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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*o"t-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to sing (of birds) 2 to say 3 to ask, requestface="Times New Roman Star"1 петь (о птицах) 2 сказать, говорить 3 проситьface="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1 (OUygh.), o"tu"n- 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1, o"tu"n- 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"ten- 3face="Times New Roman Star"o"t- 2 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"o"tu"n- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"avъt- 1face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"et- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1face="Times New Roman Star"e't- 1







face="Times New Roman Star"edi- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 52, Ё—“я 1, 556, 557-558, EDT 39, 62, ≈горов 21, Stachowski 48. The Chuv. form is somewhat aberrant phonetically: it is possible that the actual Chuv. reflex of this root is vit@n- `to ask' - while Chuv. avъt- (together with avtan, atan `cock', Tat. a"ta"c? `cock') goes back to a separate PT root *ebt-, possibly going back to PA *ip`i (?-p-,-e) `to say, speak' q. v.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ic?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 interior of smth. 2 intestines 3 bellyface="Times New Roman Star"1 внутренность 2 кишки 3 животface="Times New Roman Star"ic? (Orkh., OUygh.) 1, ic?egu" 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ec? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1 (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"hiz?|igy 3face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?ege 2face="Times New Roman Star"isker 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?ga"r 2face="Times New Roman Star"ъs? 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"is 1face="Times New Roman Star"i'z?in 3face="Times New Roman Star"i's?ti 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1, ic?egi 2face="Times New Roman Star"is? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ic? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"s?i 3

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 168, EDT 17, 25, Ё—“я 1, 388-391, 392-393, Stachowski 128-129.
face="Times New Roman Star"*don|face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 cold 2 frost 3 frozen 4 freeze, be frozenface="Times New Roman Star"1 холодный 2 мороз 3 замерзший 4 замерзатьface="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"don 2face="Times New Roman Star"tun| 2face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"tot 1face="Times New Roman Star"don 2, don- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"to:-r- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|m 2 'frost'face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"ton|- 4, ton| 3face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"don| 3, don|- 4face="Times New Roman Star"ton| 2, ton|- 4








face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 488, EDT 513, 515, Ё—“я 3, 265-267, Ћексика 17, Stachowski 226.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja.lan|ukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"personface="Times New Roman Star"человекface="Times New Roman Star"jalan|uq (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jaln|uq (MK, KB)











face="Times New Roman Star"s/yn(ъ)













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 182, EDT 930.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ujaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"nestface="Times New Roman Star"гнездоface="Times New Roman Star"uja (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"uja (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"juwaface="Times New Roman Star"ojaface="Times New Roman Star"juwa, uja (AH, Ettuhf.)face="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"uwa, ugaface="Times New Roman Star"uja, oja 'egg'face="Times New Roman Star"juwa
face="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"jъw|vaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"oja
face="Times New Roman Star"juwaface="Times New Roman Star"juwa, ujaface="Times New Roman Star"uja
face="Times New Roman Star"ujaface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 511, EDT 267, Ё—“я 4, 239, ≈горов 73, Stachowski 242.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sal-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to put, throw 2 to drop, lower 3 tax 4 heavyface="Times New Roman Star"1 класть, кидать 2 опускать 3 налог 4 т€желыйface="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1,2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salgyn 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, sal-ym 3face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|l- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa(l)- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salyg| 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1, salym 4face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sol- 1, solъm 'heaviness'

face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"hal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sal- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 397, EDT 824, ‘едотов 2, 57, Ё—“я 7. Several derivatives with a velar suffix are used in Turk. for denoting downward motion or hanging: cf. OT salyg| 'taxes', Kirgh. salyq 'taxes; hanging down, limp'; SUygh. salyg| 'heavy'; Tur. salky 'weak, lax', Kirgh. salqy, Uzb. so|lqi- 'be loose, hang down' (see TMN 3, 265-266, Ё—“я 7).
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.n-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"that (obl.cases) 2 here, look (part.)face="Times New Roman Star"тот (основа косв. падежей) 2 вот, тутface="Times New Roman Star"an-ta (loc.), an|-ar (dat.) (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), on|-a (dat.) (MK, KB)
face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), an|-a (dat.), an-ar (dat.) (Mish.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), an|-a (dat.) (Babur)

face="Times New Roman Star"a (nom.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ana 2face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), a-g|aa (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), a-(g|)a (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), o-(g|)o (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"a"/ra" 'that side' (vocalism under influence of ba"/ra" 'this side')face="Times New Roman Star"on-da (loc.), ъw|n-a (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"ana-ra: 2
face="Times New Roman Star"yn-da (loc.), a(n|)-a (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"yn-da (loc.), a(n|)-a (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-ta (loc.), a-(g|)a (dat.)

