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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?A:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"grey, grey-headedface="Times New Roman Star"серый, седой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'grey hair'face="Times New Roman Star"c?al 'having grey hair amid black hair' (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o|l 'old man'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"c?a:lface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?al

face="Times New Roman Star"sa:lyr 'light-bay (horse); pepper-and-salt (hair)'


face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al 'old man'face="Times New Roman Star"s?alface="Times New Roman Star"salface="Times New Roman Star"c?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"s?al
face="Times New Roman Star"c?alface="Times New Roman Star"EDT 417, VEWT 96, TMN 2, 31, Аникин 640. Turk. > WMong. c?al, Kalm. cal, Khalkha cal bu:ral 'grey-haired, roan'; Russ. чалый.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Amface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pine tree 2 fir-needleface="Times New Roman Star"1 сосна 2 хвоя

face="Times New Roman Star"c?am 1, c?am japrag|y 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?am ag|ac? 1 (Pav. C.)


face="Times New Roman Star"s?am 1
face="Times New Roman Star"sabal 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?abal 2











face="Times New Roman Star"c?am 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?am, cam 1


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 97. Dmitrieva (Дмитриева 1979, 205) derives the Oghuz word for 'fir-tree' from Arab. s?am 'candle', which is dubious phonetically and unlikely because of the Khak. and Shor forms (pointing to *c?amal); more probably an original Turkic root, although localized.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?(i)ak-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to strike fire 2 flint, fire steelface="Times New Roman Star"1 высекать огонь 2 кремень, огнивоface="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ak- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq-tas? 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ag|yn 'spark'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aqmaq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"sax- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?a'q- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?aqpa 2face="Times New Roman Star"sag|-/saq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ag|-/c?aq- 'to produce sparks, shoot from a flint gun'face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?aq- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?aq- 'to pull the trigger', c?aqma 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 95, TMN 3, 80-81, Лексика 373. Kypch. > Chuv. c?akma 'fire steel', whence > Mari, Udm. (Федотов 2, 387). The verb is usually regarded as one of the meanings of *c?ak- 'hit, strike', but the semantics 'strike fire' is attested quite early and allows to use the Turkic material in the Altaic comparison.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Abul/(c?)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"military commanderface="Times New Roman Star"военный командирface="Times New Roman Star"c?abus? (Orkh., Yen.), c?avus? (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus?
face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? (Sangl.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ovus? 'leader of a pilgrimage'















face="Times New Roman Star"c?avus? (K) 'senior worker'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?awus? 'herald'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 101, EDT 399, TMN 3, 35-38. Criticism of the hypothesis of the word's Iranian origin see in TMN.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?e.keface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 temple 2 cheekboneface="Times New Roman Star"1 висок 2 скула
face="Times New Roman Star"(MKypch.) c?eke 1 (At-Tuhf.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ige| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 'back of head' (Vam.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?akka 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?eka" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekge 1, 2



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig@ 1



face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"sika" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?eke 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, TMN 3, 87f, Егоров 326, Лексика 203. Despite the lack of ancient attestation, the root is evidently archaic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?Eke-tface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 coniferous forest 2 pistacio nut 3 (fruit) stone, seed 4 hazel-nut 5 wild jujube 6 young coniferous growth 7 bush, shrub 8 fir branchface="Times New Roman Star"1 лес (хвойный) 2 фисташковый орех 3 косточка, семечко 4 лесной орех 5 дикая ююба 6 молодые хвойные поросли 7 кустарник 8 ветка ели
face="Times New Roman Star"s?eki-r-tu"k 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eki-r-dek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?iki 4 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?eke-r-dek, c?ekide| 5 (Pav. C., R - Babur)





face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 7 (R)face="Times New Roman Star"c?et ag|as? 6



face="Times New Roman Star"s?et 6
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ege-dek, c?ege-l-dek 8
face="Times New Roman Star"s?ege-r 7
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eget 'forest, wood' (Karach.), 'North' (Balk.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekerdek 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirdek, c?ekirdek 3, c?eger 'blackthorn'


