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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go out, come outface="Times New Roman Star"выходить
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"syx-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|aryj- 'to move, be displaced' (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"syq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 405-406, VEWT 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.rface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bodily heaviness, constipation (euphem.) 2 rotten, foul 3 to rot 4 illness 5 dirt 6 to be sick, ill 7 rot 8 glue 9 anguish, sorrowface="Times New Roman Star"1 запор (эвфем.) 2 гнилой, сгнивший 3 гнить 4 болезнь 5 грязь 6 болеть, хворать 7 труха, гниль 8 клей 9 тоска, скорбь
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 1 (MK), c?er-le-n- 'to be constipated; to suppurate (of eyes)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, c?irk 5, c?iris? 'flour paste'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 4, c?irla"- 4, c?ere- 3, c?erek 7face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir 'tumeur, clou', c?ire- 'se de/gou/\ter'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irk 'snuff; hardened wheel ointment'face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"r 'horse's heart attack', c?a"rla"- 6, c?irk 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?irk '(dirty) spot; insult', c?errik 'illness (of cattle)'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ir, dial. c?e.r 4, s/@r- 3, 6, s/@r@k 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 9, 'hard tumour', c?erle- 'to be anguished', c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irenc? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, 9, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 4, s?iri- 3, s?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"sir 4, sere- 3, serek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iri- 3, c?irik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?iris? 8face="Times New Roman Star"ciri-, c?iri- 3, cirik, c?irik 2, c?yrys? 8face="Times New Roman Star"s?er 9, s?ir- 3, s?irik 2, s?iris? 'slime'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?er 4, 9, c?iri- 3, c?irik 2, c?irkew 'maggots in rotten food'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 427, 430, TMN 1077, Егоров 211-212, 326, Федотов 2,111-112, 420. As Doerfer notes, Turkic forms of the type c?irkin 'dirty, nasty, ugly' (Chag., Tur., Gag., Tat., Uzb.) are rather borrowed from Persian c?irkin (which itself is derived from c?irk, borrowed < Turkic).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epil/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"a half-year or 1-year-old kidface="Times New Roman Star"(полу)годовалый козленок
face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?epis?, c?epic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivic?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"pis?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebis?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?apis? ( < Az.?)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?


face="Times New Roman Star"c?emic?



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ebic?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 105, EDT 399, Щербак 1961, 120. Cf. also Chag. c?iber 'mountain goat' (R). The reflex -b- in Turkm. and Uygh. may be an indication of original vowel length (?) Shcherbak's hypothesis of the word being borrowed < Iranian is dubious; Pers. c?apis?, c?apus? itself may well be borrowed < Turkic. In any case, the Persian form cannot be a regular IE match for Lat. caper. Cf. WH 1, 157, sub caper: "Np. c?apis?...lautlich unmo"glich"; indeed, Common Iranian -p- (< IE -p-) > Mod. Pers. and NW-Iran. -b-, in exceptional cases -v- (Расторгуева ЗИФ 114-115); a parallel for caper may perhaps be found in Sak. cau_, Osset. ca"v 'goat' (see Аб. 1, 307, Bailey 105). One should mention the problematic "Wanderformen" Rum. cap, Alb. tsap, Ital. dial. cappo, Crim.-Goth. stap, Slav. *ca//pъ 'he-goat'; cf. also Oyr. c?a:p 'one year-old roebuck' ( < Mong.?). See Трубачев 1960, 89-90, Orel 47 with literature; note especially Hubschmid's (1954, 49) hypothesis of the Turkic origin of this Wanderwort.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pynface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 fly 2 gad-fly 3 mosquito 4 beeface="Times New Roman Star"1 муха 2 овод 3 комар 4 пчела, шершень
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyn 1, 3 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?eben 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivin 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byn 3

face="Times New Roman Star"(dial.) c?ymyn 4





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymyn 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyn 1,2
face="Times New Roman Star"seben-le- 'to be annoyed by fly-bites (of animals)'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ibin 1,2



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ibin 1,2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, EDT 838, TMN 3, 53, Лексика 186.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"branchface="Times New Roman Star"ветка
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yp, c?ybyq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyk, c?ubukface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq [c?ybyrqy 'lash']face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iviqface="Times New Roman Star"c?iviq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuGface="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byqface="Times New Roman Star"symyxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъbъk 'lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yvyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"sybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"cybuq, cubuq, c?ubuq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 395, VEWT 106, TMN 3, 1059, Лексика 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403-404. Forms meaning 'lash' reflect a contamination with PT *c?Abyk 'lash' (v. sub *c?`e:/bV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym- / *c?um- (*c?om-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 top, upper part 2 staff (with a knob) 3 lump, pompon, knobface="Times New Roman Star"1 верхушка 2 палка (с набалдашником) 3 комок, помпон, набалдашник
face="Times New Roman Star"c?omaq 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?omc?ak 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?omaG 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mmek 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|mak 3













