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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*sygyrc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 grouse, hazel-hen 2 starlingface="Times New Roman Star"1 куропатка, рябчик 2 скворец
face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?uq 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?yk 2face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?aq, syrc?yq, c?yjyrc?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sig|irc?iq, sig|irc?uq, sig|irc?in (R.)


face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrc?yn 2
face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yraj 'bullfinch'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъn|gъrz?|ъ 2

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|yrg|a 'oriole'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyrc?yq 2

face="Times New Roman Star"syjyrsyq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sy:rz?yq 2


face="Times New Roman Star"syjyrtg|yc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 415, EDT 816, ЭСТЯ 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ygyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to stamp, ram (ground) 2 stamped snow 3 boundary, limit 4 small pathface="Times New Roman Star"1 топтать, утаптывать (землю) 2 утоптанный снег 3 граница 4 узкая тропа
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|ru- 1, c?yg|yr 4 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 4, 'coomb, trace of an avalanche'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'thawed spot' (Sangl.), 'snow stamped by strong wind' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijir 'trace'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ir jol 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yGyr 3


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yr 'bad road'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?y:r 'spot on snow or ground with many tracks'face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr, c?ijir 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjyr 'stamped'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr-t- 'to stamp snow, grass'




face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, 107, EDT 409, 410. Cf. perhaps also PT *c?ig- 'to draw a line' (VEWT 110). Turk. > Mong. Khalkha c?ijr 'stamped road', Kalm. c?i:r 'eaten and stamped grass' (KW 443).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymyc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"small fingerface="Times New Roman Star"мизинецface="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?amuq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?amuq (MK)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?alo|qface="Times New Roman Star"c?imalik


face="Times New Roman Star"symalc?yx, c?ymalc?yxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymalyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ymal (dial.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?umas?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?alaq








face="Times New Roman Star"Дыбо 322-323, Лексика 256. See ibid. a number of other forms, probably going back to the same stem, but restructured phonetically because of the root's expressive nature.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimblefulface="Times New Roman Star"1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik, c?imz?|ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?e-t-, c?emc?e-n- 1, c?emc?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1, c?imdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) c?ymdy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im-, c?imc?i-, c?imc?i-la-, c?imdi-, c?imi-t- 1, c?imdi-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi-, c?imqi- 1, c?ymdim 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|/ume- 'to pick out, pull out'face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik-le- 1, c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mmu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|y-la- 1, c?ymc?yx 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?imc?i- 1, s?imc?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y- 1, c?ymc?y-m 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?@b@t- 1, c?@pt@m, c?@pk@m 2 (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymc?y- 1, s?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymz?|y- 1, s?ymz?|ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y-, c?ymc?y-la- 1, c?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymty- 1, s?ymqym 2face="Times New Roman Star"semte- 1, semte-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imde- 1, c?imdik 2, cymda-, c?ymda- 'to bite'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1, s?ym, s?yms?ym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. c?@b@t- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *c?`i/p`u/ or *c?`abo.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sparrowface="Times New Roman Star"воробей, мелкая птица
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?apc?uq, c?ypc?yq (AH), s?yps?yq (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?ek, (dial.) c?abc?yk, c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?yq, dial. c?ypyjface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?uq, c?upc?uq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), c?imc?ik (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umc?uqface="Times New Roman Star"tumuc?uq

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq, dial. c?ypz?|yq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?iges? 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibilc?ik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq; c?imeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybys?yqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yqface="Times New Roman Star"sa"pseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sypqaj 'утка-поганка'

face="Times New Roman Star"cyfcyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yq
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|imc?iq, dial. c?imc?ikface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. c?ipc?iqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fly 2 gad-fly 3 mosquito 4 beeface="Times New Roman Star"1 муха 2 овод 3 комар 4 пчела, шершень
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyn 1, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?eben 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivin 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byn 3

face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ymyn 4





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymyn 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyn 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"seben-le- 'to be annoyed by fly-bites (of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, EDT 838, TMN 3, 53, Лексика 186.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go out, come outface="Times New Roman Star"выходить
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"syx-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|aryj- 'to move, be displaced' (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"syq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 405-406, VEWT 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ykan(ak)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"elbow, forearmface="Times New Roman Star"локоть, предплечье


face="Times New Roman Star"cyg|anaq (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|anaq (Sangl., CCum., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"na"k (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|a"jna"kface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikenek

