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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ymface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 meadow 3 various kinds of grass (with seeds)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 луг, лужайка 3 различные виды трав
face="Times New Roman Star"c?y/im 1, c?imgen 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imen 2, c?im 1; c?emen 'тмин; пажитник'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?aman 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?ima"n 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n 2, c?im 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?emen 2, 'bundle, bouquet'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym-c?olg|aj 'хлебенки (an edible bulbous plant')
face="Times New Roman Star"c?emene 'потничная трава'face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ma"n, c?ima"n 2 (< Pers.?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?em/n 'горец, птичья гречишка' (Дмитриева-Саллонтаи VII, 49)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ym 1; c?emirc?ek 'травянистое растение со съедобным корнем' (cf. also c?ymyldyq 'повилика', c?ymyldyryq, c?ymyndyq (dial.) 'чина')face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?im 1, c?imen 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"The primary root is *c?ym 'turf', whence *c?im-gen 'meadow', borrowed in Pers. c?aman (see EDT 423; not vice versa, despite TMN 2, 99-100); but many of the modern forms meaning 'meadow' or 'bouquet' are already backloans from Persian.
face="Times New Roman Star"*TAgnaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 turf 2 stem, stalk 3 a k. of plantface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерн 2 стебель, ствол 3 вид растения
face="Times New Roman Star"tag|na java 3 ('al-mahrut') (MK)









face="Times New Roman Star"dial. tuna: 1 (Верб.)
face="Times New Roman Star"tona 2













face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 471, Федотов 1, 247. The OT word is questionable: an OT Hapax, but the second part (java) is also a plant root. Tag|na java was added to sour milk in order to colour it. Cf. Sak. ttum.gara, Tokh. B tva:n.Ka:rai, Tib. (Khotan) don-gra 'ginger'. Bailey derives from Iran. *tuvam-kara, i.e. 'made thick', but a Turkic origin (with Sak. suffixation) is also possible. If the Oyr. and Chuv. forms belong here the approximate PT reconstruction could be *Tagna 'root, stalk'. Turk. > Mong.: Khalkha ta:na 'лук многокорешковый'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sia:l/-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wild 2 to be astonished 3 to slanderface="Times New Roman Star"1 дикий 2 быть изумленным 3 клеветать
face="Times New Roman Star"sas? 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"c?as?- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a:s?- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?as?qa- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?uldra 'pert'













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 405.
face="Times New Roman Star"*gejikface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wild animal 2 bird 3 roeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дикое животное 2 птица 3 ланьface="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1face="Times New Roman Star"gejik 3face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1 (Бор. Бад.), kijik (MA, Abush.)
face="Times New Roman Star"kijik 1

face="Times New Roman Star"kejik 1face="Times New Roman Star"ki:k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"kajъk 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"kijik 1

face="Times New Roman Star"qyjyq 1



face="Times New Roman Star"kijyx 'wild goat' (ССЯ)
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 247, EDT 755, ЭСТЯ 5, 21-23, Лексика 151-152.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ur/y-n, *ur/a-kface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 long 2 lie; grow 3 far 4 long (time), lateface="Times New Roman Star"1 длинный 2 лежать; расти 3 далекий 4 долгий, позднийface="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1 (MK, KB), uzaq (MK) 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzak 3face="Times New Roman Star"ozyn 1, ozaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzo|q 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, ozaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzan- 2, uzaG 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzy:n 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 4
face="Times New Roman Star"uza:n- 2, uza:q 3, uzu:.n 1face="Times New Roman Star"vъw|rъw|m 1, vъw|rax 3face="Times New Roman Star"uhun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uhun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1 uza- 'удлиняться'face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"u_zu_n 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"od|on 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzun 1face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1, uzaq 3face="Times New Roman Star"uzyn 1, uzyx| 3
face="Times New Roman Star"PT *ur/y-n 'long', *ur/a-k 'far, long' are derived from *ur/a- 'to be long, prolonged'. See VEWT 518, EDT 281, 283, 288-9, ЭСТЯ 1, 570-572, Stachowski 241.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ulface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 foundation 2 soleface="Times New Roman Star"1 дно, основание 2 подошва, подметкаface="Times New Roman Star"ultan| 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ul 1, uldan| 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"oltan, oltan| (dial.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"u>ltan 2face="Times New Roman Star"o"lten| 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"ulto|n 2face="Times New Roman Star"ultan| 2, (dial.) u:l, ul 1