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 2, 94-95, EDT 422. The Chuv. reflex points to *-y-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"glowing heat, glowing coalsface="Times New Roman Star"жар, тлеющие угольяface="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (MK)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?og| (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.g|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq, c?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o:gface="Times New Roman Star"sog|face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq

face="Times New Roman Star"suosface="Times New Roman Star"huos

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqface="Times New Roman Star"s?oq







face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, 114, Лексика 366-367, EDT 405, Stachowski 113 (Yak. suos = Tur. c?ogas? 'sun heat'). Turk. > WMong. c?og|, Kalm. cog (KW 429, TMN 2, 119, Щербак 1997, 113). Mong. > Yak. c?ox.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство


face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.qin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation s?oq!' R 4, 1024)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), c?oqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation c?oq!' (R 3, 2009)
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk 5



face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqyn- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Ra"sa"nen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. c?oqur 'pit' and Taranchi c?oqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from c?ok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to c?o"ku"r- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. c?oq!, Shor s?oq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. c?ok!, Kaz. s?oq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *c?ok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. cso"k 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:c?kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 young pig 2 child, boy 3 pigface="Times New Roman Star"1 поросенок 2 ребенок, мальчик 3 свинья
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?uq (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uk 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?uc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?g|a 1 (Sangl.), (OKypch.) c?oc?qa (Houts.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|uz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?Ga 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|o:z?|uq 1 (cf. colloq. c?o:c?a 'camel')face="Times New Roman Star"sosxa 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"sosqa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?xa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?oc?qa 3, c?oc?uq jatag|y 'afterbirth'; (T) c?oc?xa 'young boy (not a Karaim)', (H) cocka 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, ЭСТЯ 4, 28, EDT 400. See Stachowski 1985 with an extensive list of material but with a strange conclusion that the word "onomatopoetischer Herkunft ist und somit durch Autogenese zustande kam".
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"steppe, desertface="Times New Roman Star"степь, пустыняface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l



face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'field, plaza'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'steppe, desert'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"su"l 'desert'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. c?o"l 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT c?o"lig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"meleface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"stack, haystackface="Times New Roman Star"стог, копна


face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"me|le|

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"la"






face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|mel



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mo"lo"face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"mele
face="Times New Roman Star"su"ma"la"

face="Times New Roman Star"? c?o"mel 'wie,zy'


face="Times New Roman Star"Егоров 210, Федотов 2, 108, Мудрак Дисс. 137.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dul/a-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to hobble 2 hobbleface="Times New Roman Star"1 стреножить 2 путы
face="Times New Roman Star"tus? 'a belt buckle' (MK, KB), tus?a- 1 (KB), tus?aq 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dus?a- (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"tys?aw 2face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) tus?a- 1, tus?aq 2 (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"tus?o|w 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?us?a"- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"dus?aq 2face="Times New Roman Star"tuza- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tuz?a- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tuz?a- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tъw|lъw| 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyhyta 'clothing buckle' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"du`z?a- 1face="Times New Roman Star"dus?a- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tus?a- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tusa- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tysaw 2face="Times New Roman Star"tys?a- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"tusa- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 3, 306, EDT 558 (OT tus? 'buckle'), 561, 562. Turk. > MMong. tus?ag|a, WMong. tus?a-, tusi- 'hobble', see Clark 1980, 42, Щербак 1997, 159, whence Evk. tusa: etc., see Doerfer MT 131, Аникин 190.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sybul/ganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"earth-wormface="Times New Roman Star"червь, дождевой червь
face="Times New Roman Star"sovus?g|an (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"soluz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"sualc?anface="Times New Roman Star"sog|ulz?|an (AH, Pav. C.), solunz?|an (AH)face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwalc?an|face="Times New Roman Star"c?uwalc?an|
face="Times New Roman Star"soxulz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"sog|ulz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"so:sxan (dial.), somysxan
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ojlos?qon
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ъw|vъw|rъw|lz?|an, s/o"lz/en, s/@w|v@w|lz/en

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yjlas?qyn
face="Times New Roman Star"so":lz?|an, so"ju"lz?|an
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ylaws?anface="Times New Roman Star"si>la"wsi>nface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?anface="Times New Roman Star"soluz?|anface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?an, swalcan
face="Times New Roman Star"sug|ulz?|unface="Times New Roman Star"suwalc?anface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 425, EDT 793-794. The PT form can be reconstructed despite numerous expressive irregularities.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ibface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nail, peg 2 corner 3 penis 4 firface="Times New Roman Star"1 гвоздь, колышек, чека 2 угол 3 penis 4 хвойное деревоface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iv 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"(c?iz?| 1 MK - a miswriting instead *c?iv?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"j 'wedge, cotter'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"a" 3 (R, by animals), c?iva" 'space between legs above the knees', c?ivila"n 'back saddlegirth' (fixed with a wooden peg)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iis? 'wedge'







face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j, c?u"w, (K) c?ivij 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, 121, EDT 393-394, 396, Лексика 125, 398. Because of well known semantic correlations of the type 'penis': 'thorn': 'fir (needle)' it is tempting to compare also the name of the fir-tree: Tat. dial. (КСТТ) c?ivi, cyvy, Khak. syby, Shor s?u"be, Oyr. c?ibi (Tuba c?yby), Tuva s?ivi, Tof. s?ibi. However, the intermediate form meaning 'thorn' is not attested, and the medial consonant here is rather *-p- (unless we suppose interdialectal loans), so it may be unrelated.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?u"meliface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"antface="Times New Roman Star"муравейface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"meli (MK - Chigil)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mo"ldu" (R - Bar.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"/umadu 'small ants' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?umo|liface="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ma"la" (R - Tar.)




face="Times New Roman Star"c?umaly, dial. c?ubaly



face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyl 'maggot'










face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 423, VEWT 121, Лексика 184.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,tur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