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 Proto-Turkic Altaic etymology Meaning Russian meaning Old Turkic Karakhanid Turkish Tatar Middle Turkic Uzbek Uighur Sary-Yughur Azerbaidzhan Turkmen Khakassian Shor Oyrat Halaj Chuvash Yakut Dolgan Tuva Tofalar Kirghiz Kazakh Noghai Bashkir Balkar Gagauz Karaim Karakalpak Salar Kumyk Comments
face="Times New Roman Star"*jyl/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mountain forest, thicket 2 spineface="Times New Roman Star"1 горный лес, чаща 2 хребетface="Times New Roman Star"jys? 1 (Orkh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jys? 'high ground' (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"jys? 1





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"d/ys? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"sis 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"his 1, 2

face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ys? 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jys? 1


face="Times New Roman Star"z?ys 1

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 976, VEWT 202, Ё—“я 4, 44, Ћексика 94-95, Stachowski 105.
face="Times New Roman Star"*a.t(ky-)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 handful 2 pinch(ful) 3 barb of the fish-fork hookface="Times New Roman Star"1 горсть, пригоршн€ 2 щепотка 3 бородка, зазубрина крючка остроги

face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2, atky 'weft; wooden fork; strap on footwear, scarf'face="Times New Roman Star"atqyry (dial.) 'cross-beam'
face="Times New Roman Star"o|tim 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atGy 'cross-bar', atym 2face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2

face="Times New Roman Star"atqaq 3
face="Times New Roman Star"ydam 'armful'

face="Times New Roman Star"adym 1, atqaq 3, atpaq 'hanger for horse harness', atpaq-ta-l- 'to hitch on to smth.', atpan|na- 'grasp (of a child)'
face="Times New Roman Star"atym 2








face="Times New Roman Star"≈горов 344, ћудрак ƒисс. 85, VEWT 31. If we exclude obvious loans from Mong. adqu-, all the other forms clearly fall into two types. 1) PT *a.tym 'handful, pinchful' 2) PT *Atky- 'smth. hitched, clutching, clinging'. The latter (Tuva atkak) is linked in EDT 47 with OUygh. atqaq 'vikalpa'. There is a number of OUygh. Buddhist terms that can be derived from a stem meaning 'grasp, hitch': atqaq '1) vikalpa, attachment to the material world (whence borrowed in Mong. atqag| 'illusion, prejudice'), 2) vis.aya, 'idea, notion, subject', atqaq-lyg| 'appertaining to smth.', atqa-n- 'be connected, clinging to (the material world)', atqa-nc?-syz 'devoid of sense perceptions', atqang|u 'vis.aya', atqang|u-lug| 'correlated' (cf. (alquqa) atqang|ulug| tutz?|aqlyg| 'correlated (with everything) (and) grasping (everything)'), see ƒ“— 68, EDT 47. This all seems to indicate a primary root *a.t- meaning both 'to cling, hitch on to smth., grasp' and 'a grasp, handful' (also 'armful' if we take into account the Chuv. meaning). Note that in Siberian languages this root (*a.t-ka-k) is additionally confused with the local word for 'gills' - which has a quite separate Altaic origin (see under *p`a/ta\(kV) 'fish fin').
face="Times New Roman Star"*ysyg / *isigface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 hot 2 warmface="Times New Roman Star"1 гор€чий 2 теплыйface="Times New Roman Star"isig 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"isig 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"syz?|ak 1face="Times New Roman Star"esse 1face="Times New Roman Star"isti 2 (Pav. C.), ysyg| (Ѕор. Ѕад., Abush.)
face="Times New Roman Star"issiq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"isti 2face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"@z@g 1
face="Times New Roman Star"izu" 1face="Times New Roman Star"hissi:., hisk 1face="Times New Roman Star"ъw|z?ъw| 2face="Times New Roman Star"iti:, ic?iges ( < *isi-gec?) 2face="Times New Roman Star"iti:, ic?iges 2face="Times New Roman Star"izig| 1face="Times New Roman Star"i'sig| 1face="Times New Roman Star"ysyq 1, ysy 'heat, hot wind'face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"issi 1


face="Times New Roman Star"issi 1, 2 (HK), syz?|aq 2 (K), ysy-t- (K) 'to warm'face="Times New Roman Star"yssy 1face="Times New Roman Star"hyssy 2
face="Times New Roman Star"Derived from *ysy- / *isi- 'to be hot'. See VEWT 173-4, TMN 2,182, EDT 246, Ё—“я 1, 668-671, Ћексика 19-20, Stachowski 123, 130.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sUg-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to procure cheese 2 dried cheeseface="Times New Roman Star"1 готовить сыр 2 сушеный сыр
face="Times New Roman Star"sug|- 1, sug|ut 2 (MK)


