face="Times New Roman Star"oltan| 2face="Times New Roman Star"ultun| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ultan|, ultan, yltam 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ullun| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"uldun| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ultan| 2face="Times New Roman Star"u>ltan 2face="Times New Roman Star"ultan 2face="Times New Roman Star"u>ltan 2face="Times New Roman Star"oltan|, oltan 2

face="Times New Roman Star"ultan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ultan 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 124, 131, ЭСТЯ 1, 449-451.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ge:c? (-e)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 long time 2 late 3 be late 4 night 5 evening 6 yesterdayface="Times New Roman Star"1 долго 2 поздний 3 опаздывать 4 ночь 5 вечер 6 вчераface="Times New Roman Star"kec? 1, 2, kec?- 3, kec?e 4, 5 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 1, 2 (KB, MK), kec?- 3 (MK), kec?a" 4, 5 (KB, MK)face="Times New Roman Star"gec? 2, gez?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kic? 5, kic?e| 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"gec?e 4 (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec?a 4, 6face="Times New Roman Star"ka"c?a" 5face="Times New Roman Star"kic?e 4 (Mal.)face="Times New Roman Star"gez?|a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"gi:c? 2, gi:z?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kiz?|e: 6face="Times New Roman Star"kec?ik 5 (Верб.)face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 2, 5, kec?e 6face="Times New Roman Star"ki:ec?a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"kas/ 5face="Times New Roman Star"kiehe 5face="Times New Roman Star"kiehe 5face="Times New Roman Star"kez?e: 5face="Times New Roman Star"kez?|e 5face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 2, kec?e: 4, 5face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5, kes?a" 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"kis 5, kisa" 5, 6face="Times New Roman Star"kec? 5, kec?eface="Times New Roman Star"gez?|a" 4face="Times New Roman Star"gez?|e 4face="Times New Roman Star"kes? 2, 5face="Times New Roman Star"ga"z?|i 4face="Times New Roman Star"gec?e 4face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 245, EDT 692-3, 694-5, ЭСТЯ 3, 40-41, 50-51, Лексика 82, Stachowski 147.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sygraface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 valley 2 interval between two fingersface="Times New Roman Star"1 долина 2 промежуток между пальцами
face="Times New Roman Star"syg|ra 1 (MK - Oghuz), syg|raq (AH) 2


























face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 415, EDT 815.
face="Times New Roman Star"*orukface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 road 2 pathface="Times New Roman Star"1 дорога 2 тропаface="Times New Roman Star"oruq 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"oruq 1 (MK, Tefs.)







face="Times New Roman Star"org|ax 2



face="Times New Roman Star"orox 2face="Times New Roman Star"orok 2face="Times New Roman Star"oruq 1face="Times New Roman Star"oruq 1









face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 215, Stachowski 196. Ra"sa"nen (VEWT 364; similarly in Лексика 531-532, ЭСТЯ 4, 218) derives this word from *or- 'to dig', which is rather dubious semantically.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Kyr/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 expensive, miserly 2 to wish, envy, be miserlyface="Times New Roman Star"1 дорогой, скупой 2 желать, завидовать, скупиться
face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Ettuhf., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"qizg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qizg|an- 2




face="Times New Roman Star"qysqan- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"x@rg|en- 2face="Times New Roman Star"kysan- 'нуждаться, иметь надобность'


face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"qyzg|an- 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, EDT 680, Лексика 339, ЭСТЯ 6, 248-249. The root is also attested as kyrs in Tur. dialects, and as qyrzan- in Tuva The verbal form *Kyr/-gan- is sometimes attested as qysg|an- due to a contamination with *Kys-ga- 'short, narrow' (v. sub *ki/so).
face="Times New Roman Star"*de:minface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 enough 2 immediatelyface="Times New Roman Star"1 достаточно 2 немедленно, только чтоface="Times New Roman Star"temin 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"temin (MK) 2face="Times New Roman Star"demin 2









face="Times New Roman Star"ti:emi 1face="Times New Roman Star"taman 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"dem 2, demin 2face="Times New Roman Star"de|:min 2




