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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*si:l/ / *sy:l/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 tooth 2 sharp stickface="Times New Roman Star"1 зуб 2 вертел, острый колышекface="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"sys? 2 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s@s 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъl 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?es? 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?is? 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys? 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?is? 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 424, TMN 3, 324, EDT 856-7. Turk. > Kalm. c?is?, s?is? (KW 442). An interesting common Turkic derivative is *si:l/-le > *si:le 'судак' (fish name), as "fish with teeth" (Turkm. si:le, Chuv. s?ъla etc., see Ё—“я 7; Turk. > Hung. su"llo?, see MNyTESz 3, 628): such derivation may be postulated on analogy with KKalp. ti>sli, Uzb. tis?li (balyq) 'судак', lit. 'fish with teeth'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:c?yk, *gi:c?i-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 itching, tickling 2 to tickleface="Times New Roman Star"1 зуд, щекотка 2 щекотать
face="Times New Roman Star"kic?i-, qyc?y-la- (v.) (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"giz?|ik- 2, giz?|ik, gyz?|yk 1face="Times New Roman Star"kec?e- (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"giz?|ik 1 (Pav. C.)



face="Times New Roman Star"gi:z?|i 1, Gyz?|yq 1, gi:z?|e- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"k@z/@ 1

face="Times New Roman Star"kiz?|i- 2face="Times New Roman Star"kiz?|i- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"kic?u"w 1
face="Times New Roman Star"kic?i- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 260, 269, Ё—“я 3, 42-43, 6, 186-187, TMN 3, 567, EDT 591, 695. The back row variant is interacting with PT *Kyc?- 'to scrape, itch' q. v. sub *k`i_u\c?u\.
face="Times New Roman Star"*u"ju"kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 quicksand 2 to sinkface="Times New Roman Star"1 зыбучий песок 2 тонуть, погружатьс€
face="Times New Roman Star"u"ju"k (MK, KB) 1, u"ju"k- (MK) 2

face="Times New Roman Star"(Xwar.) u"ju"k 'dregs in wine' (Qutb)



face="Times New Roman Star"u"jk 'slush'


















face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 271, 272.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gu"de-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 son-in-law 2 guestface="Times New Roman Star"1 з€ть 2 гостьface="Times New Roman Star"ku"degu" 1, ku"den 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ku"degu" 1, ku"den 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"gu"veji 1face="Times New Roman Star"kija"w 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jew 1 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"kujo|w 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jog|ul 1 (*ku"jo"-og|ul)face="Times New Roman Star"kuzeg|y 1face="Times New Roman Star"gijev 1face="Times New Roman Star"gijev 1face="Times New Roman Star"k@zo" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ze 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"ju" 1face="Times New Roman Star"kideji 1face="Times New Roman Star"k@ru" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"tu"o" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"tu"o" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"de: 1face="Times New Roman Star"hu"da": 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jo": 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jew 1face="Times New Roman Star"kijew 1face="Times New Roman Star"keja"w 1face="Times New Roman Star"kijew 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu"va": 1face="Times New Roman Star"gijav 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"jew 1face="Times New Roman Star"kui 1 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"gijev 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 703, 704-705, Ё—“я 3, 43-45, Ћексика 297-298, Stachowski 166. Turk. > Mong. ku"degu"; Yak. > Evk. kute:.
face="Times New Roman Star"*oj-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 play 2 to play 3 to jumpface="Times New Roman Star"1 игра 2 играть 3 прыгатьface="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ujyn 1, ujna- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"o.jin 1, o.jna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun, ojan 1, ojni- 2face="Times New Roman Star"oin, ujin 1face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojyn 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"oin 1face="Times New Roman Star"ojyn 1, ojno- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|jъw| 1face="Times New Roman Star"o:nn/u: 1, o:nn/o:- 2, oj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"oj- 3, o:nn/o:- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojno- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojyn 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"ujyn 1, ujna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ojyn 1, ojna- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ojun 1, ojna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 274, 275, Ё—“я 1, 435-436, Stachowski 190, 198. The verb also has sexual connotations, preserved in Kirgh., Oyr., Bashk. and Yak. (where it also means 'to flirt, be in love') and in the common Turkic derivative *ojnal/ 'lover' (see Ё—“я ibid.) - important for establishing external connections.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jag-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to rain 2 rainface="Times New Roman Star"1 идти (о дожде) 2 дождьface="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1 (Orkh.), jag|mur 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ja:- 1, ja:mur 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaw- 1, jan|g|yr, jawym 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jag|mur / jamg|ur 2 (Pav. C., AH, Ettuhf., MA), jag|yn 2 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|g|- 1, jo|mg|ir, jo|g|in 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jamg|u(r), jan|mur, jeg|in 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jag|mirface="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jag|mur, jag|ys?, jag|yn 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jag|myr, jag|ys?, jag|yn 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|- 1, nan|myr 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-, c?a:- 1, nag|byr, namyr 2face="Times New Roman Star"ja:-, d/a- 1, d/an|myr, d/a:s? 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/u- 1, s/omъr 2face="Times New Roman Star"samy:r 2face="Times New Roman Star"hamy:r 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|- 1, c?a's 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|a:-, z?|au- 1, z?|amg|yr, z?|a:n 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?aw- 1, z?an|byr, z?awyn 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaw- 1, jamg|yrface="Times New Roman Star"jaw- 1, jamg|yr, jawun 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?awun, z?|ang|urface="Times New Roman Star"ja:- 1, ja:mur 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|mur 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?aw- 1, z?awyn, z?amg|yr 2face="Times New Roman Star"jag|- 1, jag|mur 2face="Times New Roman Star"jaw- 1, jan|g|ur, jan|ur, jawyn / jawun 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 177, EDT 896, 903-4, 908, Ё—“я 4, 57, Ћексика 25, ‘едотов 2, 135, Stachowski 95.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ban|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to trot, ride 2 trotface="Times New Roman Star"1 идти рысью, скакать 2 бегface="Times New Roman Star"man| 'a step' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"man|- (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"man- (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"man|- (Sangl.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"man|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2, man|- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2

