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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Amface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a backbiting man 2 to exact a fine 3 claim 4 reproach 5 to be offended 6 to be angryface="Times New Roman Star"1 клеветник 2 штрафовать 3 претензия, рекламация (юрид.) 4 упрек 5 обижаться 6 сердитьсяface="Times New Roman Star"c?am 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?amg|uq 1 (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-la- 'to speak with disgust' (R, Pav. C.)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?`imig 'badly'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?am (dial., R) 4, c?am-da-l- (dial., R) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ammal-tur- 'to look nervous, angry'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am 'that which causes offence', s?am-da-n- 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?am 'joke, mockery', c?am-la-n- 6

face="Times New Roman Star"s?am-la-n- 5, s?am-s?yl 'resentful, sensitive'

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 421-422, 423, VEWT 98, D-T 97. At least part of the forms may ultimately have a Chinese source (MC z|.a".m 'slander'). Cf. also c?aman 'lazy horse, dog'; Tur. c?amura jat- 'to decline from paying a debt' (slang; lit. 'to lie down in dirt' - perhaps a reanalysis based on the analogy with c?amur 'dirt', cf. also c?amur (metaph.) 'low, humble').
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?en|eface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"jawface="Times New Roman Star"челюсть



face="Times New Roman Star"c?an|a, c?en|e (Pav. C., AH)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"face="Times New Roman Star"c?ene (dial.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"na"
face="Times New Roman Star"sen|ie







face="Times New Roman Star"c?ena"face="Times New Roman Star"cen|ge

face="Times New Roman Star"c?eneface="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. c?a:nah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to beat, hit 2 to attack, rob 3 chisel 4 hack, hoe, hatchet 5 to chop 6 to scythe, mow 7 to dig 8 to break 9 sharp 10 scythe 11 to whet, sharpen (a scythe) 12 metal shavings after forging 13 trap 14 whetstone for sharpening scythes 15 to whip 16 to hack, adze 17 shavings 18 booty 19 currycombface="Times New Roman Star"1 бить, ударять 2 нападать, грабить 3 резец 4 мотыга, тяпка, сечка 5 рубить 6 косить 7 копать (кетменем) 8 разламывать 9 острый 10 коса 11 точить (косу) 12 обсечки металла при ковке 13 капкан 14 брусок для точки кос 15 хлестать 16 тесать 17 стружка 18 добыча, трофей 19 скребница
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2, c?apla 3, c?apa 4, c?apak 12face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 6, 1, c?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|p- 5, 7, c?o|pqi 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqu 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'p- 1, 5, 8face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 2, c?apGy 4, c?apGyr 9face="Times New Roman Star"sap- 1, 5, 6, saxpy, sapxy 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 6, s?apqy 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, 6, c?apqy 10, 13face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/up- 1, 11, s/opkas/ 14face="Times New Roman Star"saba:- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap- 1, 2, s?ap-ta- 15face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-ty 17, s?apty-la- 16face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap/b- 5, 7, 1, c?apqy 4, 10face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, s?apqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"sap/b- 6, 5, 1, sapqy 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ab- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apanaq 18face="Times New Roman Star"cap- 1; c?ap- 1, 5, c?apa 19face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap/b- 5, 6, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap-, c?a'- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ap- 5, c?apg|y 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 394, Егоров 203, 219, Федотов 2, 85, 137-8, Ашм. XII, 247-249.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Ap-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a k. of cloak 2 lap, skirt 3 used clothing 4 bedding under the saddle 5 woman's gown 6 gown 7 gusset (in clothes)face="Times New Roman Star"1 род плаща 2 подол, фалда 3 старая, потертая одежда 4 подстилка под седло, чепрак 5 женский халат 6 халат 7 клин (в одежде)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apg|ut 'a padded garment' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aput 3, c?aprak 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1, c?apraq 4, c?abu 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1 (R; Pav. C. jamag|lyg| c?apan 'mended cloak'), c?abuq 2 (Pav. C.), (OKypch.) c?apg|ut 3 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|po|n 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apan 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyt 5, c?apan 6, c?apy 'ornamental trimming for clothes' lap'face="Times New Roman Star"sabyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyr 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abug| 'trimmed section on a woman's tunic'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?avyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"s?abyg| 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?abu: 7; c?apan 6, c?apan-c?apqyt 'upper clothes', c?opqut 'quilted coat under armour; expensive costume'face="Times New Roman Star"s?abu 2, s?apan 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 'gusset-like front part of gown's laps'face="Times New Roman Star"sapan 6, sabyw 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apraq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?abuw 7, s?apan 6, s?obyt 'used things', s?opqyt 'rags'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?abyw 7, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99, EDT 396, TMN 3, 47, Аникин 643. Several derivations are clearly distinguishable: a) *c?ap-gut 'upper clothes, garment' (with later development > 'used clothes'); b) *c?ap-rak 'bedding under the saddle'; c) *c?ap-an 'cloak, gown'; d) *c?ap-gu 'lap, gusset' - all clearly related to each other.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"new-born childface="Times New Roman Star"новорожденный ребенок, детеныш