face="Times New Roman Star"demin 2face="Times New Roman Star"demin (K) 2


face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 507, ЭСТЯ 3, 187-188.
face="Times New Roman Star"*e:.r-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to reach 2 to passface="Times New Roman Star"1 достигать 2 проходить мимоface="Times New Roman Star"er- (OUygh.) 1, er-t- (OUygh.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"er-, dial. e:r-, ir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1face="Times New Roman Star"er- (Pav. C., AH) 1, ert- (CCum.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"eris?- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"dial. eris?- 1, ert- 2face="Times New Roman Star"e:^.r- 1face="Times New Roman Star"irt- 2face="Times New Roman Star"irde:- 2





face="Times New Roman Star"ires?- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"er- 1face="Times New Roman Star"eris- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 288-289, 303, Федотов 1,172-173. Ra"sa"nen (VEWT 46) connects also PT *eril/- 'to contest, challenge' (ЭСТЯ 1, 293-294) - which, together with Mong. *eri- 'to seek, search' (HY ere- `to hope'), should be rather kept apart (possibly a separate PA root *erV). Turk. > Hung. e/r- 'to reach', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ac?y-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 precious gift; wellbeing 2 to tend, make comfortable, be favourable 3 to pity, have compassionface="Times New Roman Star"1 драгоценный дар; благосостояние 2 быть благоприятным, благосклонным, ухаживать 3 жалеть, иметь состраданиеface="Times New Roman Star"ac?yg| 1, ac?yn- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"az?|y- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"ahyn- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"ac?y- 3




face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 22, 29, ЭСТЯ 1, 92 (together with *ia:c?y- 'bitter'), Stachowski 29. Turk. > WMong. ac?ug| 'wages, rent' (L 8). In modern languages the root tends to be confused with *ia:c?y- 'bitter, bitterness' (v. sub *p`i_a:/c?`o), thus the Oghuz voicing may be a result of secondary contamination and not due to original vowel length; but the two roots are rather well distinguished in Old Turkic, see EDT ibid.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sia:k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to think, contemplate, worry 2 to miss 3 intelligence 4 thought, worry 5 to read 6 to remember 7 mourning, sad remembranceface="Times New Roman Star"1 думать, размышлять, грустить 2 скучать 3 разум 4 мысль, волнение 5 читать 6 помнить 7 оплакивание, печальное воспоминаниеface="Times New Roman Star"saq- 1, saqys? 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"saq-, sag|yn- 1, saqys? 4 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"sag|y 7face="Times New Roman Star"sag|y 4, sag|yn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- (Буд.) 2, sag|y (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"so|g|in- 2face="Times New Roman Star"seg|in- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:Gyn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|ъs? 4face="Times New Roman Star"a:x- 5, ag|yn- 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"a:k- 5, agyn- 2, 6face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2, 6, sag|ys? 3
face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"hag|yn- 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sag|yn- 2face="Times New Roman Star"Мудрак 113-114, VEWT 395, EDT 813, Федотов 2, 464, Stachowski 28, 41 (confused with *sa.k-, from which it is often really hard to distinguish), ЭСТЯ 7. Voicing of medial -k- is regular after a long vowel (but it is somewhat strange in MK's text - note also its absence in saqys?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jutface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 bad weather, bad harvest 2 hunger, troubleface="Times New Roman Star"1 дурная погода, неурожай 2 голод, бедаface="Times New Roman Star"jut (Orkh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut (MK) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jut (Pav. C., AH, Бор. Бад.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ut, z?|u"t 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"t 'lean, meagre'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 1face="Times New Roman Star"jut, d/ut 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"sut 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ut 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ut 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ut 2face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"jot 2


face="Times New Roman Star"z?u>t 2
face="Times New Roman Star"jut 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 883, VEWT 211-212, ЭСТЯ 4, 256-257. Turk. > Mong. *z?|ud, *z?|uta- (KW 481, TMN 4, 210, Щербак 1997, 125).
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ep-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to blow 2 movement of air, breeze 3 energy, tempo 4 gusty (wind)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дуть, веять 2 движение воздуха, ветерок 3 порыв, темп, энергия 4 порывистый (о ветре)


face="Times New Roman Star"ip- 1 (Seb.)
face="Times New Roman Star"a"pkin (dial.) 2





face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 2





face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 3face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 2face="Times New Roman Star"epkinli 4