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 867-868. Morphologically -t - is a collective suffix, -dak/-dyk - a denominative suffix. The word is attested in MK, but in an aberrant (dialectal) shape with s?-, and the meaning 'nut' is probably secondary, the original meaning of the root being 'coniferous tree, branch'. Several other plant names may be related, cf.: Chag. c?eke| 'berries found in the Fergana mountains'; Uzb. c?akanda 'облепиха крушиновидная', Uygh. c?a"ka"nda" 'a bush with red fruits' (R 3, 1947 Taranchi, mod. c?akanda 'a k. of thorny bush'), Az. c?a"kil 'mulberry'; Kirgh. South. c?ekende 'хвойник; кузьмичева трава; эфедра двуколосковая' (its pseudoberries are edible; despite Yudakhin, not < Iranian - the word is not attested in Persian). Turk. > Pers. c?a"ka"lda"k 'blackberry' (Гаффаров).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?eku"-rtkeface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"locust, grasshopperface="Times New Roman Star"саранча, кузнечик
face="Times New Roman Star"c?eku"rge (MK Oghuz; Tefs.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ikertke|face="Times New Roman Star"c?egu"rtke, c?ewu"rtke (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?igirtkaface="Times New Roman Star"c?eka"tka"
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"c?ekirtgeface="Times New Roman Star"sag|yrtxy



face="Times New Roman Star"saxsyrg|a 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"haksyrga 'fly'face="Times New Roman Star"s?ergi
face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egertkiface="Times New Roman Star"sin|ertka"

face="Times New Roman Star"c?egirtkeface="Times New Roman Star"s?egirtke

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 103, EDT 416-417, Лексика 187, Stachowski 94. Forms like Tat. dial. sikertke are a result of contamination with *se:k- 'jump' (v. sub *sa:/ki).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ec?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 flower 2 chicken-poxface="Times New Roman Star"1 цветок 2 оспаface="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (KB) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?e|c?e|k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek (Sangl.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ak 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?/`uz?|/ugface="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?a"k 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/es/ke 'цветок, листок'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2; aq c?ec?ek 'a k. of tree', c?ec?ekej 'crystalline lens'face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 1, s?es?ekej 2face="Times New Roman Star"sa"sa"k 2, sa"ska" 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ek, c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?es?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ex (ССЯ) 1, 'bud'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ec?ek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 102, EDT 400-401, Лексика 120. Turk. > Mong. c?ec?eg, see TMN 3, 57, Щербак 1997, 112. Kypch. > Chuv. c?ec?c?e, c?ec?ek (see Егоров 322, Федотов 2, 408-409); some Turkic forms (Tuva c?ec?ek, perhaps also Oyr. c?ec?ek and some of the Kypchak forms) may be borrowed back < Mong.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ym-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pinch 2 a pinch, thimblefulface="Times New Roman Star"1 щипать, брать щипком 2 щипок, щепотка

face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik, c?imz?|ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?emc?e-t-, c?emc?e-n- 1, c?emc?ek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1, c?imdik 2 (Pav. C.), (CCum.) c?ymdy- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?im-, c?imc?i-, c?imc?i-la-, c?imdi-, c?imi-t- 1, c?imdi-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi-, c?imqi- 1, c?ymdim 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?|/ume- 'to pick out, pull out'face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik-le- 1, c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"mmu"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymz?|y-la- 1, c?ymc?yx 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?imc?i- 1, s?imc?ik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y- 1, c?ymc?y-m 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?@b@t- 1, c?@pt@m, c?@pk@m 2 (?)

face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymc?y- 1, s?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymz?|y- 1, s?ymz?|ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ymc?y-, c?ymc?y-la- 1, c?ymc?ym 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ymty- 1, s?ymqym 2face="Times New Roman Star"semte- 1, semte-m 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdi- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?imdik 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?imde- 1, c?imdik 2, cymda-, c?ymda- 'to bite'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yms?y-, s?yms?y-la- 1, s?ym, s?yms?ym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 108, TMN 3, 99, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 413. Chuv. c?@b@t- is phonetically strange; it may reflect a secondary denasalization (Мудрак Дисс. 50), but may actually be a trace of a different root, cf. PA *c?`i/p`u/ or *c?`abo.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?epu"rekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 rag, patch 2 worn, used clothingface="Times New Roman Star"1 тряпка, лохмотья 2 изношенная одеждаface="Times New Roman Star"c?opra (perhaps = c?o"pre) 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"pu"r-c?epu"r ; c?opra ( ? c?u"bra") 2 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star" (OKypch.) c?u"prek 1 (Houts.)



face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"prek 'oakum'face="Times New Roman Star"su"brek 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"bu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?eberek, c?ibirek 1





face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek, c?u"pu"rek-c?apyraq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s?iberek, s?u"berek 1face="Times New Roman Star"sepra"k 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?iprek, ciprek, c?u"pra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?u"berek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"pu"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 398, VEWT 118 (confused with *c?o"p 'dirt'), Аникин 677. Perhaps (as suggested in EDT 398) connected with Karakh. (MK) c?o"pu"r 'goat's hair', Chag., Turkm. c?o"pu"r id.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ap-, *c?opurface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 pock-marked, variegated 2 badly bred, sloppy 3 to appear (of rash, furuncles)face="Times New Roman Star"1 пестрый, рябой 2 непородистый, неряшливый 3 высыпать (о сыпи, чирьях)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ubar 'cheval gris de fer', c?ibar 'grey, mottled (horse)' (Pav. C.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipo|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ipa(r) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?opur 1







