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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружатьс€, ныр€ть 2 плавать, купатьс€ 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see ‘едотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, ≈горов 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*do":l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"breastface="Times New Roman Star"грудьface="Times New Roman Star"to"s? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"to"s? (MK, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"do"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s? (Pav. C., MKypch. - CCum., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"to.s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"sface="Times New Roman Star"do"s?face="Times New Roman Star"do":s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"sface="Times New Roman Star"to"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"l-l@k 'супонь'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"sface="Times New Roman Star"tu"o"sface="Times New Roman Star"to"s?, Todzh. do"s?face="Times New Roman Star"do"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"sface="Times New Roman Star"to"sface="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?face="Times New Roman Star"to"s
face="Times New Roman Star"to"s?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 495, TMN 2, 615, EDT 558, Ё—“я 3, 286-287, ≈горов 326, Ћексика 271-272, Stachowski 235.
face="Times New Roman Star"*(j)e:.n-c?ikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shin, shank 2 shin bone 3 boot-top strap 4 heelface="Times New Roman Star"1 голень 2 кость голени 3 ремешки дл€ подт€гивани€ голенищ 4 п€тка
face="Times New Roman Star"jinz?|ik 2 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ik 1face="Times New Roman Star"jinz?|ik 1 ( —““)face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ik 'cou de pied' (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"i:nz?|ik 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"enz?|ik 4face="Times New Roman Star"enc?ik 4 (Leb.)

face="Times New Roman Star"inn/ia"x 1 (ѕек. 1941)
face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik 3



face="Times New Roman Star"jensek 1face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"inc?ik, inz?|ik 1
face="Times New Roman Star"inz?|ix голень (——я)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 172, 203, Ћексика 286.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 shadow 2 to shadowface="Times New Roman Star"1 тень 2 давать тень, затен€тьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"lu"- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"lge, ko"lge (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"le|ge| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lege (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku.lke|, ku.le|ke| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"le|n|ge|, ko"lige| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lga" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lge 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"le- 2, ko"lek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo"- 2, ko"lo"n|o" 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"lu"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"lu"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"xo"lege 1face="Times New Roman Star"xo"lege 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo"ko" 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"letke 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"le|ge| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"lge 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"len|ke 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 288-289, 294, EDT 716-718, Ё—“я 5, 96-97, 128, Stachowski 164. Should be distinguished from *Ko"l/- 'to screen' (v. sub *ge:\l/a).
face="Times New Roman Star"*to:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dustface="Times New Roman Star"пыльface="Times New Roman Star"toz (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"toz (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"tuzanface="Times New Roman Star"toz (Sangl.), tos (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"to.zo|nface="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"tosface="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"to:z, tozanface="Times New Roman Star"tozynface="Times New Roman Star"tozunface="Times New Roman Star"tozyn





face="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"tozanface="Times New Roman Star"tud|an
face="Times New Roman Star"to:zface="Times New Roman Star"tozface="Times New Roman Star"toz

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 492, EDT 580-1, Ћексика 99-100. Cf. also Yak. tor 'soot'. Despite Ћексика, the stem tozan is rather not a deverbative in -g|an from the verb toz- (cf. the absence of any traces of -g|-), but a denominative (like er - eren); this would explain the lack of length in Turkm. This may also be a noun in -n derived from a denominative verb in -а- (Turkm. toza- 'to become dusty', also without length).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"tearface="Times New Roman Star"слезаface="Times New Roman Star"jas? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"je|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas? (AH, Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|s?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"c?as
face="Times New Roman Star"d/as?face="Times New Roman Star"ja:s?face="Times New Roman Star"kos/-s/ol

face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|as?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jasface="Times New Roman Star"ja"s?