face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 805-806. For sug|ut cf. Hung. sajt (rather than to Chuv. c?ъgъt - despite Gombocz 1912, ‘едотов 2, 400 et al.).
face="Times New Roman Star"*anu-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 ready, certain 2 to get readyface="Times New Roman Star"1 готовый, уверенный 2 готовитьс€face="Times New Roman Star"anu- (OUygh.) 2, anuq 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"anu- (MK), anut- (caus.) (KB, MK) 2, anuq 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"dial. anyk 1face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"anut- (caus.) (Qutb) 2, anuq (IM, Qutb) 1face="Times New Roman Star"e|niq 2face="Times New Roman Star"eniq

face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 2








face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1
face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1face="Times New Roman Star"anyq 1

face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 171, 179, 182, Ё—“я 1, 151-152.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ta:la-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to rob, plunder 2 to harm, slanderface="Times New Roman Star"1 грабить 2 вредить, клеветатьface="Times New Roman Star"tala- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1 (KB)face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1 (Abush., Sangl.)face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"ta:la- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tula- 2face="Times New Roman Star"tala:- 1 (ѕек. 3, 2533)


face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1

face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"tala- 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 458, TMN 2, No 923, јшм. XIV, 119-120, EDT 492 (should be distinguished from *da:la- 'to bite').
face="Times New Roman Star"*july-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 to pillage, attack 2 thief, scoundrelface="Times New Roman Star"1 грабить, нападать 2 вор, брод€га, голодранецface="Times New Roman Star"july- (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"july- (MK) 1
face="Times New Roman Star"jolqys? 2





face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|us (Sag.), c?ulg|as (Koib., Kach.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ulg|us? 2




face="Times New Roman Star"c?ul- 1
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ulu-s?- 'to fight (of women)'

face="Times New Roman Star"jolqos? 2





face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 919. Should be separated from *jol- 'pick out' (v. sub *n/o>\lo).
face="Times New Roman Star"*je:lface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 mane 2 featherface="Times New Roman Star"1 грива 2 пероface="Times New Roman Star"jel 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jel 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"jele 1



face="Times New Roman Star"z?|el/y 1face="Times New Roman Star"la"la"k 2face="Times New Roman Star"jelek 2face="Times New Roman Star"c?ilen 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ja"la":k 2face="Times New Roman Star"s/ilg|e 1face="Times New Roman Star"siel 1
face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?el 1




face="Times New Roman Star"jela" 1face="Times New Roman Star"lelek 2


face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 181, TMN 4, 188-189, EDT 916, Ё—“я 4, 85-86 (confused with *ja:l, v. sub *da:/lV), Ћексика 147, 566. The Oghuz name of 'feather' (jelek / lelek, see Ё—“я 4, 179) is probably derived from this root; perhaps also *jel-ke 'back of head (including the neck)', see VEWT 196, Ё—“я 4, 181.
face="Times New Roman Star"*sabarface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 brisket with ribs 2 sideface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудинка с ребрами 2 бок











face="Times New Roman Star"sabar 1



face="Times New Roman Star"saar 2










face="Times New Roman Star"Cf. also Yak. sabar 'eagle's breast' ( < OTuva?).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"ku"r/ (/*go"gu"r/), *Ko"krekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast 2 middle of the back 3 reason, sense, emotion 4 female breastface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь 2 по€сница, середина спины 3 женска€ грудьface="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1, 3 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"z 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"go"g|u"s 1, ko"krek 1 (dial.)face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1 (dial.,  —““), ku"kre|k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gs, ko"gu"s (Sangl.), ko"ku"s (MA) 1, ko"krek (Abush., Ѕор. Ѕад.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku.ks 1, 3, ko|kra"k 1, 4face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"s, go":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ks, ko"ku"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"vu"s 1, ku"krek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gis 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"gu"s 1, 3
face="Times New Roman Star"kъw|gъw|r 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"g|u"s 2face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ksu" 'back'