face="Times New Roman Star"man|yj- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"man|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"man|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2, man|- 1face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2face="Times New Roman Star"man| 2






face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 766, 767, VEWT 326.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bul-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hoar-frost 2 frazil, icy surfaceface="Times New Roman Star"1 изморозь 2 наледь




face="Times New Roman Star"bulduriq 1


face="Times New Roman Star"buldurc?yn 1, buldura- 'to glitter (of dew, hoar-frost)'

face="Times New Roman Star"pulug| 2 (dial., Leb. R)

face="Times New Roman Star"bulu:s 'glacier'
face="Times New Roman Star"buluq 2










face="Times New Roman Star"Ћексика 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*obu-ra- / *obu-n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to wear out (intr.), decay 2 to cease, stop 3 to tire 4 to be destroyedface="Times New Roman Star"1 изнашиватьс€, стареть 2 прекращатьс€ 3 уставать 4 развалитьс€, разрушитьс€


face="Times New Roman Star"uwa-l-, wa-l- 1, 3, 4 (dial., ““ƒ— 112, 451)





face="Times New Roman Star"u:ra- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"u:ra- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"yvъn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"u:raj- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"ura- 4








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 356, 515. Kalm. o:r- 'to fall apart, become spoiled' may be < Turkic, but the immediate source is unclear (Tat.?). The Chuv. form may be a dialectal variant of ylъn-, see ≈горов 342, ‘едотов 2, 468.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da:t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to taste 2 taste 3 sweet, tasty 4 to get accustomedface="Times New Roman Star"1 иметь вкус (1а пробовать на вкус) 2 вкус 3 сладкий, вкусный 4 привыкатьface="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1, 1a (OUygh.), tatyg| 2 (OUygh.), tatyg|-lyg| 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tat-lyg| 3 (MK), taty- 1 (MK, KB), tatyg| 2 (MK, KB), tatyg|-lyg| 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tat- (tatar) 1a, tat (-d-), tadym, tatyk 2, tatly 3, dad-a- 'to bait, lure', dad-a-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1, 1a, tat 2, tatly 3face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1a (Abush., Pav. C., Sangl.), tat 2 (Sangl.), tat-lyg|3 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|t- 1a, tati- 1, 1a to|t 2, to|tli 3face="Times New Roman Star"teti- 1, 1a, tatq 2, tatliq 3face="Times New Roman Star"taty- 1 a, tatyg| 3face="Times New Roman Star"dad- 1a, dad 2, dadly 3, dadan- 4face="Times New Roman Star"da:t/d- 1a, da:t 2, da:t-ly 3face="Times New Roman Star"tady- 1, tadyg| 2, tadylyg| 3face="Times New Roman Star"tatqy 2face="Times New Roman Star"tatu 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"ta:t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tuda-l- 1, tuda-n- 1a, todъ 2, tut-lъ 3