face="Times New Roman Star"an-ta, an-da (loc.), an|-a (dat.)face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), an|-g|a (dat.)
face="Times New Roman Star"an-da (loc.), an-ar (dat.)
face="Times New Roman Star"an-dy (loc.), an|-a (dat.)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 19, EDT 165, Ё—“я 1, 147-150, 157. In OT and most modern languages the root a(n)- acts as an oblique stem for ol 'that' (as well as a deriving stem for pronominal adverbs). Only in SUygh. a- is the direct stem.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускатьс€ на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, ≈горов 205, ‘едотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, ўербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ta.m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (tr.) 2 to kindle 3 to become excitedface="Times New Roman Star"1 жечь 2 зажигать 3 возбуждатьс€ 4 загоратьс€face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 4, tamdur- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tamd|ur- 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"tamyz- 2 (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"tamet- 2 (Lobn.)face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 4, tam-dyr- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tam-yl- 4, tamys- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"tymyt- 3, tym-tyk 'лучина'


face="Times New Roman Star"tam- 4, tamyz- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyz- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tamyz- 2



face="Times New Roman Star"tamyz- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 459b, EDT 504, Ћексика 363. Clauson thinks the root is < Chin., but this is highly improbable.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ulugface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 big 2 great 3 grown-up, greatface="Times New Roman Star"1 большой 2 великий 3 взрослый, крупныйface="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ulu 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lke|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ulug|, uluq 1 (Pav. C.)
face="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ulu 2face="Times New Roman Star"uly 1face="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1



face="Times New Roman Star"ulaxan, ulu: 1face="Times New Roman Star"ulakan, ulu: 1face="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ulug| 1face="Times New Roman Star"uluu 2face="Times New Roman Star"ulken 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"jken 1face="Times New Roman Star"o"lka"n 1face="Times New Roman Star"ullu 1

face="Times New Roman Star"u"lken 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 513, 520, TMN 2, 117-118, EDT 136, Ё—“я 1, 593-594, 630, Stachowski 242, 243. Turkic languages reveal two variants (*ulug and *u"lken, the latter being represented only in modern languages), probably interrelated. Despite Bang TB X and TMN 2, 118 it is hard to see any relationship between *ulug (hardly *ullug: some modern forms must have secondary gemination here) and *ul 'foundation'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ka.b-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bark 2 shell 3 husk 4 branface="Times New Roman Star"1 кора 2 скорлупа 3 шелуха 4 отруби, м€кинаface="Times New Roman Star"qavyq 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qavyq, qavuq (MK, KB) 4face="Times New Roman Star"kavuz 3, kavza 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qo|vuz 3face="Times New Roman Star"qovzaq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"Gavyz (dial.) 3
face="Times New Roman Star"xo:x 4face="Times New Roman Star"qo:q 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"xyvъx 4

face="Times New Roman Star"xo:-tara: 'a k. of millet with sagging panicles'

face="Times New Roman Star"qavyz 4face="Times New Roman Star"qavyz 4



face="Times New Roman Star"qavyz 4
face="Times New Roman Star"quvyq 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 217, EDT 583, Ё—“я 5, 173-174, 178-179, ћудрак ƒисс. 62. The root should be distinguished from *K(i)ab- 'peeled skin, peel' (v. sub *k`i_a:\bu).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ko"n/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (itr.) 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to get burnt 5 soot 6 strong smell of burnt 7 unpleasant smellface="Times New Roman Star"1 гореть 2 жечь 3 зажигать 4 обгорать 5 сажа 6 сильный запах горелого 7 непри€тный запахface="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"n- (Argu MK), ko"j- 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) ko"j-, ku"j- 1; ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1 (Abush., MA, Ѕор. Ѕад., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kuj- 1, kuja 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j-, ku"j- 1, ko"jdu"r- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1, ku"jo" (dial.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1, ko"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ko"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ko": 5face="Times New Roman Star"kie_n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku", k@w|v 6 (јшм.), k@w|s/ek 7; kъw|vajt 5

face="Times New Roman Star"xo": 5face="Times New Roman Star"xo": 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ko": 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ku"j- 1, ku"je 5
face="Times New Roman Star"gu"j- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 309, EDT 726, 730, Ё—“я 5, 88-89, 133, Ћексика 362, ћудрак ƒисс. 75. The Az. form is somewhat dubious, both semantically ("itch") and phonetically (irregular voiced g-). See also *ko"n/- 'to grieve, suffer'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*je:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mane 2 featherface="Times New Roman Star"1 грива 2 пероface="Times New Roman Star"jel 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jel 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jele 1