face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"z?asface="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"jas?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 192, EDT 975-976, јшм. VII, 32, Ё—“я 4, 161-163 (because of external evidence should be distinguished both from *ja:l' 'age' and *ja:l' 'fresh, green').
face="Times New Roman Star"*To:r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to become lean, hungry 2 lean, hungryface="Times New Roman Star"1 отощать, проголодатьс€ 2 тощий, голодныйface="Times New Roman Star"turuq 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu:r- (o:?) 1 (MK), turuq 1 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"turg|un 'fatigue/' (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"toryg| 2face="Times New Roman Star"tor 2



face="Times New Roman Star"toryn- (¬ерб. - Tel.)

face="Times New Roman Star"tuor- 1, tuor 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dor- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"toruq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"toryq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"torma 2 (dial.)





face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 489, EDT 530, 539, Clark 1977, 157.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sEr/- (?-e:-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to feel, understand 2 doubtface="Times New Roman Star"1 чувствовать, понимать, воспринимать 2 сомнение
face="Times New Roman Star"sez- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"siz- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"z- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"seza(wa:r)face="Times New Roman Star"sis- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ses- 1, ses 'understanding'



face="Times New Roman Star"sezik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sezik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1, sez 'feeling'face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"hid|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sez- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 413, EDT 860-861, Ё—“я 7. Turk. sezik > WMong. sesig (but sez?|ig is probably genuine, see under *sa\z?|V).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"nitface="Times New Roman Star"гнида
face="Times New Roman Star"sirke (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"si>rke|face="Times New Roman Star"sirke (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"si>rke|face="Times New Roman Star"si>(r)ka"
face="Times New Roman Star"sirka"face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"si>rge
face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"sirka"face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъrga

face="Times New Roman Star"sirgeface="Times New Roman Star"si'rxeface="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"si>rkeface="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"hi>rka"face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"sirka"face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"sirke
face="Times New Roman Star"sirkeface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 423, EDT 850, Ћексика 182, Ё—“я 7. Turk. > Hung. serke, see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 523-524.
face="Times New Roman Star"*du":l/ (/*du":l)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"dreamface="Times New Roman Star"сонface="Times New Roman Star"tu"l; tu"s?e- 'to dream' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?; tu"s?e- 'to dream' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"du"s?, dial. tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu">s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s? (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"dus?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?, c?u"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s? (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"du":s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"sface="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?
face="Times New Roman Star"t@w|l@w|kface="Times New Roman Star"tu":l; tu"he:- 'to dream'face="Times New Roman Star"tu":l; tu"he:- 'to dream'face="Times New Roman Star"du"s?face="Times New Roman Star"du"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"sface="Times New Roman Star"tu"sface="Times New Roman Star"tu">s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"du"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"tu"sface="Times New Roman Star"telface="Times New Roman Star"tu"s?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 507, TMN 3, 211, EDT 559, 561, 490, Ё—“я 3, 323-324, Stachowski 234, 236. See also Ro/na-Tas 1972 on Old Uyghur tu"lek 'supernatural power'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*buc?-ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"halfface="Times New Roman Star"половина
face="Times New Roman Star"byc?uq (MK, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"buc?uk
face="Times New Roman Star"buc?uq (Sangl., MKypch. - AH)























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 85, EDT 294, Ё—“я 2, 283-284. Usually regarded as derived from *byc?- 'to cut', which is dubious in the light of external evidence.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tubn/a-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hoofface="Times New Roman Star"копыто
face="Times New Roman Star"tujag| (MK), tujnaq (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"dujnakface="Times New Roman Star"tojaqface="Times New Roman Star"tuwaq (Sangl., Abush.), (MKypch.) tujaq (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"tujo|qface="Times New Roman Star"tuwaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujag|, tyjyg|
face="Times New Roman Star"tojnaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujg|axface="Times New Roman Star"tujg|aqface="Times New Roman Star"tujg|aq