face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"ro"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"gu":s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kis 1, ko"kra"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"kirek 1face="Times New Roman Star"go"frix 4?face="Times New Roman Star"ko"ku"rek 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 714, VEWT 288, Ё—“я 3, 54-55, 5, 136-137, Ћексика 272-274, Stachowski 155. The Oghuz forms with k- (Turkm. ku"krek, Tur. dial. ko"krek) may be < Kypchak, cf. -u"- instead of -o"- in Turkm.
face="Times New Roman Star"*me:me (*be:me)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 nipple 3(poet.) breastface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (ж.) 2 сосок 3 грудь (поэт.) 4 соска

face="Times New Roman Star"meme 1, Old Osm. memek (17th c.)face="Times New Roman Star"me|mi, me|me|j 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma":me 3


face="Times New Roman Star"ma":ma"k
face="Times New Roman Star"me:me: 4




face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma"j 1face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma"j 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 1face="Times New Roman Star"ma"ma" 2face="Times New Roman Star"ma"mma" 1

face="Times New Roman Star"An onomatopoetic root. See VEWT 333, Ё—“я VII.
face="Times New Roman Star"*em-ig, *em-c?ekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 to suck 3 nippleface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (жен.) 2 сосать 3 сосокface="Times New Roman Star"emig 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (MK), e.mig 1 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ik 1face="Times New Roman Star"im- 2, imc?e|k 1face="Times New Roman Star"e.m- 2 (Pav. C.), emc?ek 1 (Abush.)face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ak 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2, a"mc?a"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"emyg| 1face="Times New Roman Star"a"mz?|a"k 3face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emz?|ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, imz?|ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"a"m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"@w|m- 2face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emi:j 1face="Times New Roman Star"emij 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emig 1face="Times New Roman Star"em- 2, emij 'udder'face="Times New Roman Star"emc?ek 1
face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"imsa"k 1


face="Times New Roman Star"ems?ek 1

face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 41-2, EDT 158-9, Ё—“я 1, 271-272, ≈горов 63, Ћексика 273-274, Stachowski 45. PT *em-ig and *em-c?ek (the latter form is first attested in the 13th c.) are derived from *em- 'to suck'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*c?ic?ig (/*c?yc?yg)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 breast (fem.) 2 female sheep 3 sheep tail 4 roasted sheep tail 5 roasted fatface="Times New Roman Star"1 грудь (женска€) 2 овцематка 3 курдюк 4 жареный курдюк 5 жареный жир


face="Times New Roman Star"c?yz?yq (R, Ѕуд. - Kas.), c?yz|yq (R - Tob.) 5face="Times New Roman Star"c?ic?ig| 2, 3 (R - Vam.), c?yc?yg|, c?yc?yq 4 (R - Zenker)








face="Times New Roman Star"c?@z?|@ 1













face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 110. An onomatopaeic root, attested late - but possibly archaic because of the external evidence. The assumed semantic development in Chag. and Tat. is 'udder' > 'roasted udder' > 'fat roasted piece of meat'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ju"-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 load 2 to load, carryface="Times New Roman Star"1 груз, т€жесть 2 нагружать, везтиface="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1, ju"-d- 2 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1, ju"-d|- 2 (MK)face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1 (Houts., AH)face="Times New Roman Star"juk 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"j- 2, ju"k, d/u"k 1
face="Times New Roman Star"s/@w|k 1face="Times New Roman Star"su"k- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?u"`k 1, c?u"du"r- 2
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?u"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|u"k, z?u"k, zu"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"u"k 1face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k, juk, jik, ik 1

face="Times New Roman Star"ju"k, juk 1face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 885, 910, VEWT 212, Ё—“я 4, 262-263, Ћексика 520.
face="Times New Roman Star"*Ky:r/face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 girl 2 womanface="Times New Roman Star"1 девушка 2 женщинаface="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Orkh., OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (MK, KB)face="Times New Roman Star"kyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1 (Pav. C., MA)face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qiz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"Gy:z 1face="Times New Roman Star"xys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1
face="Times New Roman Star"x@r 1, x@r-(arъm) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"ky:s 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qys 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyd| 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"qyz 1face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 269, TMN 3, 569-70, EDT 679-80, Ћексика 295, 318, Ё—“я 6, 190-191, Stachowski 172. For PT one should reconstruct variants *ky:r//*ky:r (they are reflected in several derivatives, e.g. *Ky:r-kyn, see Ћексика 317-318, Ё—“я 6, 237, *Kyr-nak, see TMN 3, 456, Ё—“я 6, 240).
face="Times New Roman Star"*jekface="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 demon, evil spirit 2 bad, evil 3 to hate, despise 4 to scoldface="Times New Roman Star"1 демон, злой дух 2 плохой, отвратительный 3 ненавидеть, презирать 4 бранитьface="Times New Roman Star"jek 1 (OUygh.)face="Times New Roman Star"jek 1 (MK)
face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ik 2, z?|iker- 4face="Times New Roman Star"jek 1 (AH), 2 (Pav. C.), jigir- 3 (R.)face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ekir- 4face="Times New Roman Star"ja"kla"- 3, z?|ekir- 4