face="Times New Roman Star"epkin 3

face="Times New Roman Star"Лексика 42.
face="Times New Roman Star"*yjsface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 smoke 2 soot, dirty smoke 3 scent, odour 4 fumesface="Times New Roman Star"1 дым 2 копоть, сажа 3 запах, аромат 4 испарения

face="Times New Roman Star"is 2face="Times New Roman Star"is 3

face="Times New Roman Star"is 1
face="Times New Roman Star"his 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 3



face="Times New Roman Star"jъs 3face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"is 4
face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3



face="Times New Roman Star"ijis 3

face="Times New Roman Star"ЭСТЯ 1, 379, Егоров 76, Stachowski 263. The original meaning must have been 'smell, odour', see notes to *y:l/(c?) (cf. the opposition ys 'soot' - ijis 'smell' in Nogai etc.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*y:l/(c?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 smoke 2 soot, dirty smoke 3 scent, odour 4 fumesface="Times New Roman Star"1 дым 2 копоть, сажа 3 запах, аромат 4 испарения
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 2 (MK), 'mist' (KB)




face="Times New Roman Star"ys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"y:s 4
face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ys? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2



face="Times New Roman Star"ys 2

face="Times New Roman Star"The root originally meant 'soot, smoke' and should be strictly kept distinct from PT *jyd- 'smell' and *yjs 'smell, odour, fumes', although they have a natural tendency to merge. See VEWT 167, 170, EDT 254, 883, ЭСТЯ 1, 379-382, Лексика 370-371.
face="Times New Roman Star"*tu"t-u"n, *tu"t-su"gface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to smoke 2 smokeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дымить 2 дымface="Times New Roman Star"tu"t(e)-1, tu"tu"n, tu"tsu"g 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"t(e)- 1 (KB), tu"te-t- caus. (1), tu"tu"n, tu"tsu"g 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"t- 1, tu"tu"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"to"ta"- 1, to"ten 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"tsi 2 (Sangl.), tu"tu"n 2 (MKypch. - Houts.)face="Times New Roman Star"tutun 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"tu"n 'tobacco'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"t- 1, tutun 'tobacco'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"stu" 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"te- 1, tu"sse 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"de- 1, tu"du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"du"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"titi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"t@w|d@w|m 2

face="Times New Roman Star"du"du"skek 'haze'; du"du"- 'to rot, mould'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"tu"- (ФиЛ 177 du"du"-) 'to rot, mould'face="Times New Roman Star"tu"to"- 1, tu"tu"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"te- 1, tutin 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"te- 1, tu"tin 2face="Times New Roman Star"to"ta"- 1, to"to"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"tu"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"t- 1, tu"tu"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"te- 1, tutun 2face="Times New Roman Star"tu"te- 1, to"ten 2face="Times New Roman Star"cu"cyn, tyssy 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"tu"tu"n 2face="Times New Roman Star"PT *tu"t-u"n, *tu"t-su"g - derivations from *tu"t(e)- 'to smoke'. See VEWT 507, EDT 452, 457-8, 461, TMN 2, 605, Лексика 364-365. The Tuva-Tof. verb meaning 'to rot' may belong here as well, though the absence of pharyngealization in Tof. is strange.
face="Times New Roman Star"*dy:nface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 spirit, breath 2 rest 3 to rest 4 to pant 5 to breathe 6 quiet 7 sultrinessface="Times New Roman Star"1 дыхание, дух 2 отдых 3 отдыхать 4 задыхаться 5 дышать 6 спокойный 7 духотаface="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1 (MK, KB), tyn 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, din-le- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 3 (Pav. C., Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tin- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tync?-yx- 4, dinc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"dy:nc? 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5, tyn-a-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, 2, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tinc? 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?@m 1face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"ty:n 1, ty:n- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3, 5face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys 1, tyn-s?-yq- 4, tyn-s?-a-j- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn-s-yw 7face="Times New Roman Star"tin 1, tyn-c?-y- 'to rot, addle', tyn-c?-aj- 3, tyn-ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"din-ne-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"tyn- 5, tync 2face="Times New Roman Star"tyn 1, tyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"tyn-ys? 1, tyn-c?-aj- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 478, EDT 512, ЭСТЯ 3, 341-345, Мудрак Дисс. 38-39, Stachowski 238, 239. Some Oghuz reflexes have voiceless t-, probably because of Kypchak influence; still the reconstruction of *d- seems preferable.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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