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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*sygyrc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 grouse, hazel-hen 2 starlingface="Times New Roman Star"1 куропатка, рябчик 2 скворец
face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?uq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?yk 2face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?aq, syrc?yq, c?yjyrc?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sig|irc?iq, sig|irc?uq, sig|irc?in (R.)


face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?yn 2
face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yraj 'bullfinch'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъn|gъrz?|ъ 2

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrg|a 'oriole'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyrc?yq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"syjyrsyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sy:rz?yq 2


face="Times New Roman Star"syjyrtg|yc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 415, EDT 816, ЭСТЯ 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Tomarface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 block, log 2 to hack, hew 3 to break off, chip offface="Times New Roman Star"1 кусок дерева, чурбан, бревно 2 рубить, обрубать 3 отламывать, откалывать
face="Times New Roman Star"tomrum 1 (MK), tomur- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tomruk 1face="Times New Roman Star"tumar, tumran 1face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) tumar (AH) 1






face="Times New Roman Star"tomur- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"domur- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tomur- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tomar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tumyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tomuraw 1, tomur- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tomruq 1face="Times New Roman Star"tomar 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 499, EDT 509. The root should be distinguished from *dom- / *tom- 'round' (v. sub *t`o>\mu\). Turk. > Mong. (KW 400) tomurag|u, Kalm. tomru:n 'rough, loutish'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)aly-(gan)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thornface="Times New Roman Star"1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alag|an 2 (R - Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alo|w 'ковыль волосистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'солянка кустарниковая'
face="Times New Roman Star"s?alg|yn, (R) s?alg|anaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqanc?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?alu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?alqan 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?aly 'blackthorn; thorn'



face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) c?alqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic c?al-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to lap 2 greedy 3 lickerishface="Times New Roman Star"1 лакать, жадно пить 2 жадный 3 лакомый









face="Times New Roman Star"jabylyg| 2 R 3, 281 (Koib., Kach.); c?apla-t- 1, c?apsyx 3
face="Times New Roman Star"japla-t- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sabyrg|a:- 1












face="Times New Roman Star"A local Siberian root.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)al/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 lazy, vile (in addressing a slave) 2 lazy, stubbornface="Times New Roman Star"1 ленивый, негодный (обращение к рабу) 2 ленивый, упрямый
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?an| (MK) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qas?an| (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qas?s?an| 'poor, beggar'face="Times New Roman Star"qas?s?aq 1, 2, qas?an| 2




face="Times New Roman Star"qaz?an| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xъli 'невзрачный, плохонький', xъlin 'хитрец, упрямец, лодырь, лентяй'



face="Times New Roman Star"qas?an| 2

face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qas?s?aq 1, 2, dial. qas?an 2


face="Times New Roman Star"qasan| 2

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 673, ЭСТЯ 5, 348-350. Turk. > WMong. qas?an| 'slow, lazy' (Clark 1980, 42); some of the modern Turkic forms may be borrowed back from Mong. (as certainly is Chuv. xaz?an).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wood, forest 2 hill 3 meadow 4 valley between mountainsface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес 2 холм 3 луг 4 долина между гор
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 'bushes, underwood', bu"ktir 'rocky mountain top' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 'thicket at the waterside'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k (dial.) 3, pu"kte|r 'snow-drift' (КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 'thick (wood, garden)'


face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"pu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"bu"k 4



face="Times New Roman Star"bu"'k 4
face="Times New Roman Star"bo"k 2, bo"kto"r 'foot-hills'face="Times New Roman Star"bo"kter 'steep hill'







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 91, EDT 324, 325, ЭСТЯ 2, 291, Лексика 94.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:jface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 summer 2 summer pasture 3 springface="Times New Roman Star"1 лето 2 летнее пастбище 3 веснаface="Times New Roman Star"jaj (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaj (MK) 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"jaj-la 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jaj 1 (AH, Ettuhf.)