face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1 a, taty- 1, tatyq 2, tattuw 3, tatq-a-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1, 1 a, ta"tti 3face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1, 1 a, tatyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"taty- 1a, tat 2, tatly 3face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1 a, tatyw 2, tatly 3face="Times New Roman Star"dat- 1a, dat 2, datly 3, dad-a-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1a, taty- 1, 1a, tat (K), tatuv (T,H,K) 2, tatly (T,H,K) 3, tatan- (K) 4face="Times New Roman Star"tat- 1 a, taty- 1, 1a, tatly 3
face="Times New Roman Star"taty- 1, tatyw 2, tatli 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 466, EDT 449-450, 452, 454, Ё—“я 3, 162-164, ‘едотов 2, 256-257. Oghuz (Osman) devoicing is secondary. Turk. > Mong. *tati- > tac?i(ja)- 'become accustomed' (KW 385) > TM tati- id. (“ћ— 2, 170.)
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hoar-frost 2 thin snowface="Times New Roman Star"1 иней 2 тонкий снегface="Times New Roman Star"qyrag|u 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyrag|u 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"kyrag|u 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.), qirau, qirag|u (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiro|w 1face="Times New Roman Star"qija, qira, qiro 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gyrow 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyraw 1, Gyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"xro 1, xyrbyx 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyra: 1face="Times New Roman Star"quru 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1face="Times New Roman Star"x@rb@x 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyrya 1, ky:rpax, kyrpaj 2face="Times New Roman Star"kyrya 1face="Times New Roman Star"xyra: 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qyro: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qrau 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qra: 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw, qoruw 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1
face="Times New Roman Star"qyraw 1, qyrpaq 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 265-266, 267, EDT 656, Ё—“я 6, 230-231, 241, Stachowski 169. Turk. > MMong. (HY) kira'u, WMong. kirag|u, Khalkha x/aru: 'hoar-frost' etc. (see Doerfer TMN 3, 569, ўербак 1997, 138, Clark 1977, 147, although the latter's derivation of *kyragu < *kyr 'grey' is hardly acceptable). Cf. also PT *Kyr-lac? 'the coldest time of winter' (see Ё—“я 6, 237-238).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jib-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 instrument, equipment 2 to provide, equipface="Times New Roman Star"1 инструмент, оборудование 2 оборудовать, снабжатьface="Times New Roman Star"jivig 1, jivit- 2 (OUygh.)



























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 872, 875.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yrgajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 name of a plant (irga) 2 honeysuckle, woodbind 3 juniperface="Times New Roman Star"1 ирга 2 жимолость 3 можжевельник





face="Times New Roman Star"irg|aj 1




face="Times New Roman Star"jyjra 3



face="Times New Roman Star"yrg|aj 1

face="Times New Roman Star"yrg|aj 3







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 166.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyp-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spark 2 ashesface="Times New Roman Star"1 искра 2 зола


face="Times New Roman Star"qypqyn 1





face="Times New Roman Star"xybyn 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"qybyn 1, qybyr 2

face="Times New Roman Star"kybyan 1


face="Times New Roman Star"qypyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"qypqyn 2







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 263, 265, Ћексика 369, Ё—“я 6, 223.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko":ru"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to use bellows 2 bellowsface="Times New Roman Star"1 использовать меха 2 меха
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"k (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"- 1, ko"ru"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rek 2face="Times New Roman Star"go"ru"k (IM), ko"ru"k (MA, Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lik (dial.) 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko":rik 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r@k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"k 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"o"rt 2
face="Times New Roman Star"xo"ru"k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko":ru"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r@k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r@k 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"rek 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"r@k 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ru"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 293, Ё—“я 5, 118, Ћексика 414-415.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, исс€кать 3 порок, изъ€н 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, ƒыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (ўербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*sajface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 area covered with stones, stony desert, stony riverbed 2 shallow place, shallowface="Times New Roman Star"1 каменистое место, камениста€ пустын€, каменистое русло реки 2 мелкое место, мелкийface="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, saj-yq- 'be shallow'face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|j 1, sajo|z 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sujъr c?ul@ (Anatri) 'pebble, rubble'face="Times New Roman Star"aja:n 'старица'
face="Times New Roman Star"saaryg|
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, sajyz, sajaz 2face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"haj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1, sajyz 2
face="Times New Roman Star"saj 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 394, Ћексика 93, EDT 858, Ё—“я 7, јшм. XI, 162. Yak. > Evk., Evn. aja:n TMS 1, 21; > Russ. Siber. aja/n (јникин 104).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"ju"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 capers 2 ferment for milk 3 a k. of fermented milk drinkface="Times New Roman Star"1 каперсы 2 закваска дл€ молока 3 вид квашенного молочного напитка








face="Times New Roman Star"go"ju"l 1



face="Times New Roman Star"k@w|velek 2, k@w|ve- 'to ferment'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"jo"rgo" 2, ku"o"rc?ex 3; ko"ju"n- 'to ferment' (der. ko":nn/o"r-)


face="Times New Roman Star"ko":rc?o"k 3








face="Times New Roman Star"≈горов 103. Kirgh. > Kalm. ko":rc@g (see differently in KW 244, Ћексика 451).
face="Times New Roman Star"*damface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 drop 2 to dropface="Times New Roman Star"1 капл€ 2 капать
face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam 1 (Abush.), tam- 2 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"to|m-face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tom-la- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tammax 1
face="Times New Roman Star"dam-dy 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam-dy 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dam-na 1face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 459, EDT 503, Ё—“я 3, 139-140, ‘едотов 2, 245. There is also a variant *dym 'wetness' (Ё—“я 3, 294).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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