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|a (dial.); c?ag|a 'young of birds' (Old Osm. XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?aqa (Pav. C.), (Xwar.) c?aqa 'young of birds' (Фазылов 2, 511)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqalo|q, (Tashk.) c?aqaface="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children' (dial.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|aface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:Ga








face="Times New Roman Star"bala-c?aqa 'children'face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"bala-s?ag|a 'children'



face="Times New Roman Star"qyzyl s?aqa 'quite naked (of young of animals)'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, Менгес 1979, 170.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"light grey, greyish blueface="Times New Roman Star"светло-серый, серовато-голубой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (MK, Tefs.) (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akyrface="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr (of eyes)face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|ir-qano|t 'a white-eyed dunbird, нырок белоглазый'face="Times New Roman Star"c?eqir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'dried in the sun, bleached'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr 'yellow'




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekir 'grey (of eyes), wall-eye'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'grey (of eyes, horses)', s?egir 'grey (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'colourless (of eyes)'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yr 'whitish'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|yr 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqyr
face="Times New Roman Star"s?egir (of eyes)

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 96, TMN 2, 77, EDT 409, Федотов 2 387. Despite Fedotov c?okur 'variegated' is not related, it is < Mong. c?obkur (v. sub *s?op`e/). Despite Ra"sa"nen borrowed from Mong. can be only Yak. c?akyr 'white (of a horse)' (cf. also Dolg. c?akyr, see Stachowski 72), and perhaps the front-row forms (Kirgh. c?ekir, Kaz. s?egir, KKalp. s?egir - because of their restriction to the Kypch. area); but Mong.. c?akir / c?ekir 'whitish' is itself an obvious Turkism (see TMN ibid., Clark 1977, 134 with doubts). The root should be distinguished from nasalized forms: Oyr. c?an|qyr, Chuv. senker, Yak. c?en|gir, z?|en|gir, Kirgh. c?enkil, c?an|yl with the same set of meanings ('whitish, blue', often of eyes) = Mong. (Khalkha) cenxer id.; those should be compared with Tokh. A, B tsem. 'blue (of eyes)', Pers. zanga:r 'verdigris', whence Tat. za"n|ga"r (from Pers. zang 'rust', further derived with *za:'to leave, remain', Sak. ysa:ya" 'rust', Osset. zga", see Bailey 348-349). This is most probably an Iranian loanword in Turkic, Tokh. and Mong. (although a Chinese origin - cf. MC chien| 'blue' - is also possible). Cf. VEWT 104 (Turk. < Mong.), 531.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?arface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 whetstone 2 sickle 3 to whetface="Times New Roman Star"1 точильный камень 2 серп 3 точить


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'mill stone', c?ar-la- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar-la- 3 (Pav. C.)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/orla 2face="Times New Roman Star"sardag|a, sarda:na 'short heavy arrow with a broad head' (Пек.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sar 1


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:r- 'to cut, stick in' (ССЯ: Udzh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ar 1, 'spool'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 99-100, Егоров 221, Федотов 2, 143 (borrowing < FU *s/orva 'horn' is hardly credible). Bulg. > Hung. sarlo/ 'sickle', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 494-495. The root is certainly genuine, although some influence of the Iranian c?aryk, c?arx 'wheel' could have existed.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)a:bface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"fame, good reputation, newsface="Times New Roman Star"слава, хорошая репутация , новости
face="Times New Roman Star"c?av (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?av
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aw (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:v (arch.)face="Times New Roman Star"sab-lag| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ap-tyg| 'renowned'face="Times New Roman Star"c?apface="Times New Roman Star"c?ov (may be < Az.)



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|









face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 93, EDT 393. Final -p in Siberian languages is not quite clear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Abul/(c?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"military commanderface="Times New Roman Star"военный командирface="Times New Roman Star"c?abus? (Orkh., Yen.), c?avus? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovus? 'leader of a pilgrimage'















face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (K) 'senior worker'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? 'herald'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 101, EDT 399, TMN 3, 35-38. Criticism of the hypothesis of the word's Iranian origin see in TMN.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eku"-rtkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"locust, grasshopperface="Times New Roman Star"саранча, кузнечик
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"rge (MK Oghuz; Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikertke|face="Times New Roman Star"c?egu"rtke, c?ewu"rtke (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?igirtkaface="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"tka"
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"sag|yrtxy



face="Times New Roman Star"saxsyrg|a 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"haksyrga 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ergi
face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egertkiface="Times New Roman Star"sin|ertka"