face="Times New Roman Star"tujaxface="Times New Roman Star"tun/akface="Times New Roman Star"dujug|face="Times New Roman Star"dujug| (–ас. ‘иЋ), tujug|face="Times New Roman Star"tujaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujaqface="Times New Roman Star"tojaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujaq
face="Times New Roman Star"tujaqface="Times New Roman Star"tujaq, dojnaq (< Turkm.)face="Times New Roman Star"c'ynag| (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"tujaqface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 499-500, EDT 519, Ћексика 147, Stachowski 230. Chag., Uygh. tuwaq point to a labial *-b- in the stem, while Yak. -j- and -j- in other languages - to *-n/-: these reflexes can only be reconciled if we accept a cluster like *-bn/- in the protoform (perhaps a contraction < *tupi-nak or sim.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*K(i)amak / *K(i)apakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 forehead 2 front part 3 eyelid 4 eyebrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 лоб 2 передн€€ часть 3 веко 4 бровь
face="Times New Roman Star"qapaq 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kabak 'bald', dial. kabag 1, 2, 'face', 'skull'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"z qabag|y 3, dial. taw qabag|y 'mountain slope'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 1, 2 (Sangl., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"qo|vo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"dial. qawaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qavaq 'nose bridge' (я∆”)face="Times New Roman Star"GabaG 2, (poet.) 'face'face="Times New Roman Star"Ga:baG 3face="Times New Roman Star"xamax 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qamaq, qabaq 4, dial. 1



face="Times New Roman Star"xavaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 4face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'pitfall'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'place under the forehead; edge of shore'face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'precipice'


face="Times New Roman Star"qabaq 3, 'cleft'
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z qabag|y 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 228, Ё—“я 5, 161, Ћексика 199-200. An extremely complicated case: forms meaning 'eyelid' are traditionally analysed as derived from *Kap- 'to cover' - but the Turkm., Uzb. and Uygh. forms clearly contradict such a derivation by displaying unmistakable vowel length. A trace of the original meaning 'forehead, eyebrow' (later shifted to 'eyelid') in the Kypchak languages (not distinguishing vowel length) may be found in expressions meaning 'to frown (one's forehead, eyebrows)': Kirgh. qabaq tu"j-, bu"rko"-, Kaz., KKalp. qabaq tu"j-. The form *Ka:pak may have been additionally influenced by PT *Ka:p 'sack; to surround' (v. sub *k[a:]p`a/), *Ka:p(ak) 'caul, hymen' (v. sub *k`a:p`a/). The variation of *-m- and -p- (cf. the archaic Siberian reflexes with -m-) is parallelled by a similar variation in TM and Japanese and may reflect an original cluster, but may have been an innovation due to the contaminations with *Kap- and *Ka:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge:(j)t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go (away)face="Times New Roman Star"уходитьface="Times New Roman Star"ket- (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ket/d|- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"git-face="Times New Roman Star"kit-face="Times New Roman Star"ke.t- (Abush., Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ka"t-
face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"git-

face="Times New Roman Star"ket- (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"kajt-



face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"kit-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"ket-face="Times New Roman Star"Gi:/i- (Kakuk)face="Times New Roman Star"get-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 258, EDT 701, Ё—“я 3, 39-40, 49-50. Vowel length can be reconstructed on indirect evidence (voicing -t- > -d- in forms like Az. gedis? 'going away' etc.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge:b-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to chewface="Times New Roman Star"жевать
face="Times New Roman Star"kev- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gev-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?a"-face="Times New Roman Star"kevis? 'cud' (MA, Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kaws?a-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"js?i-
face="Times New Roman Star"go"ju"s? 'cud'face="Times New Roman Star"ga":vu"-s? 'cud'face="Times New Roman Star"kipse-n-face="Times New Roman Star"kepz?e-n-face="Times New Roman Star"keps?e-face="Times New Roman Star"ka":vis? 'cud'face="Times New Roman Star"kavle-face="Times New Roman Star"kebi:-
face="Times New Roman Star"kegz?e-n-face="Times New Roman Star"kegz?e-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j-s?-o"-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jis 'cud'face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jze-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jo"s? 'cud'
face="Times New Roman Star"gevs?e-face="Times New Roman Star"ko"vs?e-n-face="Times New Roman Star"gu"jse-face="Times New Roman Star"ku"s?a"-face="Times New Roman Star"gu"js?e-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 244, EDT 687, Ё—“я 3, 5-7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*emeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 female 2 old womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 самка 2 старуха
face="Times New Roman Star"oma (MK "Tibetan") 1 (?)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. eme 2