face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?obur 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"sa"ba"rt- 'to appear (of rash on lips)', sybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?ubar 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ybar, cybar 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?ubar 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?apyr- 3, c?opur 1, c?ubar 'variegated'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 116, 118-119, Егоров 320, Федотов 2, 403. An expressive and late attested root; appears, however, to be reconstructable for PT. The original shape is probably *c?ap- (preserved in c?ap-yr- 'to appear (of rash)', with further labial assimilation into *c?opur. The frequently attested variant c?upar > c?ubar is most probably a result of contamination *c?opur and *c?ubar (reflected in Tat. c?uwar, Kirgh. c?a:r that can only reflect *-b-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?y:gan/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 poor 2 mischief 3 impolite, roughface="Times New Roman Star"1 бедный 2 беда, несчастье 3 грубый, неучтивыйface="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|an/ (Orkh.), c?yg|aj (OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (MK), c?yg|an (MK - Argu) 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj, c?yg|an (dial.) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|aj (R), c?yg|an (R, Pav. C.) 1




face="Times New Roman Star"sa:j 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?a:j 2












face="Times New Roman Star"c?yjyr 2 (with an unexplained -r)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|yn 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 107, EDT 408-409, Лексика 334. Chuv. c?uxan 'poor' may be of different origin (cf. an aberrant reflex of *g), cf. c?ux 'mediocre', c?uxъ 'poor' ( < *jok?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yj, *c?yj-ykface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wet, soaking, moist 2 dew 3 moisture 4 rawface="Times New Roman Star"1 мокрый 2 роса 3 влага, влажный 4 сырой
face="Times New Roman Star"c?i/c?y 3 (MK), c?y-la- 'to moisten' (MK), c?yq- 'to absorb moisture' (MK), c?yg|-la-n- 'to be half-cooked' (MK), c?ig 4 (IM)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ig|, c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq 2 (dial.), c?y:g| 1 (Xo|razm)

face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 'raw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?i:g 1, c?y:G 2face="Times New Roman Star"syx 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 3

face="Times New Roman Star"si:k 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"hi:k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 3, 'meadow', s?yqtyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij-ki 4, c?yq 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?ij 4, s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"sej 4, ysyq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yj, cij 4, c?yx 2, 'hoar-frost'face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-c?u 2 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?ij 4, c?yq 2face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 393, 406,408, 413, 418, VEWT 107, Лексика 39, Stachowski 106. The actual reflexes are best explained if we postulate an opposition *c?yj 'wet, raw' - *c?yj-yk 'dew, moisture' (with further contractions). Some forms, however, could be secondarily borrowed from Mong. (see Kal/. MEJ 34).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"to go out, come outface="Times New Roman Star"выходить
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"c?yk-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq- (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?iq-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yx-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"syx-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-

face="Times New Roman Star"syg|aryj- 'to move, be displaced' (?)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"syq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"c?yq-face="Times New Roman Star"s?yg|-/q-
face="Times New Roman Star"c?yg|-/q-face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 405-406, VEWT 107-108.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ol-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 crippled 2 to deteriorate, dwindle 3 defect 4 short-staturedface="Times New Roman Star"1 калека (с дефектной рукой) 2 убывать, иссякать 3 порок, изъян 4 куцый, короткийface="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (OUygh.) 1, c?ol- 2, c?olmaq 3 (OUygh. late - Suv.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oluq (MK) 1; c?olquj 'worn (of a sole), crippled (of an arm, hand)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?olak; c?olpa 'unskilful, awkward'face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulaqface="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o.lo|q 'handless, lame', c?o.lto|q 4; 'bungler, unskilled person'face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaG 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oltuq 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 'handless, lame'


face="Times New Roman Star"s?oluq 'sensitive, huffish'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olu- 'to pull out, pick out', c?olz?|uj- 'become curved, warp', c?oloj- 'become short, limbless', c?oloq 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 4, s?oltyj- 'to shorten'face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1; s?oltan|-la- 'to move aside angrily'face="Times New Roman Star"sulaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq (K) 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?olaq 1, 4
face="Times New Roman Star"c?olaq 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 419-420, VEWT 115, TMN 3, 89, Дыбо 152. Turk. > Mong. c?olaq (Щербак 1997, 113). The existing forms are derived from a verb *c?ol- 'become defective' (cf. the attested OUygh. c?ol- and forms like Kirgh. c?olu-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?okface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 many, very 2 vile, hooligan 3 to gather, multiply 4 group, crowdface="Times New Roman Star"1 много, очень 2 дурной, хулиган, баловник 3 собирать(ся), размножать(ся) 4 толпа, множество
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (ДТС - KB), c?o:q 2 (MK - Oghuz), c?og|-al- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?ok (-g|u) 1, c?og|al- 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1 (Sangl., Oghuz-nama, AH), c?oq- 3 (Abush.)


