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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*syc?-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to defecateface="Times New Roman Star"испражняться
face="Times New Roman Star"syc?- (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"syc?-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?-, tyc?-face="Times New Roman Star"syc?- (AH, IM)


face="Times New Roman Star"syc?- (dial.)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ys?-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?-face="Times New Roman Star"syc?-face="Times New Roman Star"sys-



face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?-face="Times New Roman Star"tys?-


face="Times New Roman Star"syc?-
face="Times New Roman Star"tys?-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 795, VEWT 414, ЭСТЯ 7.
face="Times New Roman Star"*syc?ganface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"rat, mouseface="Times New Roman Star"крыса, мышьface="Times New Roman Star"syc?g|an (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"syc?g|an (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"syc?anface="Times New Roman Star"syc?qan, tyc?qanface="Times New Roman Star"syc?an (Pav. C.), syc?g|an (AH, IM)face="Times New Roman Star"si>c?qo|nface="Times New Roman Star"sac?qan, c?ac?qanface="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|anface="Times New Roman Star"syc?anface="Times New Roman Star"syc?anface="Times New Roman Star"sysxanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ys?qanface="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?qanface="Times New Roman Star"syc?g|a:nface="Times New Roman Star"s?ъz?i, s?ъ(r)z?iface="Times New Roman Star"c?ys


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?qanface="Times New Roman Star"tys?qanface="Times New Roman Star"s?ys?qanface="Times New Roman Star"sysqanface="Times New Roman Star"cycxanface="Times New Roman Star"syc?anface="Times New Roman Star"syc?anface="Times New Roman Star"tys?qan
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yc?qanface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 796, VEWT 414, Лексика 167, ЭСТЯ 7. Turk. > Hung. cicka/ny 'field mouse', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:gan/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 poor 2 mischief 3 impolite, roughface="Times New Roman Star"1 бедный 2 беда, несчастье 3 грубый, неучтивыйface="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|an/ (Orkh.), c?yg|aj (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (MK), c?yg|an (MK - Argu) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj, c?yg|an (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (R), c?yg|an (R, Pav. C.) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"sa:j 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?a:j 2












face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr 2 (with an unexplained -r)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yn 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107, EDT 408-409, Лексика 334. Chuv. c?uxan 'poor' may be of different origin (cf. an aberrant reflex of *g), cf. c?ux 'mediocre', c?uxъ 'poor' ( < *jok?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go out, come outface="Times New Roman Star"выходить
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"syx-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|aryj- 'to move, be displaced' (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"syq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 405-406, VEWT 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o:c?kaface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 young pig 2 child, boy 3 pigface="Times New Roman Star"1 поросенок 2 ребенок, мальчик 3 свинья
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?uq (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uk 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?uc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?g|a 1 (Sangl.), (OKypch.) c?oc?qa (Houts.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|uz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?os?Ga 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"z?|o:z?|uq 1 (cf. colloq. c?o:c?a 'camel')face="Times New Roman Star"sosxa 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qo 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"sosqa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?xa 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oz?|uq 2face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?oc?qa 3, c?oc?uq jatag|y 'afterbirth'; (T) c?oc?xa 'young boy (not a Karaim)', (H) cocka 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?os?qa 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oc?qa 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, ЭСТЯ 4, 28, EDT 400. See Stachowski 1985 with an extensive list of material but with a strange conclusion that the word "onomatopoetischer Herkunft ist und somit durch Autogenese zustande kam".
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?om- / *c?o"m-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to dive 2 to swim 3 to scoop 4 to immerse, dip 5 scoopface="Times New Roman Star"1 погружаться, нырять 2 плавать, купаться 3 черпать 4 окунать 5 черпак, ковшface="Times New Roman Star"c?om- = c?o"m- 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?o"m- 1 (MK), c?o"mc?e 5 (MK Oghuz)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?e 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- 1, c?u"mec? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.m-(mo|q) 1, c?u.mic? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?om-, c?om-ul- (pass.) 1, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?omys? 5 (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mc?a" 5
face="Times New Roman Star"som- 1,2, somnax 'spoon'face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"m- 1, 4, c?omyjaq 'pannier made of birch bark'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъw|m- 1 ( < Tat.?; c?ъm 'jar' may be < Pers., see Федотов 2, 401)face="Times New Roman Star"som-us- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ym-yn- (refl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?om- 1, s?omuq 'a small trough made of birch bark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?omul-/c?o"mu"l- 1, 2, c?o"mu"- 1, c?o"mo"- 4, c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?omaqa , s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"sumy- 1, su"mes 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"mu"c? 5
face="Times New Roman Star"(K) c?o"m- 1, (T) c?om- 1, 2, (H) com- 1, 'to flow'; (K) c?omyc?, (T) c?o"mu"c? 5face="Times New Roman Star"s?om-yl- (pass.) 1, 2, s?o"mis? 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?um- (c?o"m-) 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?om- 4, c?omuc? 5face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 115, TMN 3, 95-99, EDT 422, Егоров 319. Cf. also *c?amc?ak / -y- 'big spoon' (VEWT 98; < *c?om-c?ak?). Various forms meaning 'to squat' may belong here as well (cf.: Tur. c?o"mel-, Az. c?o"ma"l-, Gag. c?o"mel-, Turkm. c?ommal-, Tat. c?u"ma"s?-, Kaz. s?o"mej-, KBalk. c?o"mel- ('trip over'; cf. also c?o"mel-t- 'to turn over; dip someone into water'), with a secondary semantic development ('dip, dive' > 'fall or sit down, squat'); cf. similar semantic shifts in PT *c?o"k-.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pray 2 to sacrifice 3 to baptize 4 to worship 5 bailment, pledgeface="Times New Roman Star"1 молиться 2 приносить жертву 3 креститься 4 поклоняться 5 порука, поручительство