face="Times New Roman Star"jaj 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaj 1, jajla 2face="Times New Roman Star"ja:j-la 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaj, d/aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u, s/ъv 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"hajyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aj 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jaj 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"jej 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aj, z?aj, zaj 1


face="Times New Roman Star"jij 1face="Times New Roman Star"jaj 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 179, ЭСТЯ 4, 74, 78-79, EDT 980, Лексика 74, Федотов 2, 128, Stachowski 93.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kud-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pour out (water) 2 to pour 3 wellface="Times New Roman Star"1 лить 2 сыпать 3 колодецface="Times New Roman Star"qud- 1 (OUigh.), qudug| 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1 (MK), qud|ug| 3 (MK, QB)face="Times New Roman Star"kuju 3, qujy 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qoj- 1, 2, qojy 3face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1 (Sangl.), qujy 3 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1face="Times New Roman Star"quz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"Guju 3face="Times New Roman Star"Guj- 1, 2, Gujy 3face="Times New Roman Star"xus- 1, 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"quspaq 'большой туес' (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"xyv- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"kut- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qut- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qut-/d- 1face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, 2, qujy 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, 2, qujy 3face="Times New Roman Star"qoj- 1, 2, qojy 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, 2, quju 3face="Times New Roman Star"quju 3face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, quju 3face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1, 2, qujy 3
face="Times New Roman Star"quj- 1 quju 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 296, EDT 596, 598, ЭСТЯ 2000, 109-111, 119-120, Мудрак Дисс. 102, Федотов 2, 379. The root contained undoubtedly *-d-, but variants with *-j- are attested unusually early. Turk. > MMong. g|uduh (SH), WMong. qudug| (whence backwards > Turkm. Guduk, Uygh. quduq, Khak. xutux etc.), see EDT ibid., KW 194, Щербак 1997, 143, TMN 1, 395-396, Stachowski 162.
face="Times New Roman Star"*be>tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 face 2 side, nearface="Times New Roman Star"1 лицо 2 сторона, близкоface="Times New Roman Star"bet 1 (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"bet-beniz 'face colour'face="Times New Roman Star"bit 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ba"t 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ba"t-ba"niz 'face colour'


face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1
face="Times New Roman Star"pat- 2 (pit 1 < Tat.)face="Times New Roman Star"bet- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"beti 2face="Times New Roman Star"be't 2face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bit 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"bet 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 72, EDT 296, ЭСТЯ 2, 121-122, Лексика 207.
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)amak / *K(i)apakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 forehead 2 front part 3 eyelid 4 eyebrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 лоб 2 передняя часть 3 веко 4 бровь
face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kabak 'bald', dial. kabag 1, 2, 'face', 'skull'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z qabag|y 3, dial. taw qabag|y 'mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1, 2 (Sangl., Бор. Бад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|vo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qawaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qavaq 'nose bridge' (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"GabaG 2, (poet.) 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:baG 3face="Times New Roman Star"xamax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 4, dial. 1



face="Times New Roman Star"xavaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 4face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'pitfall'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'place under the forehead; edge of shore'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'precipice'


face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'cleft'
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z qabag|y 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, ЭСТЯ 5, 161, Лексика 199-200. An extremely complicated case: forms meaning 'eyelid' are traditionally analysed as derived from *Kap- 'to cover' - but the Turkm., Uzb. and Uygh. forms clearly contradict such a derivation by displaying unmistakable vowel length. A trace of the original meaning 'forehead, eyebrow' (later shifted to 'eyelid') in the Kypchak languages (not distinguishing vowel length) may be found in expressions meaning 'to frown (one's forehead, eyebrows)': Kirgh. qabaq tu"j-, bu"rko"-, Kaz., KKalp. qabaq tu"j-. The form *Ka:pak may have been additionally influenced by PT *Ka:p 'sack; to surround' (v. sub *k[a:]p`a/), *Ka:p(ak) 'caul, hymen' (v. sub *k`a:p`a/). The variation of *-m- and -p- (cf. the archaic Siberian reflexes with -m-) is parallelled by a similar variation in TM and Japanese and may reflect an original cluster, but may have been an innovation due to the contaminations with *Kap- and *Ka:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sinc?o"k ( ? -e-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle-bone 2 shin-boneface="Times New Roman Star"1 лодыжка 2 голень

face="Times New Roman Star"sinz?|ik 1 (dial.)











