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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:b-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"whip-lashface="Times New Roman Star"плеть
face="Times New Roman Star"c?avyg|, c?ag|yg| (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avun 'leather whip'





face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v-la- 'to lash with a rod, whip'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъvъs? 'sound of the whip or rod', c?ъw|vas?-la- 'to lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"? s?avy-la- 'to lash (of branches)'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 395. See also under *c?y:p.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Abul/(c?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"military commanderface="Times New Roman Star"военный командирface="Times New Roman Star"c?abus? (Orkh., Yen.), c?avus? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovus? 'leader of a pilgrimage'















face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (K) 'senior worker'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? 'herald'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 101, EDT 399, TMN 3, 35-38. Criticism of the hypothesis of the word's Iranian origin see in TMN.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eknface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"part of shoulder between the neck and shoulderbladeface="Times New Roman Star"часть плеча между шеей и лопаткойface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin, dial. c?eg|in, c?eg|n
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin (Abush., Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ijinface="Times New Roman Star"c?igin


face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:nface="Times New Roman Star"s/an 'body'













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 415, VEWT 103, Дыбо 129-130, Лексика 238-239 (see there about details of phonetic reconstruction).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eku"-rtkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"locust, grasshopperface="Times New Roman Star"саранча, кузнечик
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"rge (MK Oghuz; Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikertke|face="Times New Roman Star"c?egu"rtke, c?ewu"rtke (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?igirtkaface="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"tka"
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"sag|yrtxy



face="Times New Roman Star"saxsyrg|a 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"haksyrga 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ergi
face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egertkiface="Times New Roman Star"sin|ertka"

face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtke

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416-417, Лексика 187, Stachowski 94. Forms like Tat. dial. sikertke are a result of contamination with *se:k- 'jump' (v. sub *sa:/ki).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?An|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 morning dawn 2 mistface="Times New Roman Star"1 утренняя заря 2 туман, мгла
face="Times New Roman Star"c?an| ( ? c?a"n|) (ЛОК) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?en 2 (dial.) (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?an| 2 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"n, dial. c?an| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"san|marax 'марево'


face="Times New Roman Star"s/an-/s/avъn-talъk 'weather, climate' (Федотов 2 84-85; the second part = Tat. ta"wlek 'day, 24 hours')






face="Times New Roman Star"s?an|daq 'glow in the sky (from celestial phenomena or from fire)', dial. san|g|a"rt 'марево'





face="Times New Roman Star"ДТС 139, Лексика 35, 36. A somewhat dubious root. The words meaning 'mist' may go back to a separate root, PT *c?en| 'dust'. Other forms (including the late OT one) can be < Mong., but semantics is rather against assuming such a loan.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bodily heaviness, constipation (euphem.) 2 rotten, foul 3 to rot 4 illness 5 dirt 6 to be sick, ill 7 rot 8 glue 9 anguish, sorrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 запор (эвфем.) 2 гнилой, сгнивший 3 гнить 4 болезнь 5 грязь 6 болеть, хворать 7 труха, гниль 8 клей 9 тоска, скорбь
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 1 (MK), c?er-le-n- 'to be constipated; to suppurate (of eyes)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, c?irk 5, c?iris? 'flour paste'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 4, c?irla"- 4, c?ere- 3, c?erek 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 'tumeur, clou', c?ire- 'se de/gou/\ter'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irk 'snuff; hardened wheel ointment'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"r 'horse's heart attack', c?a"rla"- 6, c?irk 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?irk '(dirty) spot; insult', c?errik 'illness (of cattle)'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir, dial. c?e.r 4, s/@r- 3, 6, s/@r@k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 9, 'hard tumour', c?erle- 'to be anguished', c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irenc? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, 9, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sir 4, sere- 3, serek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iris? 8face="Times New Roman Star"ciri-, c?iri- 3, cirik, c?irik 2, c?yrys? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 9, s?ir- 3, s?irik 2, s?iris? 'slime'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, 9, c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irkew 'maggots in rotten food'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 427, 430, TMN 1077, Егоров 211-212, 326, Федотов 2,111-112, 420. As Doerfer notes, Turkic forms of the type c?irkin 'dirty, nasty, ugly' (Chag., Tur., Gag., Tat., Uzb.) are rather borrowed from Persian c?irkin (which itself is derived from c?irk, borrowed < Turkic).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Лексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Aj-na-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to chew 2 to biteface="Times New Roman Star"1 жевать 2 кусать