face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.qin- 3, 1 (disapprovingly), 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq et- 1 (ЯЖУ)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yn- 1 (Sag.- R 2, 2014)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqta- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclmation s?oq!' R 4, 1024)face="Times New Roman Star"c?og|yr- 2 (Lebed. R 3, 2014), c?oqto- 'to besprinkle idols with an exclamation c?oq!' (R 3, 2009)
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk 5



face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqyn- 3


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqyn- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqun- 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113-114, Егоров 328, Федотов 2, 426-427. Ra"sa"nen's attempt to explain the verb as "baptism through immersion" (linking Kypch. c?oqur 'pit' and Taranchi c?oqur- 'to sink' (R 3, 2007) appears unconvincing. The former word is derived from c?ok- 'to delve', and the latter should be corrected to c?o"ku"r- according to more modern sources. The semantic transfer of a pagan ceremony to the Christian one seems quite natural in an islamicized society. The same root may be represented by the exclamation (made during a libation), Oyr. c?oq!, Shor s?oq!, and further - the approbatory exclamation Kirgh. c?ok!, Kaz. s?oq! etc. Quite unlikely is the hypothesis of a loan from Hebrew (Y. Malov, quoted in Федотов). In fact, the meaning in Chuv. ('pledge') and the external parallels suggest that the religious component in the meaning of *c?ok- is relatively late (having evolved after the separation of Bulgars): 'pledge' > 'sacrifice' > 'praying' > 'baptizing'. Turk. > Hung. cso"k 'sacrifice', see Gombocz 1912.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ortanface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 eel 2 pikeface="Times New Roman Star"1 угорь 2 щука

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?urtan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.rtan 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъw|rdan, s/ъw|rtan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"hordon| 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?orton 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"sortan 2


face="Times New Roman Star"s?ortan 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ortan 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, Лексика 178, Stachowski 108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eku"k / *c?Eku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"hammerface="Times New Roman Star"молот
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"k (MK: Oghuz), c?eku"c? (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"kec?face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"c?, c?o"ku"c? (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.kic? 'hack'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?










face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"kis?face="Times New Roman Star"su"kes?face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"gu"c?face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekic?face="Times New Roman Star"cokuc, cekic, c?o"ku"c?

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"ku"c?face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 415. (< Iran., see TMN 3, 85-86?). Despite EDT, hardly derived from c?ek- 'to pull'. The controversy concerning the Iranian origin of the Turkic word vs. the Turkic origin of the Modern Persian one (see Doerfer, Clauson), should be probably resolved as follows: Old Persian ( = Av. cakus?- 'axe / hammer for throwing') > Pers. c?akus? 'hammer'; but Pers. c?ekoc?, c?ekoz?| are phonetically aberrant (see Horn 99) and should be regarded as Turkisms; Pers. c?ekus? is a mixed form. The source of Pers. c?ekoc? is Turk. c?eku"c? - a diminutive in -c? for the form c?eku"k. Turkic forms in -s? (Khal. c?a"kkus?, Kirgh. c?o"ku"s?, KKalp. s?o"kkis?, possibly also Nogh. s?o"kis?, Bashk. su"kes?) may be iranisms. Turk. > Mong. c?eku"c? (see Щербак 1997, 112).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"steppe, desertface="Times New Roman Star"степь, пустыняface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l



face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'field, plaza'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'steppe, desert'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"su"l 'desert'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. c?o"l 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT c?o"lig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"branchface="Times New Roman Star"ветка
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yp, c?ybyq (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyk, c?ubukface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq [c?ybyrqy 'lash']face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iviqface="Times New Roman Star"c?iviq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuGface="Times New Roman Star"c?y:byqface="Times New Roman Star"symyxface="Times New Roman Star"s?ymyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ъbъk 'lash'

face="Times New Roman Star"s?yvyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"sybyqface="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybyqface="Times New Roman Star"cybuq, cubuq, c?ubuq 'lash'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ybyq
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubuqface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 395, VEWT 106, TMN 3, 1059, Лексика 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403-404. Forms meaning 'lash' reflect a contamination with PT *c?Abyk 'lash' (v. sub *c?`e:/bV).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ibface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 nail, peg 2 corner 3 penis 4 firface="Times New Roman Star"1 гвоздь, колышек, чека 2 угол 3 penis 4 хвойное деревоface="Times New Roman Star"c?y/iv 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"(c?iz?| 1 MK - a miswriting instead *c?iv?)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"j 'wedge, cotter'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"a" 3 (R, by animals), c?iva" 'space between legs above the knees', c?ivila"n 'back saddlegirth' (fixed with a wooden peg)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iv 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iis? 'wedge'