face="Times New Roman Star"su"nju"o"x 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"nc?u"k 'hip joint'face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"n|z?|u"k 'hip joint'


face="Times New Roman Star"sensek (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"Дыбо 1989 (but not < Perm.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*(i)al/(c?)ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle joint, knucklebone 2 dieface="Times New Roman Star"1 лодыжка, бабка 2 альчик
face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 2 (Osmanli), as?yk 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?uq 1, 'bone of the elbow' (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"o|s?iq 2face="Times New Roman Star"os?uq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yG 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"az?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"us?aq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"asyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"as?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 259, VEWT 30, ЭСТЯ 1, 216-217, TMN 2, 64-65, Лексика 288.
face="Times New Roman Star"*KAl/uk / *KAlgakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spoon 2 oar, shovelface="Times New Roman Star"1 ложка 2 весло, лопаткаface="Times New Roman Star"qas?uq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas?uq, qas?yq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kas?yk 1, dial. kalak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2 > Chuv.face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq (IM), qas?uq (Houts., AH, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|s?iq 1, qo|lo|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qos?uq, dial. qas?uq 1, qalaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"Gas?yG 1face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xazyx 1, xalg|ax 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaz?yq 1, qalaq 2




face="Times New Roman Star"qah/ik 1, qalg|aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qasyq 1, qalaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qas?yq 1, qalaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 225, 241, ЭСТЯ 5, 231-232, 353-354. Turk. > Russ. Siber. kas?i/k, see Аникин 277.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to break, demolish 2 small 3 to scrape, shaveface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, разрушать 2 маленький 3 скрести, брить
face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3 'to scrape; to tear out'face="Times New Roman Star"kyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3 (Pav. C.), 1, 'to cut off' (Бор. Бад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qi(r)- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"xyr- 3, 'to cut'face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyryj- 'to shear, cut'; kyra 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr-face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyr- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265; EDT 643; TMN 3, 567, Лексика 382, ЭСТЯ 6, 227-229, Stachowski 168, 170. The Yak. form kyra 'small' is a rather transparent semantical derivative, although it is not usually listed among the reflexes of PT *Kyr-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jem-u"r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to crush, destroy 2 to curse, reproachface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, разрушать 2 порицать, упрекатьface="Times New Roman Star"jemir- (OUygh.) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jemu"r- (MK) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|imer- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jimir-, ju"mu"r- (R., Буд.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jimir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ju"mu"r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jemir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"nebir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jemir-, d/emir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|m@w|r- 2, 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?emir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|emir- 2, 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jemir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jemer- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jemir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?emir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jemir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 937, VEWT 197, ЭСТЯ 4, 183-184, Егоров 210. The meaning 'crush, destroy, widespread in modern languages, must be a secondary development from the original more abstract 'harm' (whence also 'curse, reproach').
face="Times New Roman Star"*sy:-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to break, damage, harm 2 to be brokenface="Times New Roman Star"1 ломать, нарушать, портить 2 ломатьсяface="Times New Roman Star"sy- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"sy- (MK, KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"sy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sy-n-dyr- 1face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) sy- (AH) 1face="Times New Roman Star"sin- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sin- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sy:-n- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"si- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"? i:r- 'to tear'
face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hyn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 'to be defeated'face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sun- 2; syndyr- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"syn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 413-414, EDT 782.
face="Times New Roman Star"*je.g-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 better 2 upper part, surfaceface="Times New Roman Star"1 лучше, лучший 2 верх, поверхностьface="Times New Roman Star"jeg 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jeg 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jeg|, jej 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jik 1 (AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"jeg (dial.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jeg 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/i, s/ije 2













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 909-910, VEWT 194, ЭСТЯ 4, 165-166, TMN 4, 184-185, Федотов 2, 115-116.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to plaster 2 eye pus 3 to puncture (a tumour, furuncle)face="Times New Roman Star"1 мазать, залеплять, обмазывать 2 глазной гной 3 прокалывать (опухоль, нарыв)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?apak 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?api- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-li- 1, c?apaq 2






face="Times New Roman Star"s/op- 'заворачивать пирог'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 'to pour water and stamp (ground)'(?)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-ta- 1, c?abaq-ta- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?abaq-ta- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abaq-s?a-la- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"(aq) c?ap- 'to blanch, pipeclay'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Ашм. XII, 248. Turk. > Hung. csipa 'eye pus' (<*c?apag|), see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*torgajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 small bird 2 larkface="Times New Roman Star"1 маленькая птица 2 жаворонокface="Times New Roman Star"toryg|a 1face="Times New Roman Star"turumtaj 'a predatory bird used for hawking' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"turgaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"turg|aj 2



face="Times New Roman Star"torag|ajface="Times New Roman Star"torGaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"pos-targ|aj 2


face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|ri 2face="Times New Roman Star"tuja:r 1


face="Times New Roman Star"torg|oj 2








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 490, EDT 550, TMN 2, 482-3, Лексика 176. Turk. > Kalm. torg|a": (KW 401).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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