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|anaxface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|anaq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ike 'cubit'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?enekface="Times New Roman Star"c?e'hene|kface="Times New Roman Star"c?yqanaqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaq 'bay'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"syg|anaq (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yna
face="Times New Roman Star"cyg|anaqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anaq

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, EDT 404, Егоров 325, Лексика 249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ir/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to drawface="Times New Roman Star"чертитьface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iz- (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-, syz- (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-(mo|q)face="Times New Roman Star"siz-(maq)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-yr- 'to scrape, plane'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/yz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?@r- 'to draw, scrape, tear'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz-, syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"hyd|-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iz-face="Times New Roman Star"cyz-, c?yz-face="Times New Roman Star"syz-
face="Times New Roman Star"syz-face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 112, EDT 432, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413-414. The variant *syr/- is probably due to assimilation.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-, *c?opurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pock-marked, variegated 2 badly bred, sloppy 3 to appear (of rash, furuncles)face="Times New Roman Star"1 пестрый, рябой 2 непородистый, неряшливый 3 высыпать (о сыпи, чирьях)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubar 'cheval gris de fer', c?ibar 'grey, mottled (horse)' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipo|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipa(r) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1







face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?obur 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'to appear (of rash on lips)', sybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar, cybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?opur 1, c?ubar 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403. An expressive and late attested root; appears, however, to be reconstructable for PT. The original shape is probably *c?ap- (preserved in c?ap-yr- 'to appear (of rash)', with further labial assimilation into *c?opur. The frequently attested variant c?upar > c?ubar is most probably a result of contamination *c?opur and *c?ubar (reflected in Tat. c?uwar, Kirgh. c?a:r that can only reflect *-b-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:c?kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 young pig 2 child, boy 3 pigface="Times New Roman Star"1 поросенок 2 ребенок, мальчик 3 свинья
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?uq (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uk 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?uc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?g|a 1 (Sangl.), (OKypch.) c?oc?qa (Houts.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|uz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?Ga 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|o:z?|uq 1 (cf. colloq. c?o:c?a 'camel')face="Times New Roman Star"sosxa 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"sosqa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?xa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?oc?qa 3, c?oc?uq jatag|y 'afterbirth'; (T) c?oc?xa 'young boy (not a Karaim)', (H) cocka 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, ЭСТЯ 4, 28, EDT 400. See Stachowski 1985 with an extensive list of material but with a strange conclusion that the word "onomatopoetischer Herkunft ist und somit durch Autogenese zustande kam".
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"glowing heat, glowing coalsface="Times New Roman Star"жар, тлеющие угольяface="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.g|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq, c?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"sog|face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq

face="Times New Roman Star"suosface="Times New Roman Star"huos

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqface="Times New Roman Star"s?oq







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, 114, Лексика 366-367, EDT 405, Stachowski 113 (Yak. suos = Tur. c?ogas? 'sun heat'). Turk. > WMong. c?og|, Kalm. cog (KW 429, TMN 2, 119, Щербак 1997, 113). Mong. > Yak. c?ox.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?okface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowdface="Times New Roman Star"1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(ся), размножать(ся) 4 толпа, множество
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (ДТС - KB), c?o:q 2 (MK - Oghuz), c?og|-al- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ok (-g|u) 1, c?og|al- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), c?oq- 3 (Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1, c?oxal- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq (-qu) 4face="Times New Roman Star"sox 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?og| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|yr 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 'дружно'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oju 4, c?oq-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1, c?og|y 4 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as c?oq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of c?oq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with c?og|-la- 'to bind, pack' (ДТС) or c?oq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство


face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.qin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation s?oq!' R 4, 1024)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), c?oqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation c?oq!' (R 3, 2009)
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk 5



face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqyn- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Ra"sa"nen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. c?oqur 'pit' and Taranchi c?oqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from c?ok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to c?o"ku"r- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. c?oq!, Shor s?oq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. c?ok!, Kaz. s?oq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *c?ok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. cso"k 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ortanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eel 2 pikeface="Times New Roman Star"1 угорь 2 щука

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?urtan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.rtan 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|rdan, s/ъw|rtan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"hordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, Лексика 178, Stachowski 108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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