face="Times New Roman Star"dial. a"ma" 2




face="Times New Roman Star"ama 1



face="Times New Roman Star"eme 2








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 42, Ё—“я 220, ≈горов 25, EDT 156 (a "nursery" word, spread also in other Altaic languages).
face="Times New Roman Star"*bAlakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ankle 2 trouser leg 3 foot soleface="Times New Roman Star"1 щиколотка 2 штанина 3 стопа

face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2 (Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"balaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2









face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2; 'bird's foot'face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"balaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 59, TMN 2, 312, Ё—“я 2, 51, Ћексика 478. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bala/ki (Pl.) (јникин 114). [The latter contains a mistake: balaq 'пахи' is not attested in Kirgh. - it is found in Radloff marked as Kirgh., which means Kazakh. Modern Kazakh dictionaries do not note this meaning; according to the  ““— (1, 86) it means `a trouser leg from the knee downwards; horse's ankle; part of bird's leg from the knee down to the ankle'. In Kirgh. a related stem may be balak-ta- 'to hang loose (of clothes, particularly of wide trouser legs)'.]
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kon|urface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"red-brown, dark brownface="Times New Roman Star"рыжевато-бурый, темнокоричневый
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|ur (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kon|gur , gog|ur (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qon|g|yrface="Times New Roman Star"qon|ur (IM), qon|g|ur (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"qu.n|g|ir
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|yrface="Times New Roman Star"Gonurface="Times New Roman Star"Gon|urface="Times New Roman Star"xo:r
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|yr
face="Times New Roman Star"xъw|mъw|rface="Times New Roman Star"qon|or
face="Times New Roman Star"xo:r
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|urface="Times New Roman Star"qon|yrface="Times New Roman Star"qon|yrface="Times New Roman Star"qun|yrface="Times New Roman Star"qon|urface="Times New Roman Star"qomur
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|yr
face="Times New Roman Star"qon|urface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 280-1, TMN 3, 525, EDT 639, Ё—“я 6, 62-65.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka:ta-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stick into 2 nailface="Times New Roman Star"1 вонзать(с€) 2 гвоздь

face="Times New Roman Star"kada- 1, kadak 2 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- (Abush., Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado|q 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qatag| 2face="Times New Roman Star"GadaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"Gadaq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"xudav 2 (Anatri)face="Times New Roman Star"xata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"kata:- 1face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadag| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qado: 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2



face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1, qadaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qada- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 217-8, Ё—“я 5, 180-182, TMN 3, 420-422, јшм. XIV, 257, Stachowski 141. Because of the lack of ancient attestation one cannot exclude a borrowing < Mong. (although the variant qadag|a is very poorly represented there, and may itself be borrowed < Turk.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a>ja-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to esteem 2 to pity, look after 3 veryface="Times New Roman Star"1 почитать 2 беречь, жалеть 3 очень, сильноface="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1, ajy 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- (MK) 1, 2, ajy 3 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"aj- 2, aja- dial. 1face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 1 (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aji- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ajin 'cult, ceremony'face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2, aj 3face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2 (in ajaba:n 'remorseless')

face="Times New Roman Star"oja- 'to care'

face="Times New Roman Star"aj 'well'
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"aja- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 10-11, EDT 267-8, Ё—“я 1, 101-102, ‘едотов 2, 298. Deriving *aja- 'to respect, esteem' from *aj 'fear' (VEWT 11) is hardly plausible. Clauson (EDT 182) thinks that OUygh. ajy 'very' is an unusually early example of the elision of -g in an/yg| 'evil', which means 'very' in many OUygh. texts, but this is hardly plausible phonetically; so it may belong here, together with Khak. aj 'very' (although the final narrow y is a problem). Sevortyan relates here also SUygh. ajyg| 'good omen, good luck', but this may be a reflex of OUygh., Karakh. ajyq 'vow, promise' (EDT 270).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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