face="Times New Roman Star"c?ox 1, c?oxal- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq (-qu) 4face="Times New Roman Star"sox 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 3



face="Times New Roman Star"s?og| 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?og|yr 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 'дружно'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?oju 4, c?oq-la-n- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq 1, c?og|y 4 (K)face="Times New Roman Star"s?oq 2, 4

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 113, EDT 405, 406. The Oghuz adverb 'much', in the 12th c. (KB) 'very, extremely', is probably the same word as c?oq 'bad, vile'(Ogh. 11) (cf. also the Tuva parallel). Turk. > Mong. (Khalkha) cox in cox xara 'very black'. The identification of c?oq-(la-) 'gather, collect' with c?og|-la- 'to bind, pack' (ДТС) or c?oq- 'to bend' (EDT) is rather dubious. Vocalic length is unclear (cf. the voicing of -k- in Western Oghuz).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ok-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to peck 2 to delve, dig 3 to pick at 4 to stab 5 to pick (eyes) 6 pitfall, delveface="Times New Roman Star"1 клевать 2 долбить, копать 3 ковырять 4 закалывать 5 выкалывать (глаза) 6 рытвина, углублениеface="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 4 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to rush at the prey (of a bird)' (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?oku- 1, c?ukur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqy- 1, c?oqy- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o/uqu- (Sangl., Pav. C. (5)); c?uqur 6 (Sangl.; starting with Old Kypch.); c?ux-la- 3 (MA 137)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.qi- 1, c?uqu-la- 2, 3, c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 1, c?uqanaq, c?uxur 6face="Times New Roman Star"sox-la- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, 3





face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1, c?uqu- 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 1, 3face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"suqy- 1, soqo- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?uqur 6face="Times New Roman Star"c?oq- 'to sting', c?og|y- 1 (K), c?/сuqu/yr 6face="Times New Roman Star"s?oqy- 1, s?uqy- 2, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"c?oqu- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 114, 119, EDT 406. Kypchak languages suggest a distinction between *c?oky- 'to peck' and *c?uky- 'to dig, delve', absent elsewhere, and possibly a result of interdialectal loans.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"k-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sitface="Times New Roman Star"1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточкиface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k- 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?oGe- 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k- 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"go"-do"- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/ъk- 'to fall', s/ъw|g-ъw|n- 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"gu"ru"j- 1


face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, cok- 1face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"k/g- 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k-, c?o"x- 1 (ССЯ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"k/g- 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. c?o"ku"(le)-, Kalm. c?o"kl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"steppe, desertface="Times New Roman Star"степь, пустыняface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lig 'name of a country' (Orkh.)
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l (ЯЖУ)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"so"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"l



face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'field, plaza'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l 'steppe, desert'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"su"l 'desert'

face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"s?o"l
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"lface="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 117, TMN 3, 122-123, EDT 420. Turk. > WMong. c?o"l 'desert' (because of uncertainty of OT c?o"lig doubted by Clark 1977, 135).
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?o"pface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 dregs, impurity, rubbish 2 stick, small branch, straw 3 penis 4 grass, hayface="Times New Roman Star"1 мусор 2 палочка, веточка, соломинка 3 penis 4 трава, сеноface="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b, c?o"bik 1 (OUygh. Budd.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 'dregs of wine; any piece of noodles'; c?u"bek 3 (MK; with Kypch. phonology s?o"bik 'огрызок от фрукта')face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 2, 3face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"p 1, c?u"bek 'oakum, combings'face="Times New Roman Star"c?u/u"b 2 (Pav. C.), 1 (Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"c?u.p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'grass; noodles'
face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 2
face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, s?o"bek 'hemp straw'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1; 4; afterbirth'
face="Times New Roman Star"s/u"p@ 1; 'newborn child'



face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 4; 'afterbirth'; c?o"bo"go" 'dregs after boiling butter'face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"su"p 1, 'weed'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"b 2, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p, c?ep 'gag in a barrel', c?epka" 'grapevine, wine dregs', c?epel 'dirty'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"s?o"p 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 'weed, grass'face="Times New Roman Star"c?o"p 1, 'weed; lot'face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 118, EDT 394, 396, Егоров 323, Федотов 2, 148. Turk. > Russ. Siber. c?up 'dregs', see Аникин 677.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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