face="Times New Roman Star"jekir- 3, jek (dial.) 2
face="Times New Roman Star"c?ek 1face="Times New Roman Star"jek, d/ek 1, 2, jikir- 3





face="Times New Roman Star"z?|ek 2, z?|ekte- 3, z?|ekir- 4face="Times New Roman Star"z?ek 2, z?ekir- 4face="Times New Roman Star"jekir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"jek 2, jeker- 3

face="Times New Roman Star"jek 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?ek 2, z?ekir- 4
face="Times New Roman Star"jekir- 3face="Times New Roman Star"EDT 910, VEWT 194, Ё—“я 4, 170-171, 173-174. Loan from Prakr. yakkha (through some unattested Sogdian intermediary) cannot be excluded, but also cannot be ascertained. Turk. > MMong. (MA) z?|ikir- 'hate, abhor'.
face="Times New Roman Star"*y, *y-(n/)gac?face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"treeface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерево 2 лесface="Times New Roman Star"yg|ac? (Orkh., OUygh.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyg|ac? (MK) 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|az?| (Pav. C.) 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo|g|o|c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jig|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"aGac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"hag|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"jyvъs/ 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"mas 1face="Times New Roman Star"yjas? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"n/e|s? 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|yg|ac? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"a:c? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -c 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|as? 1face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac?, -s? 1 (——я)face="Times New Roman Star"ag|ac? 1, 2face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 7, Ё—“я 1, 71-73, TMN 2, 73f, EDT 79-80, ≈горов 83, Ћексика 104, Stachowski 176. The form contains perhaps PT *y 'bush, tree' as the first component (for OT y see EDT 1), cf. the OT combination y yg|ac?; but the second element is yet unclear.
face="Times New Roman Star"*go"l-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wooden board 2 woodblock 3 cross-bar (over fire)face="Times New Roman Star"1 дерев€нна€ доска 2 дерев€нный брусок 3 распорка (над огнем)








face="Times New Roman Star"gu"le 1face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lbe 2
face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lzo"k 'снегозащитные щиты' (?)
face="Times New Roman Star"k@le 'задвижка'face="Times New Roman Star"ko"lo" 3












face="Times New Roman Star"Different etymologies in ‘едотов 1, 271 (Chuv. k@le - hardly to kilit); VEWT 289 (Yak. ko"lo" - not to 'harness' ko"l-).
face="Times New Roman Star"*go":p-face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 a wooden hammer for processing boot seams 2 to hit, poundface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерев€нный молоточек дл€ обивки обувных швов 2 бить, колотить








face="Times New Roman Star"go":be 1face="Times New Roman Star"ku"p-le-t- 'to knock'


face="Times New Roman Star"ku"pke- 2face="Times New Roman Star"ku"bu"rge:- 'to hit ice with a pounder'


face="Times New Roman Star"ku"bu"- 'to shake, shake off'





face="Times New Roman Star"ku"pilde- 'to lumber, rumble'

face="Times New Roman Star"Modern expressive formations, but the root seems to be archaic.
face="Times New Roman Star"*ja:pa(k)face="Times New Roman Star"Altaic etymologyface="Times New Roman Star"1 wooden fork 2 shovelface="Times New Roman Star"1 дерев€нные вилы 2 лопата

face="Times New Roman Star"jaba 1, dial. 2face="Times New Roman Star"jabaface="Times New Roman Star"japa (Pav. C.) 2face="Times New Roman Star"ja:wa (dial.) 1

face="Times New Roman Star"jaba 1face="Times New Roman Star"ja:baq, ja:ba 1









face="Times New Roman Star"z?aba (dial.) 1


face="Times New Roman Star"jaba 1face="Times New Roman Star"z?|aba 2face="Times New Roman Star"z?aba 1face="Times New Roman Star"jo:wa, jowa 1
face="Times New Roman Star"VEWT 187, Ё—“я 4, 45. Not quite clear are fronted cognates: Yak. seb, Kumd. jep, Tat., Bashk. j@p 'fork, bifurcation'.
,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,,,,,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,,turcet-bas,,,,,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,,
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