face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtke

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416-417, Лексика 187, Stachowski 94. Forms like Tat. dial. sikertke are a result of contamination with *se:k- 'jump' (v. sub *sa:/ki).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.keface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 temple 2 cheekboneface="Times New Roman Star"1 висок 2 скула
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?eke 1 (At-Tuhf.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ige| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 'back of head' (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akka 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?eka" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekge 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig@ 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"sika" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, TMN 3, 87f, Егоров 326, Лексика 203. Despite the lack of ancient attestation, the root is evidently archaic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ekinface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"different weed kindsface="Times New Roman Star"различные виды сорных трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikin / c?ekin 'a plant growing among the vines and eaten by cattle' (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|ke|n 'corn cob' (< Chuv.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekin 'greens, grass; a weed on rice fields, with black seeds and sharp awns' (Pav. C., Sangl.), c?ekil-dam 'tulip bulb; a root similar to wild garlic' (Pav. C., for dam cf. Uzb. dam 'pungency, bitterness' < Pers.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akalak 'bush thicket' (or perhaps to PT *c?eke-t?)



face="Times New Roman Star"s@gen 'dry grass'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?akan 'reedmace'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?eken 'рогоз широколистый'

face="Times New Roman Star"se|ke|n 'corn cob' ( < Chuv.?)


face="Times New Roman Star"s?igin 'weed growing on rice fields, куриное просо', s?igildik 'reed'

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 111, EDT 415, Рас. ФиЛ 277, Егоров 316. Chuv. c?akan, despite Дмитриева 1997, 52-53 and Ro/na-Tas, is not connected with *jeken 'reed' (v. sub *de/k`a\). Cf. other grass names: Chuv. c?iken kurъk@ 'geranium' (according to Ашм., grass helping from colics - Дмитриева 1997, 56); s/ikka kurъk@ 'camomile' (according to Ашм. it hosts a plantlouse, to summon which the children say "s/ikka!" - Дмитриева 1988, 51); Uygh. c?iga" 'plant fibre, wild hemp (VEWT), Yak. sige 'тальниковые стружки, лыко'. Tuva sigen 'hay' (Tuva), (Tof. 'grass') has an irregular s-, so perhaps should be regarded as borrowed from Khak.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?E:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 woven cotton fabric 2 cotton shirt 3 woollen cloth 4 a k. of upper clothes (jacket, trousers, cloak)face="Times New Roman Star"1 хлопковая ткань 2 хлопковая рубашка 3 шерстяная ткань 4 вид верхней одежды (куртка, шаровары, плащ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (OUygh. - XIV c.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekrek 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?a"pka"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ikme|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen 4, 1 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akmo|n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"kma"n 4

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a":kmen 'gown'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekpen, c?epken 3, 4



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?ekpen 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekmen, c?epken 3, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"sa"kma"n 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?epken 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"cekmen, c?ekma"n 3


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416, 413.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Elface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 film, membrane 2 albugo 3 mucus discharged by the eye 4 unhusked rice 5 thin bread, cake 6 husk in grainface="Times New Roman Star"1 пленка, кожица, подмездрина 2 бельмо 3 глазной гной 4 неошелушенный рис 5 тонкая лепешка 6 шелуха в крупе
face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?el-tik 4; c?elpik 3 (Red. only)face="Times New Roman Star"cilen 'cow's afterbirth' (dial. КСТТ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alpak 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"lpa"k 5
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?elpek 5, c?el-tik 6

face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"l-tik 4




face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1, 2, c?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el 2, 'fat under skin', s?elpek 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?el-te- 'to husk grain'



face="Times New Roman Star"s?elpek 5

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 418-419, Лексика 392. Ogh. c?el-tik > Pers. c?altuk, s?altu:k (despite VEWT 104). Turk. c?elpek > Pers. c?alpak (TMN 3, 1111). The meaning 'eye pus, mucus' in *c?el-pek developed under the influence of the similar *c?apak (see under *c?ap- 'plaster'), but the two roots should be clearly distinguished (despite EDT 418).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ic?ig (/*c?yc?yg)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 female sheep 3 sheep tail 4 roasted sheep tail 5 roasted fatface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (женская) 2 овцематка 3 курдюк 4 жареный курдюк 5 жареный жир


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz?yq (R, Буд. - Kas.), c?yz|yq (R - Tob.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ig| 2, 3 (R - Vam.), c?yc?yg|, c?yc?yq 4 (R - Zenker)








face="Times New Roman Star"c?@z?|@ 1













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110. An onomatopaeic root, attested late - but possibly archaic because of the external evidence. The assumed semantic development in Chag. and Tat. is 'udder' > 'roasted udder' > 'fat roasted piece of meat'.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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