face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"so"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ivi 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j, c?u"w, (K) c?ivij 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110, 121, EDT 393-394, 396, Лексика 125, 398. Because of well known semantic correlations of the type 'penis': 'thorn': 'fir (needle)' it is tempting to compare also the name of the fir-tree: Tat. dial. (КСТТ) c?ivi, cyvy, Khak. syby, Shor s?u"be, Oyr. c?ibi (Tuba c?yby), Tuva s?ivi, Tof. s?ibi. However, the intermediate form meaning 'thorn' is not attested, and the medial consonant here is rather *-p- (unless we suppose interdialectal loans), so it may be unrelated.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ebir-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to twist, turn 2 roundface="Times New Roman Star"1 крутить, поворачивать 2 круглый
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evu"r- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ewu"r- 1 (Sangl.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?a"bir- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"vu"r- 1



face="Times New Roman Star"s/avar-/s/ar- 1, s/avra 2face="Times New Roman Star"sebirij- 'to uncoil (of a twisted rope)'




face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"jir- 'to twiddle a whirligig'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to tuck', c?u"jre 'contrariwise'face="Times New Roman Star"c?evir- 1, c?evra" 2face="Times New Roman Star"сivir-, c?evir- 1, civre 2

face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"ju"r- 'to wrap'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 398, Егоров 201-201, Федотов 2, 80. Despite VEWT, there are no reasons to regard the Chuv. word as a borrowing.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epu"rekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rag, patch 2 worn, used clothingface="Times New Roman Star"1 тряпка, лохмотья 2 изношенная одеждаface="Times New Roman Star"c?opra (perhaps = c?o"pre) 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"pu"r-c?epu"r ; c?opra ( ? c?u"bra") 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star" (OKypch.) c?u"prek 1 (Houts.)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"prek 'oakum'face="Times New Roman Star"su"brek 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"bu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eberek, c?ibirek 1





face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek, c?u"pu"rek-c?apyraq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?iberek, s?u"berek 1face="Times New Roman Star"sepra"k 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iprek, ciprek, c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"berek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 398, VEWT 118 (confused with *c?o"p 'dirt'), Аникин 677. Perhaps (as suggested in EDT 398) connected with Karakh. (MK) c?o"pu"r 'goat's hair', Chag., Turkm. c?o"pu"r id.
face="Times New Roman Star"*d(i)akyface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 additionally, and others, plus 2 again, once moreface="Times New Roman Star"1 кроме того, к тому же, и другие, больше, вдобавок 2 опять, еще разface="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1, 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"daha 1, bir daha 2 (taky as a clitic)face="Times New Roman Star"tag|yn 2, 'in order to'face="Times New Roman Star"daxy, taqy 1 (Abush., Sangl.), dag|y (MA) 1face="Times New Roman Star"tag|in 2face="Times New Roman Star"texi 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta'qi, dag|i 2face="Times New Roman Star"da"xi 'too'face="Times New Roman Star"daGy 1face="Times New Roman Star"ta:, da: 1
face="Times New Roman Star"daa 'although' (ГАЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"taqy 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"dag|any 1
face="Times New Roman Star"da: 1, da:n 'wholly, always', ta:n 'very, excessively'
face="Times New Roman Star"daa, dag|y, tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"tag|y 2face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y-da 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta: 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"daa (K) 1, 2, dag|y (H, T) 1, 2, dag|yn (H,K) 2, daxy (K) 1, daxa (K) 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y 'although', tag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ta:g|y, taxi 1, 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"dag|y 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 457, EDT 466, ЭСТЯ 3, 122-123. Phonology is somewhat uncertain because the stem is functioning as a clitic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*da:j-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"uncleface="Times New Roman Star"дядяface="Times New Roman Star"tag|aj 'maternal uncle' (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tag|aj 'maternal uncle' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"dajy
face="Times New Roman Star"tag|aji 'maternal uncle' (Sangl., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"to|g|aface="Times New Roman Star"tag|aface="Times New Roman Star"tag|yjface="Times New Roman Star"dajyface="Times New Roman Star"da:jyface="Times New Roman Star"taj, tajy, ta:jface="Times New Roman Star"tajyface="Times New Roman Star"ta:j, taj

face="Times New Roman Star"ta:j
face="Times New Roman Star"da:j
face="Times New Roman Star"taj, tag|aface="Times New Roman Star"tag|a (dial.)




face="Times New Roman Star"dajy
face="Times New Roman Star"dajyface="Times New Roman Star" VEWT 455-456, TMN 3, 196, EDT 474, ЭСТЯ 3, 127-129, Лексика 296. Some forms go back to a suffixed *da:ja-kaj.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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