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|ne-, c?ejne- 1 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|jne|- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"dajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"jna"- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:ne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"cajna-, c?ajna-, c?ejne- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ajna- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene-, c?a"ina"- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ajna- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, Рас. ФиЛ 168. Forms with t- in some Siberian languages are rather enigmatic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"sparrowface="Times New Roman Star"воробей, мелкая птица
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?apc?uq, c?ypc?yq (AH), s?yps?yq (Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?ek, (dial.) c?abc?yk, c?ypc?ykface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?yq, dial. c?ypyjface="Times New Roman Star"c?ypc?uq, c?upc?uq (MA, Abush., Pav. C.), c?imc?ik (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umc?uqface="Times New Roman Star"tumuc?uq

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq, dial. c?ypz?|yq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?imc?iges? 'titmouse' (Верб., Upper-Kond.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibilc?ik (dial.) 'a k. of bird' (R, Верб., Kumd.)





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?yq; c?imeldirek (South.) 'a small green bird'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybys?yqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yqface="Times New Roman Star"sa"pseq 'wagtail; (dial.) sparrow', sypqaj 'утка-поганка'

face="Times New Roman Star"cyfcyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?yq
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|imc?iq, dial. c?imc?ikface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 109, Лексика 176. Turk. > Mong. c?ipc?iqaj (TMN 3, 123, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimblefulface="Times New Roman Star"1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik, c?imz?|ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?e-t-, c?emc?e-n- 1, c?emc?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1, c?imdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) c?ymdy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im-, c?imc?i-, c?imc?i-la-, c?imdi-, c?imi-t- 1, c?imdi-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi-, c?imqi- 1, c?ymdim 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|/ume- 'to pick out, pull out'face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik-le- 1, c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mmu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|y-la- 1, c?ymc?yx 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?imc?i- 1, s?imc?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y- 1, c?ymc?y-m 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?@b@t- 1, c?@pt@m, c?@pk@m 2 (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymc?y- 1, s?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymz?|y- 1, s?ymz?|ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y-, c?ymc?y-la- 1, c?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymty- 1, s?ymqym 2face="Times New Roman Star"semte- 1, semte-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imde- 1, c?imdik 2, cymda-, c?ymda- 'to bite'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1, s?ym, s?yms?ym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. c?@b@t- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *c?`i/p`u/ or *c?`abo.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ibface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nail, peg 2 corner 3 penis 4 firface="Times New Roman Star"1 гвоздь, колышек, чека 2 угол 3 penis 4 хвойное деревоface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iv 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"(c?iz?| 1 MK - a miswriting instead *c?iv?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"j 'wedge, cotter'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"a" 3 (R, by animals), c?iva" 'space between legs above the knees', c?ivila"n 'back saddlegirth' (fixed with a wooden peg)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iis? 'wedge'







face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j, c?u"w, (K) c?ivij 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, 121, EDT 393-394, 396, Лексика 125, 398. Because of well known semantic correlations of the type 'penis': 'thorn': 'fir (needle)' it is tempting to compare also the name of the fir-tree: Tat. dial. (КСТТ) c?ivi, cyvy, Khak. syby, Shor s?u"be, Oyr. c?ibi (Tuba c?yby), Tuva s?ivi, Tof. s?ibi. However, the intermediate form meaning 'thorn' is not attested, and the medial consonant here is rather *-p- (unless we suppose interdialectal loans), so it may be unrelated.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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