 5, orta 4
face="Times New Roman Star"orun 1, orda 5, 6, orta 4face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 203-204, 233, VEWT 364, 365, TMN 2, 141, ЭСТЯ 1, 470-472, 474-479, Лексика 495, 563, 569, Stachowski 193, 196. Turkic is the source of Mong. oron 'place', ordo(n) 'palace' (cf. TMN 1, 164-165, 2, 38-39, Щербак 1997, 130), whence Man. oron etc., see Doerfer MT 116. The PT *ordu 'place of staying' may need to be separated from other forms here: it contains a very untypical *-rd- cluster (as opposed to *or-tu 'middle') and may reflect an ancient borrowing from some unknown source. Cf. in that respect WMong. o"rte- 'to change post horses', o"rtegen 'postal relay station', also somewhat obscure in origin.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sakakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 place between the neck and the chin 2 gills 3 beard, barb (of axe)face="Times New Roman Star"1 место между шеей и подбородком 2 жабры 3 бородка (топора)
face="Times New Roman Star"saqaq (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"sakak 1face="Times New Roman Star"sag|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"saqaq 1 (Abush., Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"saqaq 1 (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"saqaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sag|anaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"sug|a, sag|a (Anatri), polъ sog|alъ (Viryal) 2



face="Times New Roman Star"sag|aq 1face="Times New Roman Star"sag|aq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"hag|aq 3face="Times New Roman Star"sag|aq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sag|aq 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 807-808, ЭСТЯ 7, Лексика 220-222, Федотов 2, 68, Ашм. IX, 279, XI, 216. There is some confusion between this root and *san|ak (v. sub *sen|a). Turk. > WMong. sag|ag|, Kalm. sag|@g (KW 308). PT *sakkal 'beard' (full list of reflexes see in ЭСТЯ 7) is a probable derivative ( > MMong. (SH) sag|al, WMong. saqal, Kalm. sax@l, KW 308; > Hung. szaka/l, see Gombocz 1912; Mong. > Evk. sakal etc., see Doerfer MT 100).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Enface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 earmark (on domestic animals) 2 to make an earmark 3 to castrateface="Times New Roman Star"1 метка на ушах (домашних животных) 2 ставить метку на ушах 3 кастрировать
face="Times New Roman Star"ene- 2 (MK), 3 (MK - Kypch.)face="Times New Roman Star"enek 1, (dial.) en 1, ene- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ina"- (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"en (Буд.), in (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"en (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"n 1
face="Times New Roman Star"en (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"in 1







face="Times New Roman Star"en 1face="Times New Roman Star"en 1, dial. ene- 2face="Times New Roman Star"en 1face="Times New Roman Star"in, ina"w 1


face="Times New Roman Star"en 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 177-278, EDT 166, 171.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 sack 2 to surroundface="Times New Roman Star"1 мешок 2 окружать
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1 (MA, IM), qaba- 'to besiege' (Бор. Бад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|p 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1, dial. qaba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gabface="Times New Roman Star"Ga:p 1, Ga:ba- 2face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1

face="Times New Roman Star"xappar 1 (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"xap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap/b- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qap 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 233, TMN 3, 366-367, EDT 578 (should be separated from *kab!) ЭСТЯ 5, 159, 266-267 (with a partial confusion with another root, probably of Mongolian origin, see under *KAmug), 266-267. Despite Doerfer (ibid.) the resemblance with *Ka:puk 'bark' is only superficial. See also notes to *K(i)amak / *K(i)apak 'forehead, eyebrow/eyelid'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"c?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to migrate, nomadize 2 nomadizingface="Times New Roman Star"1 мигрировать, кочевать 2 кочевка
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1 (MK, KB), ko"c? 2 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"go"c?- 1, go"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"c?- 1, ku"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z?|- 1, ko"c? 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko.c?- 1, ko.c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1, ko"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1, ko"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"c?- 1, go"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?- 1, ko"s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kec?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kos/- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s- 1, ko"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s- 1, ko"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'s?- 1, ko"'s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"'s?- 1, ko"'s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1, ko"c? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?- 1, ko"s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?- 1, ko"s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s 'рой', ku"s- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"c?- 1, go"c? 'luggage'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"c?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"s?- 1, ko"s? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"go"c?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 693, 694, Лексика 489, ЭСТЯ 3, 88-90, TMN 3, 622, Федотов 1, 315, Stachowski 158.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 peace 2 people, countryface="Times New Roman Star"1 мир 2 народ, странаface="Times New Roman Star"el 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"el 1, 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"il, el 2face="Times New Roman Star"il 2face="Times New Roman Star"il (AH), el (Abush., Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"il, a"l 2
face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"i:l 2face="Times New Roman Star"il 2
face="Times New Roman Star"el 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jal 2face="Times New Roman Star"il 2


face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"il 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"iel 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"el 2
face="Times New Roman Star"el 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 121-122, VEWT 39, TMN 2, 194, ЭСТЯ 1, 339-343, Егоров 352, Лексика 316. The meaning "peace" attested in MK is probably the most archaic (cf. the external parallels; typologically cf. also Slavic *mirъ 'peace' > 'world'), suggesting a development *'peace' > 'peaceful people, realm, country'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sin|ilface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 younger sister 2 younger brotherface="Times New Roman Star"1 младшая сестра 2 младший братface="Times New Roman Star"sin|il 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sin|il 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"si>n|i>l 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|il 1 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"sin|il 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|il 1face="Times New Roman Star"syn|ny 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sin|li 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"sin|nim (Chul.) 2

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъll-ъm 2



face="Times New Roman Star"sin|di 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|li 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|li 1face="Times New Roman Star"hi>n|li> 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sin|li 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|li 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin|il, sin|ni, sin|ne 1
face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 839, Лексика 311, ЭСТЯ 7. The original meaning was probably "younger sister of husband" (still observable in Old Turkic); note also the meaning "younger brother" in Chuv. and in Chul. sin|nim.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?okface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowdface="Times New Roman Star"1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(ся), размножать(ся) 4 толпа, множество
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (ДТС - KB), c?o:q 2 (MK - Oghuz), c?og|-al- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ok (-g|u) 1, c?og|al- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), c?oq- 3 (Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1, c?oxal- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq (-qu) 4face="Times New Roman Star"sox 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?og| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|yr 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 'дружно'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oju 4, c?oq-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1, c?og|y 4 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as c?oq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of c?oq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with c?og|-la- 'to bind, pack' (ДТС) or c?oq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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