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|el/y 1face="Times New Roman Star"la"la"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"jelek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilen 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ja"la":k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/ilg|e 1face="Times New Roman Star"siel 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1




face="Times New Roman Star"jela" 1face="Times New Roman Star"lelek 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 181, TMN 4, 188-189, EDT 916, Ё—“я 4, 85-86 (confused with *ja:l, v. sub *da:/lV), Ћексика 147, 566. The Oghuz name of 'feather' (jelek / lelek, see Ё—“я 4, 179) is probably derived from this root; perhaps also *jel-ke 'back of head (including the neck)', see VEWT 196, Ё—“я 4, 181.
face="Times New Roman Star"*s(i)ac?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hair (of head) 2 hair 3 hair (on back of head) 4 rootface="Times New Roman Star"1 волос (головы) 2 волос 3 волос (на затылке) 4 кореньface="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"saz?|, sac? 1 (Pav. C., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"so|c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ac? 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sas 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa:c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"s/ 2face="Times New Roman Star"as 3face="Times New Roman Star"as 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a's? 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?e's? 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"sac? 1; sac?yx| 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 391, EDT 794, Ћексика 197, Ё—“я 7, Stachowski 38.
face="Times New Roman Star"*joganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"thickface="Times New Roman Star"толстыйface="Times New Roman Star"jog|an (Orkh.), jog|un (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jog|un (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jog|unface="Times New Roman Star"juvanface="Times New Roman Star"jog|an (MA)face="Times New Roman Star"jo.g|o|nface="Times New Roman Star"jog|an 'big'face="Times New Roman Star"jog|yn, jog|unface="Times New Roman Star"jog|unface="Times New Roman Star"jog|y:nface="Times New Roman Star"c?o:nface="Times New Roman Star"c?o:nface="Times New Roman Star"jo:n, d/o:nface="Times New Roman Star"jog|un
face="Times New Roman Star"suon
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o:nface="Times New Roman Star"n/o:nface="Times New Roman Star"z?|o:n
face="Times New Roman Star"juvanface="Times New Roman Star"jywan


face="Times New Roman Star"z?uwan

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 205, EDT 904, Ё—“я 4, 208-209.
face="Times New Roman Star"*jan-, *jan-tyr-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to burn (itr.), blaze up 2 to burn (tr.) 3 to kindle 4 to shineface="Times New Roman Star"1 гореть, загоратьс€ 2 жечь 3 зажигать 4 светить
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"jo|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1 (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/on- 1, s/ondar- 2face="Times New Roman Star"san-da:r- 4


face="Times New Roman Star"z?|an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1, jandyr- 2face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?an- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jan- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 184, EDT 942, 947-948, Ё—“я 4, 112, ‘едотов 2, 136, Ћексика 362.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Atyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"(junior) nephew, grandsonface="Times New Roman Star"(младший) плем€нник, внукface="Times New Roman Star"aty (Orkh.)




face="Times New Roman Star"dial. Lobn. ataj-ym 'oh, my child!'face="Times New Roman Star"aty

face="Times New Roman Star"adaj 'dog' ( < *'cub')

















face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 31, EDT 40, Ё—“я 1, 79.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Karakface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")face="Times New Roman Star"1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращениеface="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"z karasy 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"qo|re|c?iq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qar(i)c?uq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"go"z Garasy 1face="Times New Roman Star"Garaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2, dial. xarac?y 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"kos/ xori 1face="Times New Roman Star"xarax 2face="Times New Roman Star"karak 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"qaras?yq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"qaraq 3, qaras?yq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, Ё—“я 5, 295-296, јшм. VII, 36, Ћексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. go"z karasy result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see Ё—“я 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarys 'care, wariness', Dolg. karysta:- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*bu"rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bud 2 leaf 3 grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 почка 2 лист 3 зерноface="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 1 (OUygh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rc?u"k 1, bu"rtu"k 3 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ro" 1





face="Times New Roman Star"pu"r 2


face="Times New Roman Star"p@w|rz?|e 'grain, particle'face="Times New Roman Star"burduk 'flour'face="Times New Roman Star"burduk 'flour'face="Times New Roman Star"bu"ru" 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 2face="Times New Roman Star"bu"r 1
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtik 3face="Times New Roman Star"bo"ro" 1face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtik 3
face="Times New Roman Star"bu"rtu"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 92, EDT 354, Ћексика 114-115, Stachowski 67. Turk. > WMong. bu"r, Kalm. bu"r (KW 67).
face="Times New Roman Star"*ebface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"houseface="Times New Roman Star"домface="Times New Roman Star"eb (Orkh.), ev (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ev (MK), o"v (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"evface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"o"j (Pav. C., Ѕор. Ѕад.)face="Times New Roman Star"ujface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"ju"face="Times New Roman Star"evface="Times New Roman Star"o"jface="Times New Roman Star"ibface="Times New Roman Star"em, (Kond.) u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"ha"`vface="Times New Roman Star"av-la-n- 'to marry'

face="Times New Roman Star"o"gface="Times New Roman Star"o"g|face="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"jevface="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"u"j
face="Times New Roman Star"u"jface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 34, EDT 3-4, Ё—“я 1, 287-288, 513-514, ≈горов 21, Ћексика 500. The word for 'woman' in some languages goes back to PT *eb-c?i ("housewife"), see EDT 6; borrowed in Mong. as ebsi 'female of a big bear', see Clark 